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Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Fourth Edition

Book Description

The Definitive, Up-to-Date, Student-Friendly Guide to Separation Process Engineering—With More Mass Transfer Coverage and a New Chapter on Crystallization

Separation Process Engineering, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive, accessible guide available on modern separation processes and the fundamentals of mass transfer. In this completely updated edition, Phillip C. Wankat teaches each key concept through detailed, realistic examples using real data—including up-to-date simulation practice and spreadsheet-based exercises.

Wankat thoroughly covers each separation process, including flash, column, and batch distillation; exact calculations and shortcut methods for multicomponent distillation; staged and packed column design; absorption; stripping; and more. This edition provides expanded coverage of mass transfer and diffusion, so faculty can cover separations and mass transfer in one course.

Detailed discussions of liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, chromatography, and ion exchange prepare students for advanced work. Wankat presents coverage of membrane separations, including gas permeation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, pervaporation, and applications. An updated chapter on economics and energy conservation in distillation adds coverage of equipment costs.

This edition contains more than 300 new, up-to-date homework problems, extensively tested in undergraduate courses at Purdue University and the University of Canterbury (New Zealand).

Coverage includes

  • New chapter on crystallization from solution, including equilibrium, chemical purity, crystal size distribution, and pharmaceutical applications

  • Thirteen up-to-date Aspen Plus process simulation labs, adaptable to any simulator

  • Eight detailed Aspen Chromatography labs

  • Extensive new coverage of ternary stage-by-stage distillation calculations

  • Fraction collection and multicomponent calculations for simple batch distillation

  • New mass transfer analysis sections on numerical solution for variable diffusivity

  • Mass transfer to expanding or contracting objects, including ternary mass transfer

  • Expanded coverage of pervaporation

  • Updated Excel spreadsheets offering more practice with distillation, diffusion, mass transfer, and membrane separation problems

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. About the Author
    9. Nomenclature
      1. Chapters 1 through 16
      2. Greek
      3. Chapter 17
      4. Greek
      5. Chapter 18
      6. Greek letters
      7. Chapter 19
      8. Greek letters
    10. Chapter 1. Introduction to Separation Process Engineering
      1. 1.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 1.1 Importance of Separations
      3. 1.2 Concept of Equilibrium
      4. 1.3 Mass Transfer Concepts
      5. 1.4 Problem-Solving Methods
        1. Problem-Solving Heuristics
      6. 1.5 Units
      7. 1.6 Computers and Computer Simulations
      8. 1.7 Prerequisite Material
      9. 1.8 Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering
      10. References
      11. Homework
    11. Chapter 2. Flash Distillation
      1. 2.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 2.1 Basic Method of Flash Distillation
      3. 2.2 Form and Sources of Equilibrium Data
      4. 2.3 Graphical Representation of Binary VLE
      5. 2.4 Binary Flash Distillation
        1. 2.4.1 Sequential Solution Procedure
        2. 2.4.2 Simultaneous Solution Procedure
        3. 2.4.3 Simultaneous Solution and Enthalpy-Composition Diagram
      6. 2.5 Multicomponent VLE
      7. 2.6 Multicomponent Flash Distillation
      8. 2.7 Simultaneous Multicomponent Convergence
      9. 2.8 Three-Phase Flash Calculations
      10. 2.9 Size Calculation
      11. 2.10 Using Existing Flash Drums
      12. References
      13. Homework
      14. Chapter 2. Appendix A. Computer Simulation of Flash Distillation
      15. Chapter 2 Appendix B. Spreadsheets for Flash Distillation
        1. 2.B.1 Binary Flash Distillation with Excel
        2. 2.B.2 Multicomponent Flash Distillation with Excel
    12. Chapter 3. Introduction to Column Distillation
      1. 3.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 3.1 Developing a Distillation Cascade
      3. 3.2 Distillation Equipment
      4. 3.3 Specifications
      5. 3.4 External Column Balances
      6. References
      7. Homework
    13. Chapter 4. Binary Column Distillation: Internal Stage-by-Stage Balances
      1. 4.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 4.1 Internal Balances
      3. 4.2 Binary Stage-by-Stage Solution Methods
      4. 4.3 Introduction to the McCabe-Thiele Method
      5. 4.4 Feed Line
      6. 4.5 Complete McCabe-Thiele Method
      7. 4.6 Profiles for Binary Distillation
      8. 4.7 Open Steam Heating
      9. 4.8 General McCabe-Thiele Analysis Procedure
      10. 4.9 Other Distillation Column Situations
        1. 4.9.1 Partial Condensers
        2. 4.9.2 Total Reboilers
        3. 4.9.3 Side Streams or Withdrawal Lines
        4. 4.9.4 Intermediate Reboilers and Intermediate Condensers
        5. 4.9.5 Stripping and Enriching Columns
      11. 4.10 Limiting Operating Conditions
      12. 4.11 Efficiencies
      13. 4.12 Simulation Problems
      14. 4.13 New Uses for Old Columns
      15. 4.14 Subcooled Reflux and Superheated Boilup
      16. 4.15 Comparisons Between Analytical and Graphical Methods
      17. References
      18. Homework
      19. Chapter 4 Appendix A. Computer Simulation of Binary Distillation
      20. Chapter 4 Appendix B. Spreadsheets for Binary Distillation
    14. Chapter 5. Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 5.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 5.1 Calculational Difficulties
      3. 5.2 Profiles for Multicomponent Distillation
      4. 5.3 Stage-by-Stage Calculations for CMO
      5. References
      6. Homework
      7. Chapter 5 Appendix A. Simplified Spreadsheet for Stage-by-Stage Calculations for Ternary Distillation
      8. Chapter 5 Appendix B. Automated Spreadsheet with VBA for Stage-by-Stage Calculations for Ternary Distillation
    15. Chapter 6. Exact Calculation Procedures for Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 6.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 6.1 Introduction to Matrix Solution for Multicomponent Distillation
      3. 6.2 Component Mass Balances in Matrix Form
      4. 6.3 Initial Guesses for Flow Rates and Temperatures
      5. 6.4 Temperature Convergence
      6. 6.5 Energy Balances in Matrix Form
      7. 6.6 Introduction to Naphtali-Sandholm Simultaneous Convergence Method
      8. 6.7 Discussion
      9. References
      10. Homework
      11. Chapter 6 Appendix. Computer Simulations for Multicomponent Column Distillation
    16. Chapter 7. Approximate Shortcut Methods for Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 7.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 7.1 Total Reflux: Fenske Equation
      3. 7.2 Minimum Reflux: Underwood Equations
      4. 7.3 Gilliland Correlation for Number of Stages at Finite Reflux Ratios
      5. References
      6. Homework
    17. Chapter 8. Introduction to Complex Distillation Methods
      1. 8.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 8.1 Breaking Azeotropes with Other Separators
      3. 8.2 Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Processes
        1. 8.2.1 Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropes—Single-Column System
        2. 8.2.2 Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropes—Two-Column System
        3. 8.2.3 Drying Organic Compounds That Are Partially Miscible with Water
      4. 8.3 Steam Distillation
      5. 8.4 Pressure-Swing Distillation Processes
      6. 8.5 Complex Ternary Distillation Systems
        1. 8.5.1 Distillation Curves
        2. 8.5.2 Residue Curves
      7. 8.6 Extractive Distillation
      8. 8.7 Azeotropic Distillation with Added Solvent
      9. 8.8 Distillation with Chemical Reaction
      10. References
      11. Homework
      12. Chapter 8 Appendix A. Simulation of Complex Distillation Systems
      13. Chapter 8 Appendix B. Spreadsheet for Residue Curve Generation
    18. Chapter 9. Batch Distillation
      1. 9.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 9.1 Introduction to Batch Distillation
      3. 9.2 Batch Distillation: Rayleigh Equation
        1. 9.2.1 Mixed Distillate Product
        2. 9.2.2 Distillate Product Fractions
      4. 9.3 Simple Binary Batch Distillation
      5. 9.4 Constant-Mole Batch Distillation
      6. 9.5 Batch Steam Distillation
      7. 9.6 Multistage Binary Batch Distillation
        1. 9.6.1 Constant Reflux Ratio
        2. 9.6.2 Variable Reflux Ratio
      8. 9.7 Multicomponent Simple Batch Distillation
      9. 9.8 Operating Time
      10. References
      11. Homework
      12. Chapter 9 Appendix A. Spreadsheet for Simple Multicomponent Batch Distillation, Constant Relative Volatility
    19. Chapter 10. Staged and Packed Column Design
      1. 10.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 10.1 Staged Column Equipment Description
        1. 10.1.1 Trays, Downcomers, and Weirs
        2. 10.1.2 Inlets and Outlets
      3. 10.2 Tray Efficiencies
      4. 10.3 Column Diameter Calculations
      5. 10.4 Balancing Calculated Diameters
      6. 10.5 Sieve Tray Layout and Tray Hydraulics
      7. 10.6 Valve Tray Design
      8. 10.7 Introduction to Packed Column Design
      9. 10.8 Packings and Packed Column Internals
      10. 10.9 Height of Packing: HETP Method
      11. 10.10 Packed Column Flooding and Diameter Calculation
      12. 10.11 Economic Trade-Offs for Packed Columns
      13. 10.12 Choice of Column Type
      14. References
      15. Homework
      16. Chapter 10 Appendix. Tray and Downcomer Design with Computer Simulator
    20. Chapter 11. Economics and Energy Conservation in Distillation
      1. 11.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 11.1 Equipment Costs
      3. 11.2 Basic Heat Exchanger Design
      4. 11.3 Design and Operating Effects on Costs
      5. 11.4 Changes in Plant Operating Rates
      6. 11.5 Energy Conservation in Distillation
      7. 11.6 Synthesis of Column Sequences for Almost Ideal Multicomponent Distillation
      8. 11.7 Synthesis of Distillation Systems for Nonideal Ternary Systems
      9. References
      10. Homework
    21. Chapter 12. Absorption and Stripping
      1. 12.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 12.1 Absorption and Stripping Equilibria
      3. 12.2 McCabe-Thiele Solution for Dilute Absorption
      4. 12.3 Stripping Analysis for Dilute Systems
      5. 12.4 Analytical Solution for Dilute Systems: Kremser Equation
      6. 12.5 Efficiencies
      7. 12.6 McCabe-Thiele Analysis for More Concentrated Systems
      8. 12.7 Column Diameter
      9. 12.8 Dilute Multisolute Absorbers and Strippers
      10. 12.9 Matrix Solution for Concentrated Absorbers and Strippers
      11. 12.10 Irreversible Absorption and Cocurrent Cascades
      12. References
      13. Homework
      14. Chapter 12 Appendix. Computer Simulations of Absorption and Stripping
    22. Chapter 13. Liquid-Liquid Extraction
      1. 13.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 13.1 Extraction Processes and Equipment
      3. 13.2 Dilute, Immiscible, Countercurrent Extraction
        1. 13.2.1 McCabe-Thiele Method for Dilute Systems
        2. 13.2.2 Kremser Method for Dilute Systems
      4. 13.3 Dilute Fractional Extraction
      5. 13.4 Immiscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction
      6. 13.5 Concentrated Immiscible Extraction
      7. 13.6 Immiscible Batch Extraction
      8. 13.7 Extraction Equilibrium for Partially Miscible Ternary Systems
      9. 13.8 Mixing Calculations and the Lever-Arm Rule
      10. 13.9 Partially Miscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Systems
      11. 13.10 Countercurrent Extraction Cascades for Partially Miscible Systems
        1. 13.10.1 External Mass Balances
        2. 13.10.2 Difference Points and Stage-by-Stage Calculations
        3. 13.10.3 Complete Partially Miscible Extraction Problem
      12. 13.11 Relationship Between McCabe-Thiele and Triangular Diagrams for Partially Miscible Systems
      13. 13.12 Minimum Solvent Rate for Partially Miscible Systems
      14. 13.13 Extraction Computer Simulations
      15. 13.14 Design of Mixer-Settlers
        1. 13.14.1 Mixer Design
        2. 13.14.2 Settler (Decanter) Design
      16. References
      17. Homework
      18. Chapter 13 Appendix. Computer Simulation of Extraction
    23. Chapter 14. Washing, Leaching, and Supercritical Extraction
      1. 14.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 14.1 Generalized McCabe-Thiele and Kremser Procedures
      3. 14.2 Washing
      4. 14.3 Leaching with Constant Flow Rates
      5. 14.4 Leaching with Variable Flow Rates
      6. 14.5 Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Extraction
      7. 14.6 Application of McCabe-Thiele and Kremser Methods to Other Separations
      8. References
      9. Homework
    24. Chapter 15. Introduction to Diffusion and Mass Transfer
      1. 15.0 Summary–Objectives
      2. 15.1 Molecular Movement Leads to Mass Transfer
      3. 15.2 Fickian Model of Diffusivity
        1. 15.2.1 Fick’s Law and the Fickian Definition of Diffusivity
        2. 15.2.2 Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances without Convection
        3. 15.2.3 Unsteady Binary Fickian Diffusion with No Convection (Optional)
        4. 15.2.4 Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances with Convection
      4. 15.3 Values and Correlations for Fickian Binary Diffusivities
        1. 15.3.1 Fickian Binary Gas Diffusivities
        2. 15.3.2 Fickian Binary Liquid Diffusivities
        3. 15.3.3 Numerical Solution with Variable Binary Diffusivity
      5. 15.4 Linear Driving-Force Model of Mass Transfer for Binary Systems
        1. 15.4.1 Film Theory for Dilute and Equimolar Transfer Systems
        2. 15.4.2 Transfer through Stagnant Films: Absorbers and Strippers
        3. 15.4.3 Binary Mass Transfer to Expanding or Contracting Objects
      6. 15.5 Correlations for Mass Transfer Coefficients
        1. 15.5.1 Dimensionless Groups
        2. 15.5.2 Theoretically Derived Mass Transfer Correlations
        3. 15.5.3 Semi-Empirical and Empirical Mass Transfer Coefficient Correlations
        4. 15.5.4 Correlations Based on Analogies
      7. 15.6 Difficulties with Fickian Diffusion Model
      8. 15.7 Maxwell-Stefan Model of Diffusion and Mass Transfer
        1. 15.7.1 Introductory Development of the Maxwell-Stefan Theory of Diffusion
        2. 15.7.2 Maxwell-Stefan Equations for Binary Nonideal Systems
        3. 15.7.3 Determining Independent Fluxes Nj,z
        4. 15.7.4 Maxwell-Stefan Difference Equation Formulations
        5. 15.7.5 Relationship between Maxwell-Stefan and Fickian Diffusivities
        6. 15.7.6 Ideal Ternary Systems
        7. 15.7.7 Ternary Mass Transfer to Expanding or Contracting Objects
        8. 15.7.8 Nonideal Ternary Systems
      9. 15.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Diffusion and Mass Transfer Models
      10. References
      11. Homework
      12. Chapter 15 Appendix. Spreadsheets Examples 15-10 and 15-11
    25. Chapter 16. Mass Transfer Analysis for Distillation, Absorption, Stripping, and Extraction
      1. 16.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 16.1 HTU-NTU Analysis of Packed Distillation Columns
      3. 16.2 Relationship of HETP and HTU
      4. 16.3 Mass Transfer Correlations for Packed Towers
        1. 16.3.1 Bolles and Fair Correlation for Random Packings
        2. 16.3.2 Simple Correlations for Random Packings
      5. 16.4 HTU-NTU Analysis of Concentrated Absorbers and Strippers
      6. 16.5 HTU-NTU Analysis of CoCurrent Absorbers
      7. 16.6 Prediction of Distillation Tray Efficiency
      8. 16.7 Mass Transfer Analysis of Extraction
        1. 16.7.1 Extraction Mass Transfer Equations and HTU-NTU Analysis
        2. 16.7.2 Calculation of Stage Efficiency in Extraction Mixers
        3. 16.7.3 Drop Size in Mixers
        4. 16.7.4 Mass Transfer Coefficients in Mixers
      9. 16.8 Rate-Based Analysis of Distillation
      10. References
      11. Homework
      12. Chapter 16 Appendix. Computer Rate-Based Simulation of Distillation
    26. Chapter 17. Crystallization from Solution
      1. 17.0 Summary–Objectives
      2. 17.1 Basic Principles of Crystallization from Solution
        1. 17.1.1 Crystallization Process
        2. 17.1.2 Binary Equilibrium and Crystallizer Types
      3. 17.2 Continuous Cooling Crystallizers
        1. 17.2.1 Equilibrium and Mass Balances for Single Solute Producing Pure Solute Crystals
        2. 17.2.2 Eutectic Systems
      4. 17.3 Evaporative and Vacuum Crystallizers
        1. 17.3.1 Equipment
        2. 17.3.2 Analysis of Evaporative Crystallizers for Single-Solute Systems Producing Pure Solute Crystals
        3. 17.3.3 Simultaneous Mass, Energy, and Equilibrium Calculations
      5. 17.4 Sieve Analysis
      6. 17.5 Introduction to Population Balances
      7. 17.6 Crystal Size Distributions for MSMPR Crystallizers
        1. 17.6.1 Crystal Nucleation and Growth
        2. 17.6.2 Development of MSMPR Equation and Determination of G and no from Experiment
        3. 17.6.3 Development and Application of Distributions for MSMPR Crystallizers
      8. 17.7 Seeding
        1. 17.7.1 CSD Analysis for Growth on Seeds in Continuous Crystallizers
        2. 17.7.2 Controlling Crystal Size by Seeding
      9. 17.8 Batch and Semibatch Crystallization
        1. 17.8.1 Temperature Control for Batch Cooling Crystallizers
        2. 17.8.2 Antisolvent Crystallization
      10. 17.9 Precipitation
        1. 17.9.1 Precipitation by Antisolvent Addition
        2. 17.9.2 Precipitation by Salting Out
      11. References
      12. Homework
      13. Chapter 17 Appendix. Spreadsheets
    27. Chapter 18. Introduction to Membrane Separation Processes
      1. 18.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 18.1 Membrane Separation Equipment
      3. 18.2 Membrane Concepts
      4. 18.3 Gas Permeation
        1. 18.3.1 Gas Permeation of Binary Mixtures
        2. 18.3.2 Binary Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems
        3. 18.3.3 Multicomponent Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems
        4. 18.3.4 Effect of Holes in Membrane
      5. 18.4 Reverse Osmosis (RO)
        1. 18.4.1 Analysis of Osmosis
        2. 18.4.2 Analysis of Reverse Osmosis
        3. 18.4.3 RO in Well-Mixed Modules
        4. 18.4.4 Mass Transfer Analysis of Concentration Polarization
      6. 18.5 Ultrafiltration (UF)
      7. 18.6 Pervaporation (Pervap)
        1. 18.6.1 Pervap Basics
        2. 18.6.2 Pervap Design Using Experimental Data
        3. 18.6.3 Theoretical Design of Pervap Systems
      8. 18.7 Bulk Flow Pattern Effects
        1. 18.7.1 Binary Crossflow Permeation
        2. 18.7.2 Binary Cocurrent and Countercurrent Permeation
      9. References
      10. Homework
      11. Chapter 18 Appendix. Spreadsheet for Crossflow Gas Permeation
    28. Chapter 19. Introduction to Adsorption, Chromatography, and Ion Exchange
      1. 19.0 Summary—Objectives
      2. 19.1 Sorbents and Sorption Equilibrium
        1. 19.1.1 Definitions
        2. 19.1.2 Sorbent Types
        3. 19.1.3 Adsorption Equilibrium Behavior
      3. 19.2 Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Basics and Applications to Chromatography
        1. 19.2.1 Movement of Solute in a Column
        2. 19.2.2 Solute Movement Theory for Linear Isotherms
        3. 19.2.3 Application of Linear Solute Movement Theory to Purge Cycles and Elution Chromatography
      4. 19.3 Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Temperature and Pressure Swing Adsorption and Simulated Moving Beds
        1. 19.3.1 Temperature Swing Adsorption
        2. 19.3.2 Pressure Swing Adsorption
        3. 19.3.3 Simulated Moving Beds
      5. 19.4 Nonlinear Solute Movement Analysis
        1. 19.4.1 Diffuse Waves
        2. 19.4.2 Shock Waves
      6. 19.5 Ion Exchange
        1. 19.5.1 Ion Exchange Equilibrium
        2. 19.5.2 Movement of Ions
      7. 19.6 Mass and Energy Transfer in Packed Beds
        1. 19.6.1 Mass Transfer and Diffusion
        2. 19.6.2 Column Mass Balances
        3. 19.6.3 Lumped Parameter Mass Transfer
        4. 19.6.4 Energy Balances and Heat Transfer
        5. 19.6.5 Derivation of Solute Movement Theory
        6. 19.6.6 Detailed Simulators
      8. 19.7 Mass Transfer Solutions for Linear Systems
        1. 19.7.1 Lapidus and Amundson Solution for Local Equilibrium with Dispersion
        2. 19.7.2 Superposition in Linear Systems
        3. 19.7.3 Linear Chromatography
      9. 19.8 LUB Approach for Nonlinear Sorption Systems
      10. 19.9 Checklist for Practical Design and Operation
      11. References
      12. Homework
      13. Chapter 19 Appendix. Aspen Chromatography Simulator
    29. Appendix A. Aspen Plus Troubleshooting Guide for Separations
    30. Appendix B. Instructions for Fitting VLE and LLE Data with Aspen Plus
      1. Reference
    31. Appendix C. Unit Conversions and Physical Constants
      1. Unit Conversions
      2. Ideal Gas Values
      3. Useful Physical Constants
    32. Appendix D. Data Locations
    33. Answers to Selected Problems
      1. Chapter 2
      2. Chapter 3
      3. Chapter 4
      4. Chapter 5
      5. Chapter 6
      6. Chapter 7
      7. Chapter 8
      8. Chapter 9
      9. Chapter 10
      10. Chapter 11
      11. Chapter 12
      12. Chapter 13
      13. Chapter 14
      14. Chapter 15
      15. Chapter 16
      16. Chapter 17
      17. Chapter 18
      18. Chapter 19
    34. Index
    35. Code Snippets