You are previewing Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition

Book Description

The Definitive, Fully Updated Guide to Separation Process Engineering–Now with a Thorough Introduction to Mass Transfer Analysis

Separation Process Engineering, Third Edition, is the most comprehensive, accessible guide available on modern separation processes and the fundamentals of mass transfer. Phillip C. Wankat teaches each key concept through detailed, realistic examples using real data–including up-to-date simulation practice and new spreadsheet-based exercises.

Wankat thoroughly covers each of today’s leading approaches, including flash, column, and batch distillation; exact calculations and shortcut methods for multicomponent distillation; staged and packed column design; absorption; stripping; and more. In this edition, he also presents the latest design methods for liquid-liquid extraction. This edition contains the most detailed coverage of membrane separations and of sorption separations (adsorption, chromatography, and ion exchange) available.

Updated with new techniques and references throughout, Separation Process Engineering, Third Edition, also contains more than 300 new homework problems, each tested in the author’s Purdue University classes.

This new edition includes

  • Modular, up-to-date process simulation examples and homework problems, based on Aspen Plus and easily adaptable to any simulator

  • Extensive new coverage of mass transfer and diffusion, including both Fickian and Maxwell-Stefan approaches

  • Detailed discussions of liquid-liquid extraction, including McCabe-Thiele, triangle and computer simulation analyses; mixer-settler design; Karr columns; and related mass transfer analyses

  • Thorough introductions to adsorption, chromatography, and ion exchange–designed to prepare students for advanced work in these areas

  • Complete coverage of membrane separations, including gas permeation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, pervaporation, and key applications

  • A full chapter on economics and energy conservation in distillation

  • Excel spreadsheets offering additional practice with problems in distillation, diffusion, mass transfer, and membrane separation

  • [Author bio]

    Phillip C. Wankat is Clifton L. Lovell Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and director of undergraduate degree programs at Purdue University’s School of Engineering Education. His current research interests include adsorption, large-scale chromatography, simulated moving bed systems, and distillation, as well as improvements in engineering education. He received the 2007 Distinguished Education Alumni Award of Distinction from Purdue’s College of Education, and the 2005 Shreve Prize in Chemical Engineering. With K. S. Knaebel, he contributed the Mass Transfer section to Perry's Handbook of Chemical Engineering, Eighth Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

    Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright Page
    3. Dedication
    4. Contents
    5. Preface
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. About the Author
    8. Nomenclature
    9. Chapter 1. Introduction to Separation Process Engineering
      1. 1.1. Importance of Separations
      2. 1.2. Concept of Equilibrium
      3. 1.3. Mass Transfer
      4. 1.4. Problem-Solving Methods
      5. 1.5. Prerequisite Material
      6. 1.6. Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering
      7. 1.7. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Using Other Resources
        7. G. Simulator Problems
        8. H. Computer Spreadsheet Problems
    10. Chapter 2. Flash Distillation
      1. 2.1. Basic Method of Flash Distillation
      2. 2.2. Form and Sources of Equilibrium Data
      3. 2.3. Graphical Representation of Binary VLE
      4. 2.4. Binary Flash Distillation
        1. 2.4.1 Sequential Solution Procedure
        2. 2.4.2 Simultaneous Solution and Enthalpy-Composition Diagram
      5. 2.5. Multicomponent VLE
      6. 2.6. Multicomponent Flash Distillation
      7. 2.7. Simultaneous Multicomponent Convergence
      8. 2.8. Three-Phase Flash Calculations
      9. 2.9. Size Calculation
      10. 2.10. Utilizing Existing Flash Drums
      11. 2.11. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems.
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Problems
        8. H. Computer Spreadsheet Problems
        9. 2.B.1 Regression of Binary VLE with Excel
        10. 2.B.2 Binary Flash Distillation with Excel
        11. 2.B.3 Multicomponent Flash Distillation with Excel
    11. Chapter 3. Introduction to Column Distillation
      1. 3.1. Developing a Distillation Cascade
      2. 3.2. Distillation Equipment
      3. 3.3. Specifications
      4. 3.4. External Column Balances
      5. 3.5. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Problems
    12. Chapter 4. Binary Column Distillation: Internal Stage-by-Stage Balances
      1. 4.1. Internal Balances
      2. 4.2. Binary Stage-by-Stage Solution Methods
      3. 4.3. Introduction to the McCabe-Thiele Method
      4. 4.4. Feed Line
      5. 4.5. Complete McCabe-Thiele Method
      6. 4.6. Profiles for Binary Distillation
      7. 4.7. Open Steam Heating
      8. 4.8. General McCabe-Thiele Analysis Procedure
      9. 4.9. Other Distillation Column Situations
        1. 4.9.1 Partial Condensers
        2. 4.9.2 Total Reboilers
        3. 4.9.3 Side Streams or Withdrawal Lines
        4. 4.9.4 Intermediate Reboilers and Intermediate Condensers
        5. 4.9.5 Stripping and Enriching Columns
      10. 4.10. Limiting Operating Conditions
      11. 4.11. Efficiencies
      12. 4.12. Simulation Problems
      13. 4.13. New Uses for Old Columns
      14. 4.14. Subcooled Reflux and Superheated Boilup
      15. 4.15. Comparisons between Analytical and Graphical Methods
      16. 4.16. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Problems
        8. H. Spreadsheet Problems
        9. Appendix 4.B. Part 1. Introduction to Spreadsheets and VBA
        10. Appendix 4.B. Part 2. Binary Distillation Example Spreadsheet
    13. Chapter 5. Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 5.1. Calculational Difficulties
      2. 5.2. Stage-By-Stage Calculations for Constant Molal Overflow and Constant Relative Volatility
      3. 5.3. Profiles for Multicomponent Distillation
      4. 5.4. Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Equilibrium Calculations
      5. 5.5. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. C. Derivations
        3. D. Problems
        4. E. More Complex Problems
        5. H. Computer Spreadsheet Problems
    14. Chapter 6. Exact Calculation Procedures for Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 6.1. Introduction to Matrix Solution for Multicomponent Distillation
      2. 6.2. Component Mass Balances in Matrix Form
      3. 6.3. Initial Guesses for Flow Rates and Temperatures
      4. 6.4. Temperature Convergence
      5. 6.5. Energy Balances in Matrix Form
      6. 6.6. Introduction to Naphtali-Sandholm Simultaneous Convergence Method
      7. 6.7. Discussion
      8. 6.8. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. C. Derivations
        3. D. Problems
        4. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        5. G. Computer Simulation Problems
    15. Chapter 7. Approximate Shortcut Methods for Multicomponent Distillation
      1. 7.1. Total Reflux: Fenske Equation
      2. 7.2. Minimum Reflux: Underwood Equations
      3. 7.3. Gilliland Correlation for Number of Stages at Finite Reflux Ratio
      4. 7.4. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. C. Derivations
        3. D. Problems
        4. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        5. G. Computer Simulation Problems
    16. Chapter 8. Introduction to Complex Distillation Methods
      1. 8.1. Breaking Azeotropes with Other Separators
      2. 8.2. Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Processes
        1. 8.2.1 Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropes
        2. 8.2.2 Drying Organic Compounds That Are Partially Miscible with Water
      3. 8.3. Steam Distillation
      4. 8.4. Two-Pressure Distillation Processes
      5. 8.5. Complex Ternary Distillation Systems
        1. 8.5.1 Distillation Curves
        2. 8.5.2 Residue Curves
      6. 8.6. Extractive Distillation
      7. 8.7. Azeotropic Distillation with Added Solvent
      8. 8.8. Distillation with Chemical Reaction
      9. 8.9. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Simulation Problems
        8. H. Computer Spreadsheet Problems
    17. Chapter 9. Batch Distillation
      1. 9.1. Binary Batch Distillation: Rayleigh Equation
      2. 9.2. Simple Binary Batch Distillation
      3. 9.3. Constant-Level Batch Distillation
      4. 9.4. Batch Steam Distillation
      5. 9.5. Multistage Batch Distillation
        1. 9.5.1 Constant Reflux Ratio
        2. 9.5.2 Variable Reflux Ratio
      6. 9.6. Operating Time
      7. 9.7. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. H. Computer Spreadsheet Problems
    18. Chapter 10. Staged and Packed Column Design
      1. 10.1. Staged Column Equipment Description
        1. 10.1.1 Trays, Downcomers, and Weirs
        2. 10.1.2 Inlets and Outlets
      2. 10.2. Tray Efficiencies
      3. 10.3. Column Diameter Calculations
      4. 10.4. Balancing Calculated Diameters
      5. 10.5. Sieve Tray Layout and Tray Hydraulics
      6. 10.6. Valve Tray Design
      7. 10.7. Introduction to Packed Column Design
      8. 10.8. Packed Column Internals
      9. 10.9. Height of Packing: HETP Method
      10. 10.10. Packed Column Flooding and Diameter Calculation
      11. 10.11. Economic Trade-Offs for Packed Columns
      12. 10.12. Choice of Column Type
      13. 10.13. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Problems
    19. Chapter 11. Economics and Energy Conservation in Distillation
      1. 11.1. Distillation Costs
      2. 11.2. Operating Effects on Costs
      3. 11.3. Changes in Plant Operating Rates
      4. 11.4. Energy Conservation in Distillation
      5. 11.5. Synthesis of Column Sequences for Almost Ideal Multicomponent Distillation
      6. 11.6. Synthesis of Distillation Systems for Nonideal Ternary Systems
      7. 11.7. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        6. G. Computer Problems
    20. Chapter 12. Absorption and Stripping
      1. 12.1. Absorption and Stripping Equilibria
      2. 12.2. McCabe-Thiele Solution for Dilute Absorption
      3. 12.3. Stripping Analysis for Dilute Systems
      4. 12.4. Analytical Solution for Dilute Systems: Kremser Equation
      5. 12.5. Efficiencies
      6. 12.6. McCabe-Thiele Analysis for More Concentrated Systems
      7. 12.7. Column Diameter
      8. 12.8. Dilute Multisolute Absorbers and Strippers
      9. 12.9. Matrix Solution for Concentrated Absorbers and Strippers
      10. 12.10. Irreversible Absorption and Co-Current Cascades
      11. 12.11. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. G. Computer Problems
    21. Chapter 13. Liquid-Liquid Extraction
      1. 13.1. Extraction Processes and Equipment
      2. 13.2. Countercurrent Extraction
        1. 13.2.1 McCabe-Thiele Method for Dilute Systems
        2. 13.2.2 Kremser Method for Dilute Systems
      3. 13.3. Dilute Fractional Extraction
      4. 13.4. Immiscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction
      5. 13.5. Concentrated Immiscible Extraction
      6. 13.6. Immisicible Batch Extraction
      7. 13.7. Extraction Equilibrium for Partially Miscible Ternary Systems
      8. 13.8. Mixing Calculations and the Lever-Arm Rule
      9. 13.9. Partially Miscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Systems
      10. 13.10. Countercurrent Extraction Cascades for Partially Miscible Systems
        1. 13.10.1 External Mass Balances
        2. 13.10.2 Difference Points and Stage-by-Stage Calculations
        3. 13.10.3 Complete Partially Miscible Extraction Problem
      11. 13.11. Relationship between McCabe-Thiele and Triangular Diagrams for Partially Miscible Systems
      12. 13.12. Minimum Solvent Rate for Partially Miscible Systems
      13. 13.13. Extraction Computer Simulations
      14. 13.14. Design of Mixer-Settlers
        1. 13.14.1 Mixer Design
        2. 13.14.2 Settler (Decanter) Design
      15. 13.15. Introduction to Design of Reciprocating-Plate (Karr) Columns
      16. 13.16. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. G. Computer Problems
    22. Chapter 14. Washing, Leaching, and Supercritical Extraction
      1. 14.1. Generalized McCabe-Thiele and Kremser Procedures
      2. 14.2. Washing
      3. 14.3. Leaching with Constant Flow Rates
      4. 14.4. Leaching with Variable Flow Rates
      5. 14.5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction
      6. 14.6. Application to Other Separations
      7. 14.7. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. C. Derivations
        3. D. Problems
        4. E. More Complex Problems
    23. Chapter 15. Introduction to Diffusion and Mass Transfer
      1. 15.1. Molecular Movement Leads to Mass Transfer
      2. 15.2. Fickian Model of Diffusivity
        1. 15.2.1 Fick’s Law and the Definition of Diffusivity
        2. 15.2.2 Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances without Convection
        3. 15.2.3 Unsteady Binary Fickian Diffusion with No Convection (Optional)
        4. 15.2.4 Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances with Convection
      3. 15.3. Values and Correlations for Fickian Binary Diffusivities
        1. 15.3.1 Fickian Binary Gas Diffusivities
        2. 15.3.2 Fickian Binary Liquid Diffusivities
      4. 15.4. Linear Driving-Force Model of Mass Transfer for Binary Systems
        1. 15.4.1 Film Theory for Dilute and Equimolar Transfer Systems
        2. 15.4.2 Transfer through Stagnant Films: Absorbers and Strippers
      5. 15.5. Correlations for Mass-Transfer Coefficients
        1. 15.5.1 Dimensionless Groups
        2. 15.5.2 Theoretically Derived Mass-Transfer Correlations
        3. 15.5.3. Semi-Empirical and Empirical Mass-Transfer Coefficient Correlations
        4. 15.5.4. Correlations Based on Analogies
      6. 15.6. Difficulties with Fickian Diffusion Model
      7. 15.7. Maxwell-Stefan Model of Diffusion and Mass Transfer
        1. 15.7.1 Introductory Development of the Maxwell-Stefan Theory of Diffusion
        2. 15.7.2 Maxwell-Stefan Equations for Binary Nonideal Systems
        3. 15.7.3 Determining the Independent Fluxes Ni,z
        4. 15.7.4 Difference Equation Formulations
        5. 15.7.5 Relationship between Maxwell-Stefan and Fickian Diffusivities
        6. 15.7.6 Ideal Ternary Systems
        7. 15.7.7 Nonideal Ternary Systems
      8. 15.8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Diffusion and Mass-Transfer Models
      9. 15.9. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. H. Spreadsheet Problems
    24. Chapter 16. Mass Transfer Analysis for Distillation, Absorption, Stripping, and Extraction
      1. 16.1. HTU-NTU Analysis of Packed Distillation Columns
      2. 16.2. Relationship of HETP and HTU
      3. 16.3. Mass Transfer Correlations for Packed Towers
        1. 16.3.1 Detailed Correlations for Random Packings
        2. 16.3.2 Simple Correlations for the Random Packings
      4. 16.4. HTU-NTU Analysis of Absorbers and Strippers
      5. 16.5. HTU-NTU Analysis of Co-Current Absorbers
      6. 16.6. Prediction of Distillation Tray Efficiency
      7. 16.7. Mass-Transfer Analysis of Extraction
        1. 16.7.1 Mass-Transfer Equations and HTU-NTU Analysis
        2. 16.7.2 Calculation of Stage Efficiency in Extraction Mixers
        3. 16.7.3 Area per Volume a and Average Drop Diameter in Mixers
        4. 16.7.4 Mixer Mass-Transfer Coefficients
      8. 16.8. Rate-Based Analysis of Distillation
      9. 16.9. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Deriviations
        4. D. Problems
        5. G. Computer-Simulation Problems
        6. H. Spreadsheet Problems
    25. Chapter 17. Introduction to Membrane Separation Processes
      1. 17.1. Membrane Separation Equipment
      2. 17.2. Membrane Concepts
      3. 17.3. Gas Permeation
        1. 17.3.1 Gas Permeation of Binary Mixtures
        2. 17.3.2 Binary Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems
        3. 17.3.3 Multicomponent Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems
      4. 17.4. Reverse Osmosis
        1. 17.4.1 Analysis of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis
        2. 17.4.2 Determination of Membrane Properties from Experiments
        3. 17.4.3 Mass-Transfer Analysis to Determine Concentration Polarization
        4. 17.4.4 RO with Concentrated Solutions
      5. 17.5. Ultrafiltration (UF)
      6. 17.6. Pervaporation (PERVAP)
      7. 17.7. Bulk Flow Pattern Effects
        1. 17.7.1 Binary Cross-Flow Permeation
        2. 17.7.2 Binary Co-current Permeation
        3. 17.7.3 Binary Countercurrent Flow
      8. 17.8. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. E. More Complex Problems
        6. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        7. H. Spreadsheet Problems
        8. 17.A.1 Cross-Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program
        9. 17.A.2 Co-current Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program
        10. 17.A.3 Countercurrent Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program
    26. Chapter 18. Introduction to Adsorption, Chromatography, and Ion Exchange
      1. 18.1. Sorbents and Sorption Equilibrium
        1. 18.1.1 Definitions
        2. 18.1.2 Sorbent Types
        3. 18.1.3 Adsorption Equilibrium Behavior
      2. 18.2. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Basics and Applications to Chromatography
        1. 18.2.1 Movement of Solute in a Column
        2. 18.2.2 Solute Movement Theory for Linear Isotherms
        3. 18.2.3 Application of Linear Solute Movement Theory to Purge Cycles and Elution Chromatography
      3. 18.3. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Thermal and Pressure Swing Adsorption and Simulated Moving Beds
        1. 18.3.1 Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA)
        2. 18.3.2 Pressure Swing Adsorption
        3. 18.3.3 Simulated Moving Beds (SMB)
      4. 18.4. Nonlinear Solute Movement Analysis
        1. 18.4.1 Diffuse Waves
        2. 18.4.2 Shock Waves
      5. 18.5. Ion Exchange
        1. 18.5.1 Ion Exchange Equilibrium
        2. 18.5.2 Movement of Ions
      6. 18.6. Mass and Energy Transfer in Packed Beds
        1. 18.6.1 Mass Transfer and Diffusion
        2. 18.6.2 Column Mass Balances
        3. 18.6.3 Lumped Parameter Mass Transfer
        4. 18.6.4 Energy Balances and Heat Transfer
        5. 18.6.5 Derivation of Solute Movement Theory
        6. 18.6.6 Detailed Simulators
      7. 18.7. Mass Transfer Solutions for Linear Systems
        1. 18.7.1 Lapidus and Amundson Solution for Local Equilibrium with Dispersion
        2. 18.7.2 Superposition in Linear Systems
        3. 18.7.3 Linear Chromatography
      8. 18.8. LUB Approach for Nonlinear Systems
      9. 18.9. Checklist for Practical Design and Operation
      10. 18.10. Summary—Objectives
        1. A. Discussion Problems
        2. B. Generation of Alternatives
        3. C. Derivations
        4. D. Problems
        5. F. Problems Requiring Other Resources
        6. G. Simulator Problems
        7. H. Spreadsheet Problems
    27. Appendix A. Aspen Plus Troubleshooting Guide for Separations
    28. Appendix B. Instructions for Fitting VLE and LLE Data with Aspen Plus
    29. Appendix C. Unit Conversions and Physical Constants
    30. Appendix D. Data Locations
    31. Answers to Selected Problems
    32. Index
    33. Footnotes
      1. Footnotes