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Separation Process Engineering, Second Edition by Phillip C. Wankat

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Chapter 14: Extraction of Partially Miscible Systems

Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was introduced in Chapter 13, and equipment was briefly discussed there. All extraction systems are partially miscible to some extent. When partial miscibility is very low, as for toluene and water, we can treat the system as if it were completely immiscible and use McCabe-Thiele analysis or the Kremser equation shown in Chapter 13. When partial miscibility becomes appreciable, it can no longer be ignored, and a calculation procedure that allows for variable flow rates must be used. In this case a different type of stage-by-stage analysis, which is very convenient for ternary systems, can be used. For multicomponent systems, computer calculations are required. ...

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