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Sensor Technologies for Civil Infrastructures

Book Description

Performance assessment and health monitoring of civil infrastructures has the potential to increase public safety while decreasing maintenance costs. Typically, sensors are strategically placed in a structure to measure and record data and to draw conclusions about the state of a structure. Volume 2 takes the reader through sensor data management and analytical techniques for fault detection and localization. It will look at prognosis and life-cycle assessment. The majority of the chapters are case studies in assessing structures such as bridges, buildings, super-tall towers, dams, tunnels, wind turbines, railroad tracks, nuclear power plants, offshore structures, levees and pipelines.

  • Provides an in-depth examination of sensor data management and analytical techniques for fault detection and localization, looking at prognosis and life-cycle assessment
  • Includes case studies in assessing structures such as bridges, buildings, super-tall towers, dams, tunnels, wind turbines, railroad tracks, nuclear power plants, offshore structures, levees and pipelines

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: Sensor data interrogation and decision making
    1. 1. Sensor data management technologies for infrastructure asset management
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Sensor level data processing and management
      4. 1.3 In-network data communication and management
      5. 1.4 Persistent data management and retrieval
      6. 1.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 1.6 Acknowledgements
      8. 1.7 References
    2. 2. Sensor data analysis, reduction and fusion for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Bayesian inference and monitoring data analysis
      4. 2.3 Data reduction
      5. 2.4 Data fusion
      6. 2.5 Further trends
      7. 2.6 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 2.7 Acknowledgements
      9. 2.8 References
    3. 3. Analytical techniques for damage detection and localization for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Linear time invariant systems
      4. 3.3 Modal form
      5. 3.4 Relation between the complex and the normal mode models
      6. 3.5 Damage detection
      7. 3.6 Damage localization
      8. 3.7 Future trends
      9. 3.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 3.9 References
    4. 4. Output only modal identification and structural damage detection using timefrequency and wavelet techniques for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Time-frequency (TF) methods: STFT, EMD and HT
      4. 4.3 Modal identification of linear time invariant (LTI) and linear time variant (LTV) systems using EMD/HT and STFT
      5. 4.4 Modal identification of LTI and LTV systems using wavelets
      6. 4.5 Experimental and numerical validation of modal identification of LTI and LTV systems using STFT, EMD, wavelets and HT
      7. 4.6 Conclusion
      8. 4.7 Acknowledgments
      9. 4.8 References
    5. 5. Prognosis and life-cycle assessment based on SHM information
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Statistical and probabilistic aspects for efficient prognosis
      4. 5.3 Decision analysis based on availability of SHM data
      5. 5.4 Life-cycle analysis using monitoring data
      6. 5.5 Conclusions
      7. 5.6 Acknowledgements
      8. 5.7 References
      9. 5.8 Appendix: Notation used
    6. 6. System-level design of a roaming multi-modal multi-sensor system for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Need for health monitoring of transportation infrastructure
      4. 6.3 Sensor systems background
      5. 6.4 VOTERS mobile sensor system overview
      6. 6.5 Hierarchical multi-tiered architecture
      7. 6.6 Bulk data handling
      8. 6.7 Enabling sensor fusion
      9. 6.8 Conclusion
      10. 6.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 6.10 References
  8. Part II: Case studies in assessing and monitoring specific structures
    1. 7. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring bridges
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Performance metrics or measurands and their uses in assessment
      4. 7.3 Instrumentation in notable bridge monitoring projects
      5. 7.4 Case study on condition assessment and performance monitoring: Tamar Bridge
      6. 7.5 Monitoring results illustrating sensor characteristics
      7. 7.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 7.7 References
    2. 8. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring seismically-excited buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 New roles for sensing and monitoring systems in buildings
      4. 8.3 Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for buildings
      5. 8.4 Smart sensor devices to detect local damage
      6. 8.5 Conclusion
      7. 8.6 References
    3. 9. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring super-tall towers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Structural health monitoring (SHM) system for the Canton Tower
      4. 9.3 Integrated SHM and vibration control
      5. 9.4 Verification of long-range wireless sensing technology
      6. 9.5 Sensor fusion for SHM
      7. 9.6 Monitoring data during typhoons and earthquakes
      8. 9.7 Strategy for structural health and condition assessment
      9. 9.8 SHM benchmark study
      10. 9.9 Conclusion
      11. 9.10 Acknowledgments
      12. 9.11 References
    4. 10. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring dams
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Past monitoring effects of dams
      4. 10.3 Measurement systems of Fei-Tsui arch dam
      5. 10.4 Wireless sensing system for ambient vibration measurement
      6. 10.5 Analysis of ambient vibration data
      7. 10.6 Results of the ambient vibration survey of the dam
      8. 10.7 Analysis of earthquake response data of Fei-Tsui arch dam
      9. 10.8 Results using subspace identification (SI) to seismic response data
      10. 10.9 Results using ARX model to seismic response data
      11. 10.10 Conclusion
      12. 10.11 References
    5. 11. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring tunnels
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Construction monitoring in soft ground tunnelling
      4. 11.3 Case study: Jubilee Line extension, London, UK
      5. 11.4 Construction monitoring in rock tunnelling
      6. 11.5 Case study: monitoring of the construction of a new tunnel in rock in Switzerland
      7. 11.6 In-service and long-term monitoring
      8. 11.7 Case study: monitoring of an existing tunnel for deterioration in London, UK
      9. 11.8 Sensing technology summary
      10. 11.9 Future trends
      11. 11.10 Sources of further information and advice
      12. 11.11 Acknowledgements
      13. 11.12 References
    6. 12. Mapping subsurface utilities with mobile electromagnetic geophysical sensor arrays
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Physical concepts of passive and active EM remote sensing
      4. 12.3 Physics of EM waves in the shallow subsurface
      5. 12.4 Commercial services, systems, and sensors
      6. 12.5 Mobile sensor arrays
      7. 12.6 Survey examples
      8. 12.7 Future of mobile sensor technologies
      9. 12.8 References
    7. 13. Sensing solutions for assessing the stability of levees, sinkholes and landslides
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Detection, localization and quantification of instability
      4. 13.3 Levee monitoring
      5. 13.4 Sinkhole monitoring
      6. 13.5 Landslide monitoring
      7. 13.6 Future trends
      8. 13.7 Conclusions
      9. 13.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 13.9 References
    8. 14. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring pipeline systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Types of pipeline systems
      4. 14.3 Typical damage and failure modes
      5. 14.4 Current sensing solutions for pipeline systems
      6. 14.5 Emerging sensing solutions
      7. 14.6 Future trends
      8. 14.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 14.8 Acknowledgment
      10. 14.9 References
    9. 15. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring roads
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for highway pavement assessment
      4. 15.3 Health assessment of bridge decks
      5. 15.4 Future trends
      6. 15.5 References
    10. 16. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring railroad tracks
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Defects in rails
      4. 16.3 Nondestructive evaluation of rails
      5. 16.4 Structural health monitoring (SHM)
      6. 16.5 Systems for high-speed-rail inspection
      7. 16.6 Conclusions
      8. 16.7 References
    11. 17. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring underwater systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Underwater structures: types and challenges
      4. 17.3 Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques
      5. 17.4 Structural health monitoring (SHM) of underwater structures
      6. 17.5 Conclusion
      7. 17.6 References
    12. 18. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring offshore structures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Hull response monitoring systems
      4. 18.3 Fatigue monitoring sensors
      5. 18.4 Air gap sensing system
      6. 18.5 Corrosion monitoring system
      7. 18.6 Acoustic emissions monitoring sensors
      8. 18.7 Vibration-based damage assessment approaches
      9. 18.8 Fiber optic sensors (FOS)
      10. 18.9 Riser and anchor chain monitoring
      11. 18.10 Conclusion and future trends
      12. 18.11 References
    13. 19. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring wind turbines
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Review of offshore wind turbine (OWT) monitoring
      4. 19.3 Structural health monitoring (SHM) for blades
      5. 19.4 SHM for WT support structures
      6. 19.5 Conclusion
      7. 19.6 References
    14. 20. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring of nuclear power plants (NPPs)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Description of NPPs
      4. 20.3 Types of damage in pipelines and their failure mechanisms
      5. 20.4 Sensor development for NPPs SHM
      6. 20.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 20.6 Acknowledgment
      8. 20.7 References
    15. 21. Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring power systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Power system overview
      4. 21.3 Sensing equipment and systems
      5. 21.4 Control center monitoring and assessment
      6. 21.5 Conclusion
      7. 21.6 References
      8. 21.7 Appendix: basic AC system concepts
  9. Index