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Sensor Technologies for Civil Infrastructures

Book Description

Sensors for civil infrastructure performance assessment and health monitoring have evolved significantly over the past decade with advances through high speed and low-cost electronic circuits, advances in fabrication and manufacturing methodologies, use of novel “smart” materials, and development of highly efficient signal validation and processing methods. Volume 1 describes sensing hardware and data collection covering a variety of sensors, including fiber optic systems, acoustic emission, piezoelectric sensors, electromagnetic sensors, ultrasonic methods, radar and millimeter wave technology, strain gauges, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), multifunctional materials and nanotechnology for sensing and vision-based sensing and lasers.

  • Describes sensing hardware and data collection, covering a variety of sensors
  • Examines fiber optic systems, acoustic emission, piezoelectric sensors, electromagnetic sensors, ultrasonic methods, and radar and millimeter wave technology
  • Covers strain gauges, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), multifunctional materials and nanotechnology for sensing and vision-based sensing and lasers

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction to sensing for structural performance assessment and health monitoring
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Introduction to this book
    4. 1.3 Overview of sensors and sensing system hardware
    5. 1.4 Overview of sensor data interrogation and decision making
    6. 1.5 Overview of application of sensing systems to operational infrastructure
    7. 1.6 Future trends
    8. 1.7 Conclusion
    9. Books
    10. 1.8 References
  8. 2. Sensor data acquisition systems and architectures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Concepts in signals and digital sampling
    4. 2.3 Analog-to-digital conversion
    5. 2.4 Digital-to-analog conversion
    6. 2.5 Data acquisition systems
    7. 2.6 Optical sensing DAQ system
    8. 2.7 Conclusion and future trends
    9. 2.8 References
  9. 3. Commonly used sensors for civil infrastructures and their associated algorithms
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Brief review of commonly used sensing technologies
    4. 3.3 Associated algorithms
    5. 3.4 Examples of continuous monitoring systems
    6. 3.5 Conclusions and future trends
    7. 3.6 References
  10. 4. Piezoelectric transducers for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Principle of piezoelectricity
    4. 4.3 Piezoelectric materials and the fabrication of piezoelectric transducers
    5. 4.4 Piezoelectric transducers for SHM applications
    6. 4.5 Bonding effects
    7. 4.6 Limitations of piezoelectric transducers
    8. 4.7 SHM techniques using piezoelectric transducers
    9. 4.8 Applications of piezoelectric transducer-based SHM
    10. 4.9 Future trends
    11. 4.10 Conclusion
    12. 4.11 References
  11. 5. Fiber optic sensors for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Properties of optical fibers
    4. 5.3 Common optical fiber sensors
    5. 5.4 Future trends
    6. 5.5 Sources for further information and advice
    7. 5.6 Conclusions
    8. 5.7 References
  12. 6. Acoustic emission sensors for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Fundamentals of acoustic emission (AE) technique
    4. 6.3 Interpretation of AE signals
    5. 6.4 AE localization methods
    6. 6.5 Severity assessment
    7. 6.6 AE equipment technology
    8. 6.7 Field applications and structural health monitoring using AE
    9. 6.8 Future challenges
    10. 6.9 Conclusion
    11. 6.10 References
  13. 7. Nonlinear acoustic and ultrasound methods for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Fundamentals of nonlinear acousto-ultrasound techniques
    4. 7.3 Harmonic and subharmonic generation
    5. 7.4 Nonlinear wave modulation
    6. 7.5 Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy
    7. 7.6 Future trends
    8. 7.7 Conclusions
    9. 7.8 References
  14. 8. Radar technology: radio frequency, interferometric, millimeter wave and terahertz sensors for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Brief history of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems
    4. 8.3 Current challenges and state of the art systems
    5. 8.4 Fundamentals of operation
    6. 8.5 Electromagnetic interactions with materials
    7. 8.6 Transmitter and receiver design
    8. 8.7 Signal processing
    9. 8.8 Laboratory and field studies
    10. 8.9 Conclusions and future trends
    11. 8.10 References
  15. 9. Electromagnetic sensors for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction to magnetics and magnetic materials
    3. 9.2 Introduction to magnetoelasticity
    4. 9.3 Magnetic sensory technologies
    5. 9.4 Role of microstructure in magnetization and magnetoelasticity
    6. 9.5 Magnetoelastic stress sensors for tension monitoring of steel cables
    7. 9.6 Temperature effects
    8. 9.7 Eddy current
    9. 9.8 Removable (portable) elastomagnetic stress sensor
    10. 9.9 Conclusion and future trends
    11. 9.10 References
  16. 10. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Sensor materials and micromachining techniques
    4. 10.3 Sensor characteristics
    5. 10.4 MEMS sensors for SHM
    6. 10.5 Application examples
    7. 10.6 Long term technical challenges
    8. 10.7 Conclusion and future trends
    9. 10.8 Sources of further information and advice
    10. 10.9 References
  17. 11. Multifunctional materials and nanotechnology for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Properties of carbon nanomaterials
    4. 11.3 Cementitious-based composites
    5. 11.4 Fiber-reinforced polymer composites
    6. 11.5 Polymer-based thin films
    7. 11.6 Conclusion and future trends
    8. 11.7 References
  18. 12. Laser-based sensing for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Laser principles
    4. 12.3 Laser interferometry or electronic speckle pattern interferometry
    5. 12.4 Laser digital shearography
    6. 12.5 Laser scanning photogrammetry
    7. 12.6 Laser Doppler vibrometry
    8. 12.7 Laser-ultrasound
    9. 12.8 Other laser-based techniques
    10. 12.9 Civil infrastructure applications
    11. 12.10 Laser safety
    12. 12.11 Conclusion
    13. 12.12 References
  19. 13. Corrosion sensing for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Principles of corrosion
    4. 13.3 Corrosion evaluation techniques
    5. 13.4 Corrosion sensors for field monitoring
    6. 13.5 Conclusion and future trends
    7. 13.6 References
  20. 14. Vision-based sensing for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Vision-based measurement techniques for civil engineering applications
    4. 14.3 Important issues for vision-based measurement techniques
    5. 14.4 Applications for vision-based sensing techniques
    6. 14.5 Conclusions
    7. 14.6 Acknowledgment
    8. 14.7 References
  21. 15. Robotic sensing for assessing and monitoring civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 15.1 Introduction
    3. 15.2 Vision-based robotic sensing for structural health monitoring (SHM)
    4. 15.3 Remote robotic sensing for SHM
    5. 15.4 Vibration-based mobile wireless sensors
    6. 15.5 Conclusions and future trends
    7. 15.6 References
  22. 16. Design and selection of wireless structural monitoring systems for civil infrastructures
    1. Abstract:
    2. 16.1 Introduction
    3. 16.2 Overview of wireless networks
    4. 16.3 Hardware design and selection
    5. 16.4 Wireless sensor network software
    6. 16.5 Conclusion and future trends
    7. 16.6 Acknowledgments
    8. 16.7 References
  23. 17. Permanent installation of wireless structural monitoring systems in infrastructure systems
    1. Abstract:
    2. 17.1 Introduction
    3. 17.2 Case study I – The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California, USA
    4. 17.3 Case study II – The Stork Bridge, Winterthur, Switzerland
    5. 17.4 Case study III – Jindo Bridge, Haenam/Jindo, South Korea
    6. 17.5 Case study IV – New Carquinez Bridge, Vallejo/ Crockett, California, USA
    7. 17.6 Conclusion
    8. 17.7 Acknowledgments
    9. 17.8 References
  24. 18. Energy harvesting for infrastructure sensing systems
    1. Abstract:
    2. 18.1 Introduction
    3. 18.2 Harvester dynamic modeling
    4. 18.3 Power availability and the optimal harvesting admittance
    5. 18.4 Power extraction circuits
    6. 18.5 Ongoing advancements and future directions
    7. 18.6 References
  25. Index