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Semiconductor Gas Sensors

Book Description

Semiconductor gas sensors have a wide range of applications in safety, process control, environmental monitoring, indoor or cabin air quality and medical diagnosis. This important book summarises recent research on basic principles, new materials and emerging technologies in this essential field.

The first part of the book reviews the underlying principles and sensing mechanisms for n- and p-type oxide semiconductors, introduces the theory for nanosize materials and describes the role of electrode-semiconductor interfaces. The second part of the book describes recent developments in silicon carbide- and graphene-based gas sensors, wide bandgap semiconductor gas sensors and micromachined and direct thermoelectric gas sensors. Part 3 discusses the use of nanomaterials for gas sensing, including metal oxide nanostructures, quantum dots, single-alled carbon nanotubes and porous silicon. The final part of the book surveys key applications in environmental monitoring, detecting chemical warfare agents and monitoring gases such as carbon dioxide.

Semiconductor gas sensors is a valuable reference work for all those involved in gas monitoring, including those in the building industry, environmental engineers, defence and security specialists and researchers in this field.

  • Provides an overview of resistor and non-resistor sensors
  • Reviews developments in gas sensors and sensing methods, including graphene based sensors and direct thermoelectric sensors
  • Discusses the use of nanomaterials in gas sensing

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Part I: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1: Fundamentals of semiconductor gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Classification of semiconductor gas sensors
      4. 1.3 Resistor type sensors: empirical aspects
      5. 1.4 Resistor type sensors: theoretical aspects
      6. 1.5 Non-resistive sensors
      7. 1.6 Future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing films: impact on transduction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 General discussion about sensing with semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors
      4. 2.3 Sensing and transduction for p- and n-type semiconducting metal oxides
      5. 2.4 Investigation of the conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing layers: studies in working conditions
      6. 2.5 Conclusion and future trends
    3. Chapter 3: Electrode materials and electrode-oxide interfaces in semiconductor gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Electrode materials for semiconductor gas sensors
      4. 3.3 Electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces
      5. 3.4 Charge carrier transport in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces
      6. 3.5 Gas/solid interactions in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces
      7. 3.6 Conclusion
  8. Part II: Advanced sensing methods and structures
    1. Chapter 4: Recent trends in silicon carbide (SiC) and graphene-based gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Background: transduction and sensing mechanisms
      4. 4.3 Recent material developments for improved selectivity of SiC gas sensors
      5. 4.4 Dynamic sensor operation
      6. 4.5 Novel SiC and graphene-based sensor devices
      7. 4.6 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 5: Recent advances in wide bandgap semiconductor-based gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Gas sensing
      4. 5.3 Hydrogen sensing
      5. 5.4 GaN Schottky diode sensor
      6. 5.5 Nanostructured wide bandgap materials
      7. 5.6 Silicon carbide Schottky diode hydrogen sensor
      8. 5.7 Wireless sensor network development
      9. 5.8 Conclusion
      10. 5.9 Acknowledgments
    3. Chapter 6: Micromachined semiconductor gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 A brief history of semiconductors as gas sensitive devices
      4. 6.3 Micro-hotplate concept and technologies
      5. 6.4 Micromachined metal-oxide gas sensors
      6. 6.5 Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-oxide gas sensors
      7. 6.6 Micromachined field-effect gas sensors
      8. 6.7 Trends and perspectives
      9. 6.8 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 7: Semiconducting direct thermoelectric gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Direct thermoelectric gas sensors
      4. 7.3 Conclusion and future trends
  9. Part III: Nanomaterials for gas sensing
    1. Chapter 8: One- and two-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures for chemical sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Deposition techniques
      4. 8.3 Conductometric sensor
      5. 8.4 Transduction principles and related novel devices
      6. 8.5 Conclusion and future trends
    2. Chapter 9: Semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescence-based gas sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Quantum dot synthesis, surface functionalization and polymer encapsulation
      4. 9.3 Quantum dots for sensing: dependence of detection limits and selectivity on surface-modifying ligands
      5. 9.4 Quantum dot–polymer system
      6. 9.5 Quantum dot–nanopore array system
      7. 9.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 9.7 Acknowledgments
    3. Chapter 10: Coated and functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Gas sensor architecture
      4. 10.3 Gas sensing mechanisms
      5. 10.4 Routes towards sensor selectivity
      6. 10.5 Applications
      7. 10.6 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 11: Carbon nanotube and metal oxide hybrid materials for gas sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Fabrication and synthesis of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing devices
      4. 11.3 Preparation of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing films
      5. 11.4 Sensor assembly
      6. 11.5 Characterization of carbon nanotube–metal oxide materials
      7. 11.6 Sensing mechanism of carbon nanotube-metal oxide gas sensors
      8. 11.7 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 12: Porous silicon gas sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Conductivity and capacitance sensors
      4. 12.3 Luminescence from PSi
      5. 12.4 Optical and photo properties of PSi sensors
      6. 12.5 PSi noise sensors
      7. 12.6 Different PSi gas sensors
      8. 12.7 Conclusion
  10. Part IV: Applications of semiconductor gas sensors
    1. Chapter 13: Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors in environmental monitoring
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Sensor synthesis methods
      4. 13.3 Metal oxide semiconductors in detecting environmentally important gases
      5. 13.4 Advances in carbon monoxide sensors
      6. 13.5 Advances in carbon dioxide sensors
      7. 13.6 Advances in nitrogen oxides sensors
      8. 13.7 Future trends
      9. 13.8 Conclusion
      10. 13.9 Sources of further information and advice
    2. Chapter 14: Semiconductor gas sensors for chemical warfare agents
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Chemical warfare agents
      4. 14.3 Chemical warfare agent detecting techniques
      5. 14.4 Device preparation
      6. 14.5 Sensing properties
      7. 14.6 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 15: Integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based sensors for gas and odour detection
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Micro-resistive complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors
      4. 15.3 Micro-calorimetric complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor
      5. 15.4 Sensing materials and their deposition on complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors
      6. 15.5 Interface circuitry and its integration
      7. 15.6 Integrated multi-sensor and sensor array systems
      8. 15.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 15.8 Useful web addresses
    4. Chapter 16: Solid-state sensors for carbon dioxide detection
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Electrochemical sensors
      4. 16.3 Impedimetric, capacitive and resistive sensors
      5. 16.4 Field effect transistor sensors
      6. 16.5 New approaches to enhance sensor performance
      7. 16.6 Conclusion and future trends
  11. Index