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Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, 3rd Edition

Book Description

The awaited revision of Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology offers more than 50% new or revised material that reflects a multitude of important discoveries and advances in device physics and integrated circuit processing.

Offering a basic introduction to physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology, the third edition presents students with theoretical and practical aspects of every step in device characterizations and fabrication, with an emphasis on integrated circuits.

Divided into three parts, this text covers the basic properties of semiconductor materials, emphasizing silicon and gallium arsenide; the physics and characteristics of semiconductor devices bipolar, unipolar special microwave and photonic devices; and the latest processing technologies, from crystal growth to lithographic pattern transfer.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
    1. WHAT'S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION
    2. TOPICAL COVERAGE
    3. KEY FEATURES
    4. COURSE DESIGN OPTIONS
    5. TEXTBOOK SUPPLEMENTS
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 0: Introduction
    1. 0.1 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
    2. 0.2 SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
    3. SUMMARY
    4. REFERENCES
  9. PART I: SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS
    1. 1: Energy Bands and Carrier Concentration in Thermal Equilibrium
      1. 1.1 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS
      2. 1.2 BASIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
      3. 1.3 VALENCE BONDS
      4. 1.4 ENERGY BANDS
      5. 1.5 INTRINSIC CARRIER CONCENTRATION
      6. 1.6 DONORS AND ACCEPTORS
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    2. 2: Carrier Transport Phenomena
      1. 2.1 CARRIER DRIFT
      2. 2.2 CARRIER DIFFUSION
      3. 2.3 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PROCESSES
      4. 2.4 CONTINUITY EQUATION
      5. 2.5 THERMIONIC EMISSION PROCESS
      6. 2.6 TUNNELING PROCESS
      7. 2.7 SPACE-CHARGE EFFECT
      8. 2.8 HIGH-FIELD EFFECTS
      9. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
      11. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
  10. PART II: SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
    1. 3: p–n Junction
      1. 3.1 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM CONDITION
      2. 3.2 DEPLETION REGION
      3. 3.3 DEPLETION CAPACITANCE
      4. 3.4 CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS
      5. 3.5 CHARGE STORAGE AND TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR
      6. 3.6 JUNCTION BREAKDOWN
      7. 3.7 HETEROJUNCTION
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    2. 4: Bipolar Transistors and Related Devices
      1. 4.1 TRANSISTOR ACTION
      2. 4.2 STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
      3. 4.3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND SWITCHING OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
      4. 4.4 NONIDEAL EFFECTS
      5. 4.5 HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
      6. 4.6 THYRISTORS AND RELATED POWER DEVICES
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS (* INDICATES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    3. 5: MOS Capacitor and MOSFET
      1. 5.1 IDEAL MOS CAPACITOR
      2. 5.2 SIO 2 -SI MOS CAPACITOR
      3. 5.3 CARRIER TRANSPORT IN MOS CAPACITORS
      4. 5.4 CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES (CCD)
      5. 5.5 MOSFET FUNDAMENTALS
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    4. 6: Advanced MOSFET and Related Devices
      1. 6.1 MOSFET SCALING
      2. 6.2 CMOS AND BiCMOS
      3. 6.3 MOSFET ON INSULATOR
      4. 6.4 MOS MEMORY STRUCTURES
      5. 6.5 POWER MOSFET
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    5. 7: MESFET and Related Devices
      1. 7.1 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACTS
      2. 7.2 MESFET
      3. 7.3 MODFET
      4. SUMMARY
      5. REFERENCES
      6. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    6. 8: Microwave Diodes; Quantum-Effect and Hot-Electron Devices
      1. 8.1 MICROWAVE FREQUENCY BANDS
      2. 8.2 TUNNEL DIODE
      3. 8.3 IMPATT DIODE
      4. 8.4 TRANSFERRED-ELECTRON DEVICES
      5. 8.5 QUANTUM-EFFECT DEVICES
      6. 8.6 HOT-ELECTRON DEVICES
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    7. 9: Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers
      1. 9.1 RADIATIVE TRANSITIONS AND OPTICAL ABSORPTION
      2. 9.2 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
      3. 9.3 VARIOUS LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
      4. 9.4 SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    8. 10: Photodetectors and Solar Cells
      1. 10.1 PHOTODETECTORS
      2. 10.2 SOLAR CELLS
      3. 10.3 SILICON AND COMPOUND-SEMICONDUCTOR SOLAR CELLS
      4. 10.4 THIRD-GENERATION SOLAR CELLS
      5. 10.5 OPTICAL CONCENTRATION
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
  11. PART III: SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
    1. 11: Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
      1. 11.1 SILICON CRYSTAL GROWTH FROM THE MELT
      2. 11.2 SILICON FLOAT–ZONE PROCESS
      3. 11.3 GaAs CRYSTAL-GROWTH TECHNIQUES
      4. 11.4 MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION
      5. 11.5 EPITAXIAL-GROWTH TECHNIQUES
      6. 11.6 STRUCTURES AND DEFECTS IN EPITAXIAL LAYERS
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    2. 12: Film Formation
      1. 12.1 THERMAL OXIDATION
      2. 12.2 CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF DIELECTRICS
      3. 12.3 CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON
      4. 12.4 ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
      5. 12.5 METALLIZATION
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    3. 13: Lithography and Etching
      1. 13.1 OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY
      2. 13.2 NEXT-GENERATION LITHOGRAPHIC METHODS
      3. 13.3 WET CHEMICAL ETCHING
      4. 13.4 DRY ETCHING
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    4. 14: Impurity Doping
      1. 14.1 BASIC DIFFUSION PROCESS
      2. 14.2 EXTRINSIC DIFFUSION
      3. 14.3 DIFFUSION-RELATED PROCESSES
      4. 14.4 RANGE OF IMPLANTED IONS
      5. 14.5 IMPLANT DAMAGE AND ANNEALING
      6. 14.6 IMPLANTATION-RELATED PROCESSES
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
    5. 15: Integrated Devices
      1. 15.1 PASSIVE COMPONENTS
      2. 15.2 BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGY
      3. 15.3 MOSFET TECHNOLOGY
      4. 15.4 MESFET TECHNOLOGY
      5. 15.5 CHALLENGES FOR NANOELECTRONICS
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS (* DENOTES DIFFICULT PROBLEMS)
  12. Appendix A: List of Symbols
  13. Appendix B: International System of Units (SI Units)
  14. Appendix C: Unit Prefixes *
  15. Appendix D: Greek Alphabet
  16. Appendix E: Physical Constants
  17. Appendix F: Properties of Important Element and Binary Compound Semiconductors at 300 K
  18. Appendix G: Properties of Si and GaAs at 300 K
  19. Appendix H: Derivation of the Density of States in a Semiconductor
  20. Appendix I: Derivation of Recombination Rate for Indirect Recombination
  21. Appendix J: Calculation of the Transmission Coefficient for a Symmetric Resonant-Tunneling Diode
  22. Appendix K: Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases
  23. Appendix L: Answers to Selected Problems
  24. Photo Credits
  25. Index