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Semantic Web Engineering in the Knowledge Society

Book Description

Semantic Web Engineering in the Knowledge Society brings together contributions for the understanding and exploration of semantics and ontologies. This authoritative reference serves as the platform for exchange of both practical technologies and far reaching implications, offering academicians and practitioners a compendium of knowledge in Semantic Web engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Preface
  4. I. Explaining Semantic Web Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR EXPLAINING RESULTS FROM SEMANTIC WEB APPLICATIONS
      1. Semantic Web Application Characterization
        1. Collaboration
        2. Autonomy
        3. Use of Ontologies
      2. Explanation Issues
        1. Explanation Types
        2. Human or Machine Consumption
        3. Visualization Capabilities
      3. Explanation Issues vs. Semantic Web Application Characteristics
        1. Explanation and Collaboration
        2. Explanation and Autonomy
        3. Explanations and Ontologies
    4. INFERENCE WEB: AN ONTOLOGY-ENHANCED INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORTING EXPLANATIONS
        1. Using PML
        2. Provenance Ontology
        3. Justification Ontology
    5. TOOLS FOR MANIPULATING EXPLANATION IN PML
    6. CASE STUDIES: PML IN ACTION
      1. Cognitive Personal Assistants: CALO Example
        1. Behavior Justification in PML
      2. Text Analytic Information Manipulations: KANI Example
        1. Text Analytic Manipulation Descriptions
      3. Transparent Accountable Data Mining: TAMI Example
      4. Integrated Learning Systems: GILA Example
    7. DISCUSSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      1. Explanation Infrastructure:
      2. Explanation Interlingua:
      3. Explanation and Trust Requirements Studies:
      4. Selected Applications
      5. Explanation, Trust, and Collaborative Systems:
    13. ENDNOTES
  5. II. Industrial Use of Semantics: NNEC Semantic Interoperability
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE INTEROPERABILITY PROBLEM
      1. The Common Data Model
      2. The Bilateral Model
    4. PRINCIPLES OF SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      1. Interoperability
      2. Semantic
      3. Semantic Interoperability
    5. LINKING ONTOLOGIES
      1. Ontology Linking Approach
    6. SISEARCH ARCHITECTURE
      1. Operational View
      2. System View
      3. The Inference Service
      4. Query Translation Discussion
    7. RELATED WORK
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READING
    13. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  6. III. Personalization Based on Semantic Web Technologies
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SEMANTIC WEB FOR PERSONALIZATION
      1. Examples of Personalized Applications in WW and Semantic Web
    4. ARCHITECTURE OF A PERSONALIZED SEMANTIC WEB ENABLED APPLICATION
      1. Application Business Logic
      2. Models and Context
      3. Context Sensing Mechanisms
      4. Reasoning Module
      5. Adaptation Policies
    5. USER MODELING
      1. Definitions
      2. User Ontology Instances
      3. Static User Models
      4. Dynamic User Models
    6. RULE-BASED ADAPTATION
      1. Rule Structure
      2. Semantic Web Rule Language
      3. Other Approaches
      4. Rule Engines
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. SUMMARY
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. ENDNOTES
  7. IV. Building Semantic Web Portals with a Model – Driven Design Approach
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION
      1. Structure of the Chapter
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Languages for the Semantic Web
      2. Resource Description Framework and RDF Schema
      3. Ontology Web Language
      4. Query Languages for the Semantic Web
    4. SPARQL
      1. Methodologies to Design Semantic Web Applications
      2. The Semantic Hypermedia Design Method
    5. HERA
    6. WEBML
    7. REQUIREMENTS FOR SEMANTIC WEB ENGINEERING
    8. MODELING SEMANTIC WEB APPLICATIONS WITH WebML
      1. Extending the WebML Development Process
      2. Extending the WebML Data Model
      3. Extending the WebML Hypertext Model
      4. Advanced Data Access Primitives
      5. Extending the Presentation Model to Support Semantic Annotations
    9. CASE STUDY: A MUSIC SEMANTIC PORTAL
    10. IMPLEMENTATION EXPERIENCE
      1. Implementing the Ontological Units
      2. Ontological Data Source Layer
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    13. REFERENCES
    14. ADDITIONAL READING
    15. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      1. Beginner
      2. Intermediate
      3. Advance
      4. Practical Exercises
    16. ENDNOTES
  8. V. Semantic Processing of Monitoring Data in Industrial Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND AND ADVANTAGES OF THE SEMANTIC APPROACH
      1. Industrial Applications and Use Cases
        1. Power Network Maintenance
        2. Railway System Monitoring
        3. Supply Chain Monitoring
      2. Summary of Challenges
      3. Advantages of the Semantic Approach
    4. ENGINERING INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR SEMANTIC PROCESING OF MONITORING DATA
      1. Ontology Engineering
        1. Modelling Monitoring Data
        2. OGC Sensor Web Enablement: Observations & Measurements
        3. Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET)
        4. Open Systems Architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM)
        5. Modeling System States
      2. Engineering Inter-Organizational Ontologies
      3. System Design: Processing Stages
        1. Preprocessing
        2. Transformation to Ontology-Based Representation
        3. Data Management
        4. Reasoning
        5. Application
    5. CASE-STUDY: DECISION SUPORT FOR INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT IN RAILWAY NETWORKS
      1. Application Scenario
      2. Ontology Engineering
      3. System Architecture
      4. Lessons Learned
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSION
      1. Beginner
      2. Intermediate
      3. Advanced
      4. Practical Exercises
  9. VI. Semantic Annotation and Ontology Population
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SEMANTIC ANNOTATION VERSUS ONTOLOGY POPULATION
    4. DIMENSIONS OF SEMANTIC ANNOTATION
      1. Nature of the Resources
      2. Structuring the Formal Models
      3. Automating the Annotations' Creation
      4. Storing the Annotations and their Resources
      5. Using and Interfacing the Annotations
      6. Discussion
    5. ONTOPOP, A SEMANTIC ANNOTATION & ONTOLOGY POPULATION FRAMEWORK
      1. The Information Extraction Module
      2. The Information Consolidation Module
      3. The Information Storage Module
      4. The Lexicons Maintenance Module
    6. THE ONTOPOP'S PROJECT METHODOLOGY
      1. The Actors
      2. The Five Stages
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. ENDNOTES
  10. VII. Fault-Tolerant Emergent Semantics in P2P Networks
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Ontology-Enabled Semantic Reconciliation
      2. Local Translation and Emergent Semantics
      3. Existing Approaches
      4. Local Mapping and Query Translation
      5. Collaborative Building of Ontologies and Consensus Reaching
      6. Pattern Extraction or Structure Similarity
      7. Tagging and Social Networks
    3. SEMANTIC MAPPING FAULTS
      1. Faults
      2. Permanent Faults
      3. Transient Faults
      4. Intermittent Faults
    4. CAUSES OF NON-PERMANENT SEMANTIC MAPPING FAULTS
      1. Ontology Evolution
      2. Query Contexts and Static Mapping
      3. Temporal Nature of Data
      4. Unavailability of Data Sources
      5. Misbehavior of Peers
    5. CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPORAL MAPPING FAULTS
      1. Permanent Mapping Faults
      2. Non-permanent Mapping Faults
    6. CRITICAL REVIEW OF EMERGENT SEMANTICS
      1. Fault-Tolerant Emergent Semantics
      2. Time Redundancy
      3. Proposed Algorithm
        1. Alternative Approaches
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEACH DIRECTION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. SUGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
    12. ENDNOTES
    13. APPENDIX: QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION
      1. Basic:
      2. Intermediate:
      3. Advanced:
  11. VIII. Association Analytics for Network Connectivity in a Bibliographic and Expertise Dataset
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ANALYTICS IN THE BIOBLIOGRAPHY DATASET
      1. Statistics about Authors
      2. Statistics about Papers
    5. LINKING BIBLIOGRAPHY DATA TO EXPERTISE DATA
      1. Bootstrapping the Creation of a Taxonomy of Topics in Computer Science
      2. Measuring Expertise
        1. Comparison with 'Social' Measures of Technical Achievements and Recognitions
    6. EXPERIMENTS SETUP
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      1. Beginner
      2. Intermediate
      3. Advanced
      4. Practical Exercises
  12. IX. Search Engine-Based Web Information Extraction
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. The Web-as-a-Corpus vs. Traditional Text Corpora
      2. Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Sources
      3. Fact Mining
      4. Community-Based Knowledge Mining
      5. Related Work
    3. FACT MINING
      1. Problem Definition
      2. Global Outline
      3. Identifying Effective Relation Patterns
        1. Identifying Relation Patterns
        2. Selecting Relation Patterns
      4. Instance Identification
      5. Sketch of Algorithm
      6. Experimental Results
        1. Learning Effective Hyponym Patterns
        2. A Restaurant Ontology
        3. Populating a Movie Ontology
      7. Results
        1. Extracting Information on Historical Figures
      8. Relation Patterns and Query Formulation
      9. Instance Identification
      10. Ordering Persons by Fame
      11. Extracting Additional Information
      12. Results
    4. COMMUNITY-BASED KNOWLEDGE MINING
      1. Problem Description
      2. Three Classification Methods
      3. Page-Count-Based Mapping (PCM)
      4. Pattern-Based Mapping (PM)
      5. Document-Based Mapping (DM)
      6. Finding Related Instances
      7. Combining Results in Final Mapping
      8. Experimental Results
        1. Musical Artist Similarity
        2. Musical Artist Genre Tagging
        3. Painter Movement Classification
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. ENDNOTES
    10. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  13. X. From Databases to Ontologies
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. EXAMPLE OF A LEGACY INFORMATION SYSTEM
    5. SEMANTIC RE-ENGINERING OF THE LEGACY INFORMATION SYSTEM
    6. UML PROFILE FOR OWL CONSTRAINTS AND REASONING
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ONGOING AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. ENDNOTES
    12. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  14. XI. RapidOWL: A Methodology for Enabling Social Semantic Collaboration
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PRELIMINARIES
      1. Social Software and Web 2.0
      2. Knowledge Engineering Methodology
      3. Existing Approaches
    4. SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING
    5. PARADIGMS
      1. Generic Architecture of nowledge-Based Systems
      2. Semantic-Web Data Model
      3. Web Technologies
    6. PROCESS
      1. Values
      2. Principles
      3. Practices
    7. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
  15. XII. The Social Semantic Desktop: A New Paradigm Towards Deploying the Semantic Web on the Desktop
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SCENARIOS
      1. The Semantic Dimension
      2. The Social Dimension
    5. FUNCTIONALITIES
    6. ONTOLOGIES
    7. TECHNOLOGY
    8. ARCHITECTURE
    9. IMPLEMENTATION AND ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
      1. Working with RDF
      2. Passing Instances in Messages
    10. RELATED WORK
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    13. REFERENCES
    14. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    15. ENDNOTES
    16. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSION
  16. XIII. Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning in the Semantic Web
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. WHY CARE ABOUT UNCERTAINTY?
    3. PROBABILISTIC APPROACHES TO UNCERTAINTY IN THE SEMANTIC WEB
    4. FUZZY FORMALISMS APPLIED TO THE SEMANTIC WEB
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. ENDNOTES
    9. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      1. Answers:
  17. XIV. Benchmarking in the Semantic Web
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. EVALUATION AND BENCHMARKING IN THE LITERATURE
      1. Software Evaluation
      2. Benchmarking in the Literature
      3. Software Benchmarking
      4. Software Evaluation in Benchmarking Activities
      5. Benchmark Suites
    4. EVALUATION AND BENCHMARKING WITHIN THE SEMANTIC WEB
    5. THE BENCHMARKING METHODOLOGY FOR SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGY
      1. Benchmarking Actors
      2. Benchmarking Process
        1. Plan Phase
        2. Experiment Phase
        3. Improve Phase
        4. Recalibration Task
    6. BENCHMARKING THE INTEROPERABILITY OF ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TOOLS USING RDF(S) AS THE INTERCHANGE LANGUAGE
      1. Organising the Benchmarking
      2. Benchmark Suites
      3. Import and Export Results
        1. Import Results
        2. Export Results
      4. Interoperability Results
        1. Interoperability Using the Same Tool
        2. Interoperability between Each Pair of Tools
        3. Interoperability between All the Tools
        4. Interoperability Regarding URI Character Restrictions
      5. Recommendations
        1. Recommendations for Ontology Engineers
        2. Recommendations for Tool Developers
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. ENDNOTES
    12. APPENDIX: QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSION
      1. Beginner:
      2. Intermediate:
      3. Advanced:
      4. Practical Exercises:
    13. ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSION
      1. Beginner:
      2. Intermediate:
      3. Advanced:
  18. Compilation of References
  19. About the Contributors