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Self-Organized Criticality by Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen

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1

Introduction

Consider a collection of electrons, or a pile of sand grains, a bucket of fluid, an elastic network of springs, an ecosystem, or the community of stock-market dealers. Each of these systems consists of many components that interact through some kind of exchange of forces or information. In addition to these internal interactions, the system may be driven by some external force: an electric or a magnetic field, gravitation (in the case of sand grains), environmental changes, and so forth. The system will now evolve in time under the influence of the external driving forces and the internal interaction forces, assuming we can break the system up into internal and external components in an unproblematic way. What happens? Is there ...

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