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Security Warrior by Anton Chuvakin, Cyrus Peikari

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Bayesian Analysis

Because of the nature of IDSs, they are always at a disadvantage. Hackers can always engineer new exploits that will not be detected by existing signature databases. In addition, as with virus scanners, keeping signatures up to date is a major problem. Furthermore, network IDSs are expected to cope with massive bandwidth. Maintaining state in a high-traffic network becomes prohibitive in terms of memory and processing cost.

Moreover, monitoring "switched networks" is problematic because switches curtail the IDS's sensors. There have been attempts to compensate for this by embedding the IDS in the switch or attaching the IDS to the switch monitor port. However, such solutions have multiple unresolved challenges. For example, mirroring a set of gigabit links requires deploying multiple IDSs in a complicated load-balancing configuration, since no single IDS is able to cope with the load.

Another limitation of IDSs is that they are extremely vulnerable to attack or evasion. For example, denial-of-service attacks such as SYN floods or smurf attacks can often take down an IDS with ease. Similarly, slow scans or IP address spoofing frustrate many IDSs.

This section introduces the statistical properties of diagnostic tests and their implications for interpreting test results. We use a principle from statistics known as the Bayes's theorem , which describes the relationships that exist within an array of simple and conditional probabilities. Rather than covering the mathematical ...

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