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Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

Book Description

This book was written to explain a technique that requires an understanding of many details in order to properly obtain and interpret the data obtained. It also will serve as a reference for those who need to provide SIMS data. The book has over 200 figures and the references allow one to trace development of SIMS and understand the many details of the technique.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Abstract
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. List of Tables
  9. Preface
  10. 1 Comparison of Surface Analytical Techniques
    1. 1.1 Common Elemental Surface Analysis Techniques
    2. 1.2 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry
    3. 1.3 Brief History of Mass Spectrometry and SISM
    4. 1.4 Types of Mass Spectrometry
    5. 1.5 Rationale for SIMS
    6. 1.6 Types of SIMS Data
    7. References
  11. 2 SIMS Technique
    1. 2.1 Interaction of Ions with Matter
    2. 2.2 Sputtering Process
    3. 2.3 Sputtering Yield
    4. 2.4 Preferential Sputtering
    5. 2.5 Secondary Ion Yield
    6. 2.6 Oxygen Flood (Oxygen Leak, Oxygen Backfill)
    7. 2.7 Matrix Effects
    8. References
  12. 3 Analysis Parameters
    1. 3.1 Parameters of Interest for Depth Profiling
    2. 3.2 Primary Beam Polarity and Species
    3. 3.3 Secondary Ion Polarity and Species
    4. 3.4 Primary Beam Energy
    5. 3.5 Primary Beam Angle of Incidence
    6. 3.6 Primary Beam Current, Raster Size
    7. 3.7 Secondary Beam Energy Distribution—Voltage Offset
    8. 3.8 Mass Interferences, Mass Resolution
    9. References
  13. 4 Instrumentation
    1. 4.1 Vacuum System
    2. 4.2 Overall Instrument
    3. 4.3 Ion Sources
    4. 4.4 Primary Ion Column
    5. 4.5 Sample Chamber and Sample
    6. 4.6 Secondary Ion Column and Mass Analyzers
    7. 4.7 Detectors
    8. 4.8 Focused Ion Beam SIMS (FIB-SIMS)
    9. 4.9 Computers and Data Manipulation
    10. 4.10 Related Instruments
    11. References
  14. 5 Depth Profiling (Dynamic SIMS)
    1. 5.1 Raster and Gate
    2. 5.2 Depth Resolution
    3. 5.3 Sputtering Rate
    4. 5.4 Nonuniform Sputtering, Sample Rotation
    5. 5.5 Detection Limit, Dynamic Range, Memory Effect
    6. 5.6 Count Rate Saturation—Detector Dead Time
    7. 5.7 Small Area Analysis
    8. 5.8 Nonuniform Distribution
    9. 5.9 Image Depth Profile—Lateral Resolution
    10. 5.10 Movement of Species Due to Chemical Effect
    11. References
  15. 6 Quantification
    1. 6.1 Need for Secondary Standards
    2. 6.2 Depth Profile Quantification—Relative Sensitivity Factors
    3. 6.3 Ion Implanted Standards
    4. 6.4 Bulk Standards
    5. 6.5 Matrix and Trace Quantification
    6. 6.6 Useful Yield
    7. 6.7 Precision and Accuracy
    8. 6.8 Quantification in Multiple Matrixes—Cesium Cluster Ions
    9. 6.9 Static SIMS Quantification
    10. 6.10 RSF Relationship with Ionization Potential and Electron Affinity
    11. References
  16. 7 Surfaces, Interfaces, Multilayers, Bulk
    1. 7.1 Sample Considerations
    2. 7.2 Surface—Static SIMS
    3. 7.3 Interfaces
    4. 7.4 Multilayers
    5. 7.5 Back Side Analysis
    6. 7.6 Bulk Analysis
    7. References
  17. 8 Insulators
    1. 8.1 Sample Charging
    2. 8.2 Charge Compensation Methods
    3. 8.3 Electron Beam Neutralization
    4. 8.4 Species Mobile Under Ion Bombardment
    5. 8.5 Buried Insulators
    6. 8.6 Electron Stimulated Desorption
    7. 8.7 Summary
    8. References
  18. 9 Residual and Rare Gas Elements
    1. 9.1 Residual Gas Elements, Raster Reduction
    2. 9.2 Rare Gas Elements
    3. References
  19. 10 Applications
    1. 10.1 Semiconductors
    2. 10.2 Organic Materials
    3. 10.3 Minerals, Ceramics, Catalysts
    4. 10.4 Metals
    5. References
  20. 11 Analysis Approach
    1. 11.1 Initial Considerations
    2. 11.2 Analysis Sequence
  21. Appendix
  22. Index
  23. Ad Page
  24. Back cover