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Search User Interfaces by Marti A. Hearst

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3 Models of the Information Seeking Process

In order to design successful search user interfaces, it is necessary to understand the human information seeking process, including the strategies people employ when engaged in search. Numerous theoretical treatments have been proposed to characterize this complex cognitive process (Belkin et al. 1982; Jarvelin and Ingwersen 2004; Kuhlthau 1991; Marchionini 1995; Saracevic 1997; Sutcliffe and Ennis’s 1998). This chapter presents the most commonly discussed theoretical models of the search process: the standard model, the cognitive model, the dynamic model, search as a sequence of stages, search as a strategic process, and sensemaking. The chapter concludes with a discussion of information needs, including ...

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