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Search User Interfaces

Book Description

The truly world-wide reach of the Web has brought with it a new realisation of the enormous importance of usability and user interface design. In the last ten years, much has become understood about what works in search interfaces from a usability perspective, and what does not. Researchers and practitioners have developed a wide range of innovative interface ideas, but only the most broadly acceptable make their way into major web search engines. This book summarizes these developments, presenting the state of the art of search interface design, both in academic research and in deployment in commercial systems. Many books describe the algorithms behind search engines and information retrieval systems, but the unique focus of this book is specifically on the user interface. It will be welcomed by industry professionals who design systems that use search interfaces as well as graduate students and academic researchers who investigate information systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1: The Design of Search User Interfaces
    1. 1.1: Keeping the Interface Simple
    2. 1.2: A Historical Shift in Search interface Design
    3. 1.3: The Process of Search Interface Design
    4. 1.4: Design Guidelines for Search Interfaces
    5. 1.5: Offer Efficient and Informative Feedback
    6. 1.6: Balance User Control with Automated Actions
    7. 1.7: Reduce Short-Term Memory Load
    8. 1.8: Provide Shortcuts
    9. 1.9: Reduce Errors
    10. 1.10: Recognize the Importance of Small Details
    11. 1.11: Recognize the Importance of Aesthetics in Design
    12. 1.12: Conclusions
  8. 2: The Evaluation of Search User Interfaces
    1. 2.1: Standard Information Retrieval Evaluation
    2. 2.2: Informal Usability Testing
    3. 2.3: Formal Studies and Controlled Experiments
    4. 2.4: Longitudinal Studies
    5. 2.5: Analyzing Search Engine Server Logs
    6. 2.6: Large-Scale Log-Based Usability Testing (Bucket Testing)
    7. 2.7: Special Concerns with Evaluating Search Interfaces
    8. 2.8: Conclusions
  9. 3: Models of the Information Seeking Process
    1. 3.1: The Standard Model of Information Seeking
    2. 3.2: Cognitive Models of Information Seeking
    3. 3.3: The Dynamic (Berry-Picking) Model
    4. 3.4: information Seeking in Stages
    5. 3.5: Information Seeking as a Strategic Process
    6. 3.6: Sensemaking: Search as Part of a Larger Process
    7. 3.7: Information Needs and Query Intent
    8. 3.8: Conclusions
  10. 4: Query Specification
    1. 4.1: Textual Query Specification
    2. 4.2: Query Specification via Entry Form Interfaces
    3. 4.3: Dynamic Term Suggestions during Query Specification
    4. 4.4: Query Specification Using Boolean and Other Operators
    5. 4.5: Query Specification Using Command Languages
    6. 4.6: Conclusions
  11. 5: Presentation of Search Results
    1. 5.1: Document Surrogates
    2. 5.2: KWIC, or Query-oriented Summaries
    3. 5.3: Highlighting Query Terms
    4. 5.4: Additional Features of Results Listings
    5. 5.5: The Effects of Search Results Ordering
    6. 5.6: Visualization of Search Results
    7. 5.7: Conclusions
  12. 6: Query Reformulation
    1. 6.1: The Need for Reformulation
    2. 6.2: Spelling Suggestions and Corrections
    3. 6.3: Automated Term Suggestions
    4. 6.4: Suggesting Popular Destinations
    5. 6.5: Relevance Feedback
    6. 6.6: Showing Related Articles (More like This)
    7. 6.7: Conclusions
  13. 7: Supporting the Search Process
    1. 7.1: Starting Points for Search
    2. 7.2: Supporting Search History
    3. 7.3: Supporting the Search Process as a Whole
    4. 7.4: Integrating Search with Sensemaking
    5. 7.5: Conclusions
  14. 8: Integrating Navigation with Search
    1. 8.1: Categories for Navigating and Narrowing
    2. 8.2: Categories for Grouping Search Results
    3. 8.3: Categories for Sorting and Filtering Search Results
    4. 8.4: Organizing Search Results via Table-of-Contents Views
    5. 8.5: The Decline of Hierarchical Navigation of Web Content
    6. 8.6: Faceted Navigation
    7. 8.7: Navigating via Social Tagging and Social Bookmarking
    8. 8.8: Clustering in Search interfaces
    9. 8.9: Clusters vs. Categories in Search interfaces
    10. 8.10: Conclusions
  15. 9: Personalization in Search
    1. 9.1: Personalization Based on Explicit Preferences
    2. 9.2: Personalization Based on Implicit Relevance Cues
    3. 9.3: Combining Implicit and Explicit Information
    4. 9.4: Searching over Personal Information
    5. 9.5: Conclusions
  16. 10: Information Visualization for Search Interfaces
    1. 10.1: Principles of Information Visualization
    2. 10.2: Techniques for Interactive Visualization
    3. 10.3: The Effects of Data Types on Information Visualization
    4. 10.4: The Difficulties with Visualizing Nominal Data
    5. 10.5: Visualization for Query Specification
    6. 10.6: Visualizing Query Terms within a Large Document
    7. 10.7: Visualizing Query Terms within Retrieval Results
    8. 10.8: Visualizing Faceted Navigation
    9. 10.9: Visualizing Search Results as Clusters and “Starfields”
    10. 10.10: 3D Visualization in Search
    11. 10.11: Conclusions
  17. 11: Information Visualization for Text Analysis
    1. 11.1: Visualization for Text Mining
    2. 11.2: Visualizing Document Concordances and Word Frequencies
    3. 11.3: Visualizing Literature and Citation Relationships
    4. 11.4: Conclusions
  18. 12: Emerging Trends in Search interfaces
    1. 12.1: Mobile Search Interfaces
    2. 12.2: Multimedia Search Interfaces
    3. 12.3: Social Search
    4. 12.4: A Hybrid of Command and Natural Language Search
    5. 12.5: Conclusions
  19. Appendix: Additional Copyright Notices
  20. Bibliography
  21. Index
  22. Author Index
  23. Color Plates