The first question most readers of an O’Reilly book might ask is about the choice of the cover animal. In this case, “why a duck?” Well, for the record, our first choice was a unicorn decked out in glitter and a rainbow sash.
That response always gets a laugh (we are sure you just giggled a little), but it also brings to the surface a common perception of software-defined networks among many experienced network professionals. Although we think there is some truth to this perception, there is certainly more meat than myth to this unicorn.
So, starting over, the better answer to that first question is that the movement of a duck is not just what one sees on the water; most of the action is under the water, which you can’t easily see. Under the waterline, some very muscular feet are paddling away to move that duck along. In many ways, this is analogous to the progress of software-defined networks.
The surface view of SDN might lead the casual observer to conclude a few things. First, defining what SDN is, or might be, is something many organizations are frantically trying to do in order to resuscitate their business plans or revive their standards-developing organizations (SDOs). Second, that SDN is all about the active rebranding of existing products to be this mythical thing that they are not. Many have claimed that products they built four or five years ago were the origins of SDN, and therefore everything they have done since is SDN, too.
Along these lines, the branding of seemingly everything anew as SDN and the expected hyperbole of the startup community that SDN has been spawning for the past three or four years have also contributed negatively toward this end.
If observers are predisposed by their respective network religions and politics to dismiss SDN, it may seem like SDN is an idea adrift.
Now go ahead and arm yourself with a quick pointer to the Gartner hype-cycle. We understand that perspective and can see where that cycle predicts things are at.
Some of these same aspects of the present SDN movement made us lobby hard for the glitter-horned unicorn just to make a point—that we see things differently.
For more than two years, our involvement in various customer meetings, forums, consortia, and SDOs discussing the topic, as well as our work with many of the startups, converts, and early adopters in the SDN space, leads us to believe that something worth noting is going on under the waterline. This is where much of the real work is going on to push the SDN effort forward toward a goal of what we think is optimal operational efficiency and flexibility for networks and applications that utilize those networks.
There is real evidence that SDN has finally started a new dialogue about network programmability, control models, the modernization of application interfaces to the network, and true openness around these things.
In that light, SDN is not constrained to a single network domain such as the data center—although it is true that the tidal wave of manageable network endpoints hatched via virtualization is a prime mover of SDN at present. SDN is also not constrained to a single customer type (e.g., research/education), a single application (e.g., data center orchestration), or even a single protocol/architecture (e.g., OpenFlow). Nor is SDN constrained to a single architectural model (e.g., the canonical model of a centralized controller and a group of droid switches). We hope you see that in this book.
At the time of writing of the first edition of this book, both Thomas Nadeau and Ken Gray work at Juniper Networks in the Platform Systems Division Chief Technologist’s Office. We both also have extensive experience that spans roles both with other vendors, such as Cisco Systems, and service providers, such as BT and Bell Atlantic (now Verizon). We have tried our best to be inclusive of everyone that is relevant in the SDN space without being encyclopedic on the topic still providing enough breadth of material to cover the space. In some cases, we have relied on references or examples that came from our experiences with our most recent employer (Juniper Networks) in the text, only because they are either part of a larger survey or because alternative examples on the topic are net yet freely available for us to divulge. We hope the reader finds any bias to be accidental and not distracting or overwhelming. If this can be corrected or enhanced in a subsequent revision, we will do so. We both agree that there are likely to be many updates to this text going forward, given how young SDN still is and how rapidly it continues to evolve.
Finally, we hope the reader finds the depth and breadth of information presented herein to be interesting and informative, while at the same time evocative. We give our opinions about topics, but only after presenting the material and its pros and cons in as unbiased a manner as possible.
We do hope you find unicorns, fairy dust, and especially lots of paddling feet in this book.
SDN is a new approach to the current world of networking, but it is still networking. As you get into this book, we’re assuming a certain level of networking knowledge. You don’t have to be an engineer, but knowing how networking principles work—and frankly, don’t work—will aid your comprehension of the text.
You should be familiar with the following terms/concepts:
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines seven different layers of technology: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application. This model allows network engineers and network vendors to easily discuss and apply technology to a specific OSI level. This segmentation lets engineers divide the overall problem of getting one application to talk to another into discrete parts and more manageable sections. Each level has certain attributes that describe it and each level interacts with its neighboring levels in a very well-defined manner. Knowledge of the layers above layer 7 is not mandatory, but understanding that interoperability is not always about electrons and photons will help.
These devices operate at layer 2 of the OSI model and use logical local addressing to move frames across a network. Devices in this category include Ethernet in all its variations, VLANs, aggregates, and redundancies.
Hosts using IP to communicate with each other use 32-bit addresses. Humans often use a dotted decimal format to represent this address. This address notation includes a network portion and a host portion, which is normally displayed as 192.168.1.1/24.
These layer 4 protocols define methods for communicating between hosts. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides for connection-oriented communications, whereas the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses a connectionless paradigm. Other benefits of using TCP include flow control, windowing/buffering, and explicit acknowledgments.
Network engineers use this protocol to troubleshoot and operate a network, as it is the core protocol used (on some platforms) by the ping and traceroute programs. In addition, the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is used to signal error and other messages between hosts in an IP-based network.
A facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning and fire suppression), and security devices. Large data centers are industrial-scale operations that use as much electricity as a small town.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies.
An interface that conceptualizes the lower-level details (e.g., data or functions) used by, or in, the component. It is used to interface with higher-level layers using the southbound interface of the higher-level component(s). In architectural overview, the northbound interface is normally drawn at the top of the component it is defined in, hence the name northbound interface. Examples of a northbound interface are JSON or Thrift.
An interface that conceptualizes the opposite of a northbound interface. The southbound interface is normally drawn at the bottom of an architectural diagram. Examples of southbound interfaces include I2RS, NETCONF, or a command-line interface.
The arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, interfaces, hosts, etc.) of a computer network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology refers to the placement of the network’s various components, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical.
A specification of how some software components should interact with each other. In practice, an API is usually a library that includes specification for variables, routines, object classes, and data structures. An API specification can take many forms, including an international standard (e.g., POSIX), vendor documentation (e.g., the JunOS SDK), or the libraries of a programming language.
This chapter introduces and frames the conversation this book engages in around the concepts of SDN, where they came from, and why they are important to discuss.
SDN is often framed as a decision between a distributed/consensus or centralized network control-plane model for future network architectures. In this chapter, we visit the fundamentals of distributed and central control, how the data plane is generated in both, past history with both models, some assumed functionality in the present distributed/consensus model that we may expect to translate into any substitute, and the merits of these models.
OpenFlow has been marketed either as equivalent to SDN (i.e., OpenFlow is SDN) or a critical component of SDN, depending on the whim of the marketing of the Open Networking Foundation. It can certainly be credited with sparking the discussion of the centralized control model. In this chapter, we visit the current state of the OpenFlow model.
For some, the discussion of SDN technology is all about the management of network state, and that is the role of the SDN controller. In this chapter, we survey the controllers available (both open source and commercial), their structure and capabilities, and then compare them to an idealized model (that is developed in Chapter 9).
This chapter introduces network programmability as one of the key tenets of SDN. It first describes the problem of the network divide that essentially boils down to older management interfaces and paradigms keeping applications at arm’s length from the network. In the chapter, we show why this is a bad thing and how it can be rectified using modern programmatic interfaces. This chapter firmly sets the tone for what concrete changes are happening in the real world of applications and network devices that are following the SDN paradigm shift.
This chapter introduces the reader to the notion of the modern data center through an initial exploration of the historical evolution of the desktop-centric world of the late 1990s to the highly distributed world we live in today, in which applications—as well as the actual pieces that make up applications—are distributed across multiple data centers. Multitenancy is introduced as a key driver for virtualization in the data center, as well as other techniques around virtualization. Finally, we explain why these things form some of the keys to the SDN approach and why they are driving much of the SDN movement.
In this chapter, we build on some of the SDN concepts that were introduced earlier, such as programmability, controllers, virtualization, and data center concepts. The chapter explores one of the cutting-edge areas for SDN, which takes key concepts and components and puts them together in such a way that not only allows one to virtualize services, but also to connect those instances together in new and interesting ways.
This chapter introduces the reader to the notion of network topology, not only as it exists today but also how it has evolved over time. We discuss why network topology—its discovery, ongoing maintenance, as well as an application’s interaction with it—is critical to many of the SDN concepts, including NFV. We discuss a number of ways in which this nut has been partially cracked and how more recently, the IETF’s I2RS effort may have finally cracked it for good.
This chapter describes an idealized SDN framework for SDN controllers, applications, and ecosystems. This concept is quite important in that it forms the architectural basis for all of the SDN controller offerings available today and also shows a glimpse of where they can or are going in terms of their evolution. In the chapter, we present the various incarnations and evolutions of such a framework over time and ultimately land on the one that now forms the Open Daylight Consortium’s approach. This approach to an idealized framework is the best that we reckon exists today both because it is technically sound and pragmatic, and also because it very closely resembles the one that we embarked on ourselves after quite a lot of trial and error.
This chapter presents the reader with a number of use cases that fall under the areas of bandwidth scheduling, manipulation, and bandwidth calendaring. We demonstrate use cases that we have actually constructed in the lab as proof-of-concept trials, as well as those that others have instrumented in their own lab environments. These proof-of-concept approaches have funneled their way into some production applications, so while they may be toy examples, they do have real-world applicability.
This chapter shows some use cases that fall under the areas of data centers. Specifically, we show some interesting use cases around data center overlays, and network function virtualization. We also show how big data can play a role in driving some SDN concepts.
This chapter presents the reader with some use cases in the input traffic/triggered actions category. These uses cases concern themselves with the general action of receiving some traffic at the edge of the network and then taking some action. The action might be preprogrammed via a centralized controller, or a device might need to ask a controller what to do once certain traffic is encountered. Here we present two use cases to demonstrate these concepts. First, we show how we built a proof of concept that effectively replaced the Network Access Control (NAC) protocol and its moving parts with an OpenFlow controller and some real routers. This solved a real problem at a large enterprise that could not have been easily solved otherwise. We also show a case of how a virtual firewall can be used to detect and trigger certain actions based on controller interaction.
This chapter brings the book into the present tense—re-emphasizing some of our fundamental opinions on the current state of SDN (as of this writing) and providing a few final observations on the topic.
The following typographical conventions are used in this book:
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I would like to first thank my wonderful wife, Katie, and two sons, Thomas Peter and Henry Clifford. I can’t imagine being happy without you guys. Life is a journey, and I am glad you guys are walking the road with me. I would also like to thank my parents, Clement and Janina. Without your support and encouragement, I would likely have never made it as an engineer—or at least without Dad’s instruction at a young age, I wouldn’t be so adept at soldering now. Thank you to my many colleagues present and past who pushed me to stretch my imagination in the area of SDN. These folks include but are not limited to David Ward, Dave Meyer, Jan Medved, Jim Guichard, Ping Pan, Alia Atlas, Michael Beesley, Benson Scliesser, Chris Liljenstolpe, Dan Backman, Nils Swart, and Michael Bushong. Also, I will never forget how George Swallow took me on as his young Padawan and gave me the Jedi training that helped me be where I am today. Without that, I would likely not have achieved the accomplishments I have in the networking industry. There are many others from my journey at Cisco, CA, and my current employer, Juniper Networks, who are too numerous to mention. I would like to thank the larger SDN community, including those at Stanford, who were truly on to something in the early days of this work, and my colleagues at the IETF, ONF, and Open Daylight Project. Thank you to Meghan Blanchette and the rest of the staff at O’Reilly. And, of course, Patrick Ames, our editor who held the course when we strayed and helped us express the best, most articulate message we could convey.
Last, but surely not least, I would like to give my heartfelt thanks to Ken Gray, my coauthor on this book. Without you grabbing the other oar of this boat, I am not sure I would have been able to row it myself to the end. Your contributions truly enhanced this book beyond anything I would have imagined myself.
I would like to thank my amazing wife, Leslie. You patiently supported me through this project and all that went with it and provided much needed balance and sanity.
For my children, Lilly and Zane, I hope my daring to write this first book may provide inspiration for you to start your own great work (whatever it may be).
The space here can’t contain the list of customers, colleagues, and friends whose conversations over the last two years have shaped my views on this topic.
It’s no coincidence that my acknowledgments list of colleagues, standards bodies, and (of course) those who assisted in this publication would look exactly like that of my coauthor. I would particularly like to reiterate the thanks to my past Juniper Networks colleagues (many now with SDN startups) who got started in SDN with both of us over two years ago, when the word that described SDN theorists and strategists was not “visionary,” and who helped shape my views. And, if another redundancy can be spared, I’d extend a special thanks to a present Juniper colleague, Benson Scliesser, for the same reasons.
I’d finally like to give great thanks to my coauthor, Thomas Nadeau. We share a common view on this topic that we developed from two different but complementary perspectives. Putting those two views together, first in our numerous public engagements over the past year and finally in print, has been a great experience for me, has helped me personally refine the way I talk about SDN, and hopefully has resulted in a great book.
 The real answer is that one of the authors has a fondness for ducks, as he raises Muscovy Ducks on his family farm.
 Yes, we have had centralized control models in the past!