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Scenic Automation Handbook

Book Description

Scenic automation has earned a reputation of being complicated and cantankerous, a craft best left to the elite of our industry. Not sure of the difference between a VFD, PLC, or PID? If you have dreamed of choreographing scene changes with computerized machinery, but get lost in the technical jargon the Scenic Automation Handbook will guide you along the road to elegant automation.

Adopting a pragmatic approach, this book breaks down any automation system into five points, known as the Pentagon of Power. Breaking down a dauntingly complex system into bite- size pieces makes it easy to understand how components function, connect, and communicate to form a complete system.

Presenting the fundamental behaviors and functions of Machinery, Feedback Sensors, Amplifiers, Controls, and Operator Interfaces, the Scenic Automation Handbook demystifies automation, reinforcing each concept with practical examples that can be used for experimentation. Automation is accessible – come along and learn how!

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1 Moving Stuff on Stage
    1. Manual vs. Mechanization vs. Automation
      1. Manual: Elbow Grease
      2. Mechanization: Stick a Motor on It
      3. Automation: Computers and Motors – Two Great Tastes that Go Great Together
    2. Advantages of Automation
    3. Disadvantages of Automation
    4. Thinking Top-Down, Designing Bottom-Up
    5. Jump In – This Stuff Is Fun!
  8. Chapter 2 Pentagon of Power: Breaking Up Automation into Five Parts
    1. Operator Interface
    2. Control Circuit
    3. Amplifier
    4. Machine
    5. Feedback Sensor
    6. Using the Pentagon of Power as a Map
      1. Pushbutton Turntable
        1. Operator Interface
        2. Control Circuit
        3. Amplifier
        4. Machine
        5. Feedback Sensor
      2. PLC-Controlled Trap Door and Scenery Lift
        1. Operator Interface
        2. Control Circuit
        3. Amplifier
        4. Machine
        5. Feedback Sensor
      3. Computer-Controlled Deck Tracks
        1. Operator Interface
        2. Control Circuit
        3. Amplifier
        4. Machine
        5. Feedback Sensor
    7. Summary
  9. Chapter 3 Welcome to the Machine(s): A Survey of Common Theatrical Machines
    1. A Mechanical Primer
      1. Acceleration
      2. Force
      3. Power
      4. Torque
    2. Common Components
      1. Speed Reducer
      2. Shafts
      3. Bearings
      4. Couplings
      5. Brakes
    3. Winches
      1. Drum
      2. Motor, Brake, and Speed Reducer
      3. Encoder and Limit Switches
      4. Tensioner
      5. Zero Fleet Winches
      6. Deck Dogs and Knives
    4. Turntables
      1. Deck Construction
      2. Pivot
        1. Shaft and Sleeve
        2. Flanged Blocks
        3. Slewing Ring
      3. Drive Mechanism
        1. Center Drive
        2. Edge Drive
    5. Hoists
    6. Lifts
      1. Scissor Lifts
      2. Four-Post Lift
    7. Roll Drops
    8. Turtles
    9. Wrap Up
  10. Chapter 4 Motivating a Machine
    1. Electric Motors
      1. Speed Control
      2. Torque
      3. Noise
      4. Flexible Mounting
      5. Electrical Requirements
      6. Price
      7. A Little Electrical Background
        1. AC vs. DC
        2. AC Single-Phase 120
        3. AC Single-Phase 220
        4. AC Three-Phase 208/230
        5. Electrical Service
      8. AC Induction
        1. Speed Control
        2. Torque
        3. Noise
        4. Flexible Mounting
        5. Price
        6. Reading the Nameplate
      9. DC Permanent Magnet
        1. Speed Control
        2. Torque
        3. Noise
        4. Flexible Mounting
        5. Price
        6. Reading the Nameplate
      10. DC Brushless Servo
        1. Speed Control
        2. Torque
        3. Noise
        4. Flexible Mounting
        5. Price
      11. Stepper
        1. Speed Control
        2. Torque
        3. Noise
        4. Flexible Mounting
        5. Price
      12. NEMA C-Face
    2. Hydraulics
      1. Controlling Pressure and Flow
      2. Bang-Bang Effects (Fixed Speed)
      3. Variable Speed Pumps
      4. Electrically Controlled Valves
    3. Pneumatics
    4. Summary
  11. Chapter 5 Powering Motors and Actuators
    1. Four-Quadrant Control
      1. Quadrant 1: Positive TORQUE, Positive VELOCITY
      2. Quadrant 2: POSITIVE TORQUE, NEGATIVE VELOCITY
      3. Quadrant 3: Negative TORQUE, Negative VELOCITY
      4. Quadrant 4: NEGATIVE TORQUE, POSITIVE VELOCITY
    2. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
      1. Volts/Frequency or Volts/Hertz
      2. Open-Loop Vector
      3. Closed-Loop Vector
      4. VFD Features and Settings
        1. Motor Parameters
        2. Dynamic Braking Resistor
        3. Mechanical Brake Control
        4. Control
        5. General I/O
      5. Tips
        1. Cable Lengths and Line/Load Reactors
        2. Multiple Motors, One Drive
        3. Keypad
      6. Common Brands
    3. DC Regen Drives
      1. Common Brands
    4. Brushless Servo Drives
    5. Stepper Drives
      1. Common Brands
    6. Variable-Speed Hydraulic Pumps
    7. Proportional Valve Drives
      1. Common Brands
  12. Chapter 6 Sensing and Measuring Motion
    1. Limit Switches
      1. Failsafe Operation
      2. Limit Switch as an Interlock
      3. Limit Strikers and Mounts
      4. Anatomy and Specs
    2. Proximity Sensors
    3. Incremental Encoders
      1. Rotary
      2. Linear
    4. Absolute Encoders
      1. Analog Signals
      2. Digital Signals
  13. Chapter 7 Simple Control
    1. Switches
      1. Common Brands
    2. Potentiometers
      1. Common Sources
    3. Relays
    4. Putting It All Together
      1. Requirements
      2. Pentagon Dissection
        1. Operator Interface
        2. Control
        3. Amplifier
        4. Machine
        5. Feedback
      3. Component Selection
        1. VFD
        2. Buttons
        3. Pot
        4. Indicator Lights
        5. Brake Contactor
        6. Limit Switches
        7. Emergency Stop Relay
        8. Power Supply
        9. Terminal Blocks
        10. Fuses
      4. Setting Up the VFD Parameters
      5. Pre-packaged Options
        1. Deck ChiefTM
    5. Summary
  14. Chapter 8 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)
    1. What Is a PLC?
    2. Advantages of PLCs
    3. Types and Sizes of PLCs
    4. Programming the Programmable Logic Controller
    5. Disclaimer
    6. Climbing the Ladder
    7. Scanning
      1. Counters and Timers
      2. Human/Machine Interface (HMI)
      3. Finishing the Program
      4. Specialty Modules
      5. A Note about Safety
      6. Final Thoughts about PLCs
  15. Chapter 9 Motion Control with a PID Loop
    1. Encoders
    2. What Is PID?
      1. Mapping Motion
        1. Acceleration Ramp
        2. Constant Speed
        3. Deceleration Ramp
        4. Acceleration Ramp
        5. Constant Speed
        6. Deceleration Ramp
      2. On–Off Control
      3. Proportional Control
      4. Integral Term in PID
      5. Derivative Term in PID
      6. PID Summary
    3. Examples of PID Controllers
      1. Stagehand Mini2TM
      2. Beckhoff PC
      3. PLCs
      4. VFD and Servo Amplifiers
      5. Standalone Motion Controllers
    4. Detecting Encoder Failures and Obstructions
    5. Command Signal Formats
      1. Analog Signals
        1. +/-10 VDC
        2. 0–10 VDC, 0–5 VDC + Direction
        3. 0–20 mA, 4–20 mA + Direction
      2. Digital Signals
        1. Step and Direction
        2. CANopen
        3. Modbus
        4. Profibus
        5. EtherCAT
    6. Putting It All Together
      1. Pentagon of Power Components
        1. Amplifier
        2. Control
        3. Feedback Sensors
      2. Wiring and Connections
      3. VFD Parameters
    7. PID Tuning Tips
  16. Chapter 10 Safety
    1. Risk Assessment
      1. Identify Limits of the Machinery
      2. Identify Tasks and Hazards
      3. Risk Estimation
      4. Risk Reduction
      5. Documentation
    2. Figure 10.2 Risk analysis templateSafety Standards
      1. Machinery Directive
      2. IEC 61508
        1. Safety Integrity Level – SIL
      3. EN 62061
      4. EN ISO 13849-1
        1. Performance Levels (PL)
        2. Severity of injury
        3. Frequency and/or exposure time to the hazard
        4. Possibility of avoiding the hazard of limiting the harm
      5. BGV
        1. D8
        2. D8+
        3. C1
    3. ESTA Technical Standards Program
      1. ANSI E1.6-1 – 2012 Entertainment Technology – Powered Hoist Systems
    4. ANSI E1.43: 2016 Entertainment Technology – Performer Flying Systems
    5. ANSI E1.42: 2016 Entertainment Technology – Design, Installation, and Use of Orchestra Pit Lifts
    6. Failsafe Concept
      1. End-of-Travel Limit Switches
      2. Hard Limits vs. Ultimate Limits
      3. Spring-set Brakes
      4. Emergency Stop
    7. Redundancy
    8. Emergency Stop
      1. Stop All Motion
      2. Stop Categories
      3. Reset Does Not Resume Motion
      4. Failsafe Components and Circuits
      5. Integrated Safety Functions
        1. STO: Safe Torque Off
        2. SS1: Safe Stop 1
        3. SS2: Safe Stop 2
        4. SOS: Safe Operating Stop
        5. SBC: Safe Brake Control
        6. SBT: Safe Brake Test
        7. SLS: Safely Limited Speed
        8. SSM: Safe Speed Monitor
        9. SDI: Safe Direction
        10. SLP: Safely Limited Position
    9. Safety Sensors
    10. Interlock to Avoid Danger
    11. Wrap Up
  17. Chapter 11 Operator Interface
    1. Configuration
      1. Network
      2. Position Scaling
      3. Soft Limits
      4. Tuning
    2. Status Information
    3. Jogging
    4. Recording Cues
    5. Executing Cues
    6. Aborting Cues
    7. Logging
    8. Commercial Systems
      1. SpikemarkTM
      2. Navigator
    9. eChameleon
      1. Raynok
      2. Stage Commander
      3. Hudson Motion Control
      4. SMI
    10. Options for Rolling Your Own
    11. PLC HMI
    12. Windows, Mac OS, or Linux Application
    13. Common Cueing Challenges and Solutions
      1. Coordinated Motion vs. Synchronized Motion
      2. Time-Based Cues
      3. Staggered Start, Simultaneous Finish
      4. Multiple Cue Playback
      5. Avoiding Collisions
      6. Pre-visualization
    14. Wrap Up
  18. Chapter 12 Networks
    1. Bits and Bytes
    2. Networks in General
    3. Serial Communication
    4. RS485
    5. Ethernet
      1. TCP/IP
      2. UDP
    6. Industrial Network Protocols
      1. Modbus/Modbus-TCP
      2. CAN/CANopen
      3. PROFIBUS/PROFINET
    7. EtherCAT
    8. Proprietary Application Protocols
    9. Tower of Babel
    10. Final Thoughts on Networks
  19. Chapter 13 Integrating with Other Systems
    1. DMX
    2. SMPTE Timecode
    3. Art-Net
    4. sACN
    5. OSC
    6. PosiStageNet
    7. Custom UDP Protocols
  20. Chapter 14 Implementation
    1. Qualified vs. Competent
    2. NEC and UL508A Standards
    3. Diagrams and Schematics
    4. Wire and Cable
      1. Wire
        1. Adapted from NFP 70 – 2015 Industrial Machinery Safety
        2. Adapted from NFP-70 National Electric Code. Ambient Temperature of 86 °F
    5. Plugs and Connectors
      1. NEMA Connectors
        1. Midget NEMA Devices
        2. NEMA 3-Position Devices
        3. NEMA 4-Position Devices
        4. NEMA 5-Position Devices
        5. NEMA Non-Grounded Devices
      2. Industrial Rectangular Connectors
      3. Circular Connectors
      4. XLR Connectors
      5. D-Sub Connectors
    6. Grounding and Fusing
      1. Grounding
      2. Circuit Protection: Fuses and Circuit Breakers
        1. Adapted from Fuseology: Cooper Bussmann Branch Circuit, Power Distribution Fuses
        2. Adapted from Mitsubishi D700 Installation Manual
    7. Panel Fabrication and Wiring
      1. Wire Terminals
      2. Soldering
      3. Enclosures
        1. Adapted from UL508a
        2. Adapted from UL508a
      4. DIN Rail
      5. Wire Duct
    8. Tools of the Trade
    9. Wrap Up
  21. Chapter 15 Resources for Learning More
    1. Machinery
    2. Amplifiers
    3. Feedback Sensors
    4. Controls
    5. Safety
    6. Operator Interface
    7. Control Networks
    8. Integration Networks
    9. Implementation
    10. Good Luck!
  22. Notes
  23. Index