You are previewing Scenic Art for the Theatre, 2nd Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Scenic Art for the Theatre, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Written with both the student and the professional in mind, this book marries practice and theory seamlessly, covering both historical and modern scenic art as well as relating helpful hints and practical techniques for everyday use by anyone in the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. PART One The Professional Scenic Artist
    1. 1. Training and Working as a Scenic Artist
      1. Training to be a Scenic Artist
        1. What a Scenic Artist Should Know
        2. That Special Something that Makes You a Scenic Artist
        3. Formal Training for Scenic Artists
          1. University Programs
          2. Specialized Schools or Programs
          3. Apprenticeships and On-the-Job Training
      2. Working as a Scenic Artist
        1. Labor Unions
          1. United Scenic Artists
          2. The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees
        2. Employment Options
          1. Freelance Work in a Major Market
          2. Freelance Work Outside of Major Markets
          3. Working at a Staff Position at a Scenic Studio or Theatre
        3. Contracting and Self-Employment Business Skills
          1. Studio Ownership
          2. Working in the Film Industry
          3. Working in the Television Industry
          4. Freelance Work Outside of Theatre and Film
      3. Interview with Rachel Keebler, Cofounder and Head of Cobalt Studios
    2. 2. The Relationship Between the Scenic Artist and the Scenic Designer
      1. Collaboration Between the Scenic Artist and the Scenic Designer
        1. The Scenic Artist Working with the Scenic Designer
        2. Information from the Scenic Designer to the Scenic Artist
          1. Draftings and White Models
          2. Paint Elevations and Models
          3. Samples
          4. References and Research
      2. Preparing to Paint from the Elevation
        1. Studying and Preparing the Paint Elevations
          1. Light and the Paint Elevation
        2. Reading a Paint Elevation
        3. Talking with the Scenic Designer
      3. Interpreting The Scenic Designer’S Work
        1. Checking Elevations and Draftings with the Scenery
        2. Enlarging the Design to Full Scale
          1. Scale
          2. Technique
          3. Character
        3. Making Samples
        4. Using the Scenic Designer’s Research
          1. When Research Takes the Place of an Elevation
          2. Copying Works of Art
        5. Understanding the Limitations of a Paint Elevation
      4. Working with The Scenic Designer in the Shop and on Stage
        1. Communicating with the Scenic Designer During the Painting Process
          1. Finishing Work on Stage
          2. Planning and Doing the Touch-Up
          3. Changes in the Theatre
      5. Extraordinary Challenges for the Scenic Artist
        1. Late Design and Lack of Design Information
        2. Tinkering
        3. Replacement of a Scenic Designer
      6. Conclusion
      7. Interview with Joseph Forbes, President of Scenic Art Studios
    3. 3. The Scenic Artist and the Scenic Studio
      1. Types of Scenic Studios
      2. The Staff in a Scenic Studio
        1. The Scenic Designer
        2. The Production Manager and the Technical Director
        3. Production Shop Heads
          1. Paint, Props, and Scenery: A Team of Three Departments
        4. The Paint Department Staff
          1. The Charge Painter or Charge Person
          2. The Lead Painter
          3. The Assistant Scenic Painter or Journey Person
          4. Shop Assistants or Industrials
          5. Apprentices or Interns
      3. Paint Department Management
        1. Planning Scenic Painting
        2. Costing Out a Design
        3. Preproduction Planning
        4. Preparing Paint and Tool Stock
          1. Materials Estimation
          2. Preparing Materials Before Painting Begins
        5. Creating the Production Book
        6. Balancing Time, Space, and Labor
        7. Project Planning for the Independent Contractor
        8. Scheduling the Order of Painting with the Technical Director
        9. Setting the Production Schedule
          1. Special Construction Requirements for the Scenic Artist
      4. Putting A Production Together: Artistic Management and Organization
        1. Conveying Stylistic Information to the Paint Crew
        2. Managing Artistic Personnel
        3. Working with Other Painters
        4. Working with Other Production Departments
          1. The Costume Shop
          2. The Properties Shop
      5. Conclusion
      6. An Interview with Jane Snow, Scenic Charge Painter At Scenic Art Studios
    4. 4. The Scenic Artist’s Working Space
      1. The Painting Space
        1. The Layout of the Scenic Studio
      2. The Scenic Painting Area
        1. Managing the Paint Space
        2. Shop Configuration and Painting Techniques
          1. The Eastern or Vertical Style
          2. The Continental Style or Painting Down
          3. How These Styles Developed
          4. Working in the Eastern Style
          5. Working in the Continental Style
        3. Lighting and Utilities in the Scenic Painting Area
          1. The Effects of Color Temperature
          2. Light Intensity
          3. Compressed Air
          4. Fans
        4. Other Work Areas in the Paint Shop
          1. The Layout and Pounce Area
          2. The Office
          3. The Break Area
      3. The Scenic Artist’s Preparation Area
        1. Paint Mixing
          1. Water and the Sink Area
        2. Paint Storage
        3. Storage of Brushes and Other Tools
        4. Storage of Flammable Products
      4. The Touch-Up Kit
      5. Safety and Health Regulations
        1. Hazard Communication Laws
        2. Respiratory Protection
        3. Protective Equipment
        4. Fall Protection
        5. Studio Building Hazards
          1. Fire Safety
          2. Emergency Exits and Escape Routes
          3. Changes in Elevation
          4. Electrical Safety
          5. Ventilation
          6. Bathroom Facilities
          7. Drinking Water
          8. Lead Paint
          9. Asbestos
          10. Garbage and Toxic Chemicals
      6. Conclusion
      7. An Interview with Nancy Orr, Charge Painter of Showman Fabricators
  10. PART Two The Tools of the Trade
    1. 5. The Painting Tools of Scenic Artistry
      1. Brushes
        1. The Anatomy of a Brush
          1. Brush Handles
          2. The Ferrule
          3. Paintbrush Bristles
          4. Brush Construction
          5. Procuring Brushes
        2. Maintenance of Brushes
          1. Repairing Brushes
        3. Types of Brushes
          1. The Names of Paintbrushes
          2. Common Brushes
        4. Lay-in Brushes, Dutch, and Priming Brushes
          1. Scenic Brushes
          2. Oval-Ferrule Brushes
          3. Round-Ferrule Brushes or Ring Liners
          4. Stippling Brushes
          5. Lettering Brushes
          6. Other Specialized Brushes
          7. Other Useful Brushes
        5. Where to Buy Brushes
      2. Brooms, Extensions, Rollers, and Other Painting Accessories
        1. Brooms
          1. Extensions
        2. Edgers
        3. Rollers
      3. Other Tools and Accessories for The Scenic Artist
        1. Stencils and Stamps
          1. Paint Stamps
      4. Texture Tools
        1. Sponges
        2. Rags
        3. Floggers
        4. Feathers
        5. Offbeat Tools
      5. Sprayers
        1. Garden and Pump Sprayers
        2. Aerosol Sprayers
        3. Pneumatic Sprayers
        4. High-Volume, Low-Pressure Sprayers
        5. Airbrushes
        6. Pressure Pot Sprayers
        7. Airless Sprayers
        8. Pattern Pistols and Hopper Guns
      6. Conclusion
      7. An Interview with Mary Heilman, Scenic Artist and Teacher
    2. 6. Color and Paint
      1. Color Physics and Theory
        1. The Color Wheel and Color Model
        2. The Terminology of Color
          1. Terms that Define Color Interaction
      2. The Practice of Color Mixing
      3. The Scenic Art Palette
        1. The Elements of Paint
          1. Pigment
          2. The Vehicle
          3. The Binder
      4. Types of Scenic Paint
        1. Dry Pigment
          1. Binders for Dry Pigments and Powdered Paints
        2. Modern Scenic Paint
          1. Paint Systems and Palettes
        3. Water-Based Scenic Paint
          1. Casein Paint
          2. Latex Paint
          3. Acrylic Paint
          4. Vinyl Paint
          5. Polymers
          6. Paint Compatibility
        4. Sources for Modern Scenic Paints
        5. Black and White Paint
        6. Colorants and Universal Tinting Colors
      5. Dyes
        1. Aniline Dyes
          1. Hazards of Aniline Dye
          2. Working with Aniline Dyes
          3. Thickeners for Dyes
      6. Other Paints, Finishes, and Binders
        1. Water-Based Finishes
          1. Acrylic
          2. Latex
          3. Polyvinyl Acrylic
          4. Urethane
          5. Epoxy
        2. Solvent-Based Finishes
          1. Varnish
          2. Shellac
          3. Oils
          4. Lacquers
          5. Epoxy
        3. Solvent-Based Paints
          1. Alkyds
          2. Urethanes
          3. Lacquers
          4. Shellac
        4. Stains
          1. Solvent-Based Penetration Stains
          2. Oil-Based Stains
          3. Water-Based Stains
      7. Conclusion
      8. An Interview with Douglas Lebrecht, Head of The Scenic Department of The Metropolitan Opera House, New York City
    3. 7. Preparing for Painting and Texturing Scenery
      1. Working with Soft Goods
        1. Soft Goods Construction
          1. Standard Backdrop and Portal Construction
          2. Muslin
          3. Making a Drop
          4. Seamless Drops
          5. Scrim Construction
          6. Floorcloth Construction
        2. Working with Cut Drops and Netting
          1. Using Netting to Reinforce a Cut Drop
          2. Netting a Drop
      2. The Role of Flame Retardants with Soft Goods
        1. Flame Retardants
        2. Pretreated Flame-Retardant Fabrics
      3. Stretching and Priming Soft Goods
        1. Mounting Soft Goods for Sizing and Priming
          1. Working on a Deck
          2. Working on a Paint Frame
        2. Sizing and Priming Soft Goods
          1. Floating Soft Goods on a Deck
          2. Sizes and Primers
          3. Applying Size or Primer
          4. Problem Solving
          5. Sizing Translucent Drops
          6. Priming Scrims
          7. Priming Groundcloths
          8. Preparing China Silk
          9. Monk’s Cloth
      4. Preparing Hard Scenery
        1. Working with Flattage
          1. Preparing Hard-Covered Flats
          2. Preparing Soft-Covered Flats
          3. Dutchmen
          4. Preparing Floor Coverings
        2. Priming Wood
      5. Preparing and Priming other Scenic Materials
        1. Preparing Noncellulosic Materials
          1. Plaster
          2. Priming and Sealing Metals
          3. Preparing Plastics and Foam Plastics
        2. Fabric Skins, Sculpture Coatings, and Other Preparations
          1. Smooth Sculpture Coatings
          2. Foam-Coating Materials
          3. Roof Patching
          4. Two-Part Resins
      6. The Tools and Materials of Texturing
        1. Texture Tools
        2. Texture Mediums
          1. Line Thickener
          2. Drywall Treatments
          3. Polymer Glues and Theatrical Coatings
          4. Contact Cement
          5. Rubber Latex
          6. Tile Adhesive
        3. Texturing Additives
          1. Clay
          2. Sand
          3. Perlite
          4. Vermiculite
          5. Cocoa Mulch
        4. Paper and Fabric Textures
          1. Cellulose
          2. Fabric
          3. Binders
        5. Texture Stencils
      7. Conclusion
      8. Interview with Kat Sharp, Professional Scenic Artist
  11. PART Three The Techniques of Scenic Painting
    1. 8. Cartooning, Layout, and Lettering
      1. The Tools of Cartooning
        1. Measuring Tools
          1. Scale Rule
          2. Tape Measures
          3. Rulers and Square
        2. Drawing Tools for Cartooning
          1. Vine Charcoal
          2. Chalk
          3. Charcoal Holders
          4. Floggers and Air Nozzles
          5. Ink Markers
          6. Dye
          7. Graphite
          8. Fixative
        3. Mechanical Drawing Tools
          1. Snap Lines
          2. Lining Sticks and Straight Edges
          3. Splines
          4. Compasses
          5. String
          6. Trammel Points and Bar Compasses
          7. Triangles and Templates
      2. Transferring A Cartoon or Repeating Pattern
        1. Using a Pounce
        2. The Transfer Screen
        3. Templates, Stencils, and Stamps
      3. Preparing Scenery for Cartooning
        1. Preparing the Design Information
          1. Paint Elevations
          2. The Scenic Model
        2. Preparing Hard Scenery for Cartooning
        3. Preparing Soft Goods for Cartooning
          1. Two Methods for Finding a Perpendicular Line
          2. Measuring the Drop
      4. Drawing the Cartoon
        1. Architectural Layout
        2. Using a Grid for Cartooning
        3. Perspective
          1. Atmospheric Perspective
          2. Linear Perspective
          3. The Principles of Linear Perspective
          4. The Method of Perspective
          5. Perspective for the Stage
          6. The Raked Stage and Traditional Wing and Drop Perspective
          7. Methods of Doing Linear Perspective in the Shop
          8. Perspective Problem Solving
        4. Using Projectors for Cartooning
        5. Using Geometry for Cartooning
          1. Constructing a Perpendicular Line
          2. Drawing Accurate Architectural Shapes
      5. Signs and Lettering
        1. Tools of Sign Painting
          1. Layout Tools
          2. Sign Painting Brushes
        2. Basic Fonts of Lettering
          1. Gothic Fonts
          2. Roman Fonts
          3. Script
        3. Rules and Techniques of Signage Layout
          1. General Layout
          2. Spacing
          3. Margins
          4. Layout on Transparent Surfaces
      6. Conclusion
      7. An Interview with Howard Jones, Resident Scenic Artist at the North Carolina School of the Arts
    2. 9. Two-Dimensional Scenic Painting Techniques
      1. Putting a Production Together: The Painting
        1. Starting the Painting
          1. The Prime Coat
          2. Planning the Painting Process
          3. Details and Hard Scenery
          4. Soft Goods
      2. Base Painting Techniques
        1. Brushed Base Coat Techniques
          1. Base Painting Large Areas without Leaving a Grain
          2. Creating a Grain Pattern in the Base Coat
          3. Cutting a Hard Line in a Base Coat
        2. Base Coating with a Sprayer
        3. Texture Base Painting Techniques
          1. Wet Blending
          2. Scumbling
          3. Base Coat Painting with a Roller
          4. Texturing with a Roller
      3. Overpainting Techniques
        1. Washes and Glazes
        2. Combing (Dry Brushing)
          1. The Tools and Paint for Combing
          2. Combing Techniques
          3. Strié
        3. Dry Brushing
        4. Graining
          1. Graining Techniques and Tools
          2. Wood
          3. Marble
        5. Lining
          1. Lining Brushes
        6. Sponging
          1. Sponge Technique
        7. Rag Rolling
        8. Flogging and Schlepitchka
          1. Tools and Paint of Schlepitchka and Flogging
        9. Spattering
          1. Spattering Technique and Tools
        10. Blocking
        11. Stippling
        12. Garden Sprayers
          1. Garden Spraying Techniques and Tools
        13. Pneumatic Sprayers
          1. Pneumatic Spraying Techniques and Tools
        14. Paint Stamps
          1. Stamp Registration
        15. Stencils and Templates
          1. What Tools to Use with Stencils
          2. Stencil Registration
        16. Templates and Spray Masking
          1. Spray Masking Using Particulates
          2. Spraying Patterns and Masking with Fabric
      4. Trompe L’oeil Painting Technique
        1. The Theory of Practice of Trompe l’Oeil
          1. Color Theory of Trompe l’Oeil
          2. Shade
          3. Lowlight
          4. Highlights
          5. Cut Lines
          6. Cast Shadow
          7. Reflective or Bounce Light
          8. Application Techniques
        2. Finishing and Toning
    3. 10. Creating Aging, Decorative, and Faux Finishes Using Multiple Mediums
      1. The Layering Process: Glazes And Resists
        1. Glazes with Pigment or Dye and Finish Mediums
        2. Finishes
        3. Resists
      2. Creating Faux Finishes
        1. Wood
          1. Wood Graining
        2. Marble
        3. Metal
          1. Gilding
          2. Bronzing Powders
          3. Graphite
        4. Imitating Commercial Decorative Materials
          1. Linoleum Flooring
          2. Plastic Laminates and Ceramic Tile
      3. Painting on Miscellaneous Materials
        1. Substitute Glass and Plexiglas
          1. Using Caulk on Plexiglas for Texture
        2. Metal
        3. Foam Rubber
        4. Carpeting
        5. Upholstery
        6. Dried Plants
      4. Aging Techniques and Mediums
        1. Paint
        2. Peeling and Cracked Paint
          1. Sodium Silicate
          2. Glue Base
          3. Boarding
        3. Wood
          1. Wood Pickling
        4. Wood and Metal Patinas
          1. Oxidizing Patina Mediums
          2. Rust
        5. Distressing
          1. Fabrics
        6. Dirt and Soot
          1. Asphaltum
      5. Wallpaper
        1. Conventional Wallpaper
        2. Raised Pattern Paper
        3. Laminate Papers
  12. PART Four The History of Scenic Art
    1. 11. Ancient Classical Theatre to Medieval Performances: 500 b.c. to 1400 a.d.
      1. Greece: 500 to 250 b.c.
        1. The Greek Theatre Building
          1. Greek Stage Decoration
      2. Rome: 250 b.c. to 550 a.d.
        1. The Roman Theatre and the Scaenae Frons
          1. Roman Stage Decoration
      3. The Middle Ages: 550 to 1400 a.d.
        1. The Remnants of Classical Traditions
          1. Liturgical Drama
          2. Mystery Plays, Cycles, and Pageants
          3. Tournaments and Processionals
      4. An Interview with Michael Hagen, MH Hagen Studio
    2. 12. The Renaissance Theatre and the Baroque Theatre: 1400 to 1800
      1. The 15th and 16th Centuries: the Renaissance
        1. Italy
          1. The Classical Revival and the Rediscovery of Perspective
          2. Early Renaissance Perspective Scenery
          3. Sebastiano Serlio and the First Book on Scenic Design
          4. The Introduction of the Proscenium Frame and Moving Scenery
        2. France
        3. England
          1. English Medieval Theatre Tradition
        4. Conclusion
      2. The 17th and 18th Centuries: The Baroque
        1. Italian Baroque Stage Decoration
          1. The Use of Perspective in Stage Scenery
          2. Italian Stage Decorators
          3. The Bibiena Family
        2. The Role of the Scenic Artist and Scenic Painting Tradition in the Italian Baroque
          1. The Scenic Artist in the Baroque
        3. France
          1. Patronage of the Monarchy
          2. Italian Stage Decorators in France
          3. Jean Berain I and Jean Berain II
          4. Jean-Nicholas Servandoni
        4. England
          1. Inigo Jones
          2. The English Restoration
          3. The English Painting Tradition
          4. Italian Influence in England
          5. Emergence of English Style: Philip de Loutherbourg
    3. 13. The Romantic Theatre and the Modern Theatre: 1800 to the Present
      1. The 19th Century
        1. Technical Innovations of the 19th Century
          1. Lighting and Painting Techniques
        2. Panoramas and Dioramas
          1. Phantasmagoria and Optical Illusion
        3. Scenic Studios and Working Conditions in the 19th Century
      2. England in the 19th Century
        1. The English Romantic Painting Style
        2. The Victorian Style: Romantic Realism and Spectacle
        3. English Scenic Artists and Theatres
          1. Scenic Studios in 19th Century England
      3. France in the 19th Century
        1. French Stage Decorators
        2. French Scene Shops
          1. Charles Cicéri
          2. Charles Cambon and the Mid-19th Century
          3. Auguste Rubé and Phillipe Chaperon
      4. The Scenic Arts in the United States
        1. The Beginning Years
        2. The Freelance American Scenic Artist of the 19th Century
          1. Scenic Artists at Work for Actor-Managers
        3. The Diorama in America
        4. Fraternal Organizations
        5. The American Scenic Studio
          1. Scenic Studios in New York City
          2. Scenic Studios Outside New York City
          3. Armbruster Scenic Studios
        6. The Unionization of Scenic Artists
        7. American Scenic Style
      5. The 20th Century
        1. Technology and Scenic Art
          1. Paint and Painting Tools
          2. Stage Lighting
          3. Xerography and Digital Imaging
        2. The 20th Century Scenic Artist
          1. Scenic Studios
          2. The Scenic Designer
          3. New Forms of Stage Scenery
        3. Scenic Artists and Scenic Designers in America
        4. The Impact of the Film Industry
        5. The Current Scene
      6. Conclusion
  13. Bibliography
  14. Index