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Scanning Negatives and Slides, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Many photographers have either moved into digital photography exclusively or use both analog and digital media in their work. In either case, there is sure to be an archive of slides and negatives that cannot be directly integrated into the new digital workflow, nor can it be archived in a digital format. Increasingly, photographers are trying to bridge this gap with the use of high-performance film scanners.

In this 2nd edition, you will learn how to achieve the best possible digital image from a negative or a slide, and how to build a workflow to make this process efficient, repeatable, and reliable. The author uses Nikon's film scanners, but all steps can easily be accomplished while using a different scanner. The most common software tools for scanning (SilverFast, VueScan, NikonScan) are not only covered extensively in the book, but trial versions are also provided on a DVD, which also contains other useful tools for image editing, as well as numerous sample scans.

Table of Contents

  1. Scanning Negatives and Slides: Digitizing Your Photographic Archive, 2nd Edition
    1. Preface
    2. 1. Introduction
      1. Analog and Digital Workflows
        1. Analog Workflow for Negative Film
        2. Analog Workflow for Slide Film
        3. Hybrid Workflow: Shooting Analog, Scanning, Digital Processing
        4. Digital Workflow: Shooting and Editing
      2. Alternatives to the Film Scanner
        1. Megapixel in Comparison: DSLR, Film Scanner, 35 mm Film
        2. It’s all about the lens
        3. Effective Scan Resolution is Crucial
        4. 6 MP Easily Beats 20 MP
        5. Digital Single Lens Reflex Cameras
        6. Flatbed Scanners with Transparency Adapters
        7. Scanning Prints
        8. Shooting a Projected Slide with a Digital Camera
        9. Duplicating Slides with DSLR and Slide Copy Attachment
        10. Film Processing with Photo CDs
        11. Kodak Picture CDs
        12. Fujicolor CD
        13. Comparison: Photo CDs vs. Manual Scans
        14. Professional Scanning Services
    3. 2. Performance Characteristics of Film Scanners
      1. Key Specifications of a Film Scanner
        1. Nominal Resolution
        2. 2000 dpi is Sufficient in Most Cases
        3. Interpolation is Worthless
        4. PPI, SPI, and DPI: Units of Resolution
          1. PPI = Pixel per Inch
          2. SPI = Samples per Inch
          3. DPI = Dots per Inch
        5. Resolution Swindle Eats Your Storage
        6. USAF-1951 Test Target: Determining the Actual Resolution
        7. Color Depth of Scanner
        8. Color Depth in Image Processing: 8-Bit or 16-Bit?
        9. Density Range
        10. Low vs. High Density: Spot the Difference
        11. Multi Exposure: Enhance Density by Software
        12. Scanning Speed
        13. Implemented Image Corrections
        14. Supported Film Formats and Bulk Scanning
        15. The Expensive Nikon Way
        16. Scanner Light Sources
        17. It’s All in the Lens
      2. Scanhancer
        1. Scanhancer with Black-and-White Negatives
        2. Scanhancer with Color Slides
        3. Dramatic Color Change
        4. Scanhancer with Kodachrome Slides
        5. Scanhancer and Color Calibration
        6. Final Verdict
      3. Interfaces: Connection Between Scanner and Computer
        1. SCSI
        2. USB 1.1 und USB 2.0
        3. High Speed is Way Faster than Full Speed
        4. IEEE-1394b/FireWire
      4. Life After the Purchase
        1. Learning Curve
        2. Which PC is Suitable?
        3. Noise
        4. Customer Support
        5. Firmware Updates
        6. Software Support
      5. Wish List for Future Film Scanners
        1. Scanning Speed
        2. Dust and Scratch Removal for Black-and-White
        3. Depth of Field
        4. Ergonomics
    4. 3. Scanning Film
      1. Handling Film
        1. Curled, Wavy Film
        2. Physically Removing Dust
        3. Inserting Film Correctly
        4. Finding the Emulsion Side
        5. Handling Film Strips
        6. Destroy Originals after Scan?
      2. Film Types
        1. Color Negatives
        2. Color Slides
        3. Kodachrome Slides
        4. Black and White Negatives
        5. The Ideal Film for Scanning
          1. Black and White Negatives?
          2. Color Negatives?
          3. Color Slides!
        6. Slide Mounts: Glass and Glassless
        7. Glass Mounts
        8. Glassless Mounts
    5. 4. File Formats
      1. Digital Negatives
        1. Differences between Digital Cameras and Film Scanners
        2. Conversion from Analog to Digital Through Scanning
        3. Working with Digital Negatives
        4. Conventional Image Editors
        5. Image Processing at RAW Level
      2. Color Depth in Image File Formats
      3. Important Image File Formats in the World of Scanning
        1. JPEG – A compact format...
        2. ... but you lose picture information!
        3. JPEG 2000 – Lossless Compression
        4. TIFF – Lossless Compression
        5. CMYK-TIFF
        6. BMP (Windows) and PICT (Macintosh)
        7. RAW: Proprietary Image File Formats
        8. The Ugly Side of Proprietary Standards
        9. NEF – RAW Files by Nikon
        10. VueScan RAW Files
        11. SilverFast RAW Files
        12. RAW Files in Detail: Nikon’s NEF Format
        13. NEF I: Original NEF
        14. NEF II: NEF Compressed
        15. NEF III: Scanned NEF
        16. NEF IV: Converted NEF
        17. Scanned NEF and Grayscale
      4. The Right Image Size and Resolution
        1. Absolute Resolution, Relative Resolution, and Output Size
        2. Film Scanner Resolution and Maximum Print Size
        3. Sample Calculation in Three Simple Steps
        4. Improve Image Quality by Discarding Pixels
    6. 5. Color Management in Theory and Practice
      1. Why Color Management?
      2. Basics
        1. The Relative Definition of Colors
        2. Gamut
        3. Gamma
        4. Scanning, Viewing, Editing, and Printing
      3. Color Models
        1. Additive Color Model RGB
        2. Subtractive Color Model CMYK
        3. Lab
      4. Color Spaces
        1. Considerations for Selecting a Color Space
        2. sRGB, Adobe RGB, etc.: Color Spaces for Gamma 2.2
        3. Apple RGB, etc.: Color Spaces for Gamma 1.8
        4. Conversion between Color Spaces
      5. ICC Profiles
        1. Purpose of ICC Profiles
        2. Definition of Calibration and Profiling
        3. Input Profiles
        4. Output Profiles
        5. Display Profiles
        6. Color Management in Operating Systems and Application
        7. Download ICC Profiles or DIY?
      6. Monitor Calibration in Practice
        1. Monitor Calibration via Software
        2. Monitor Calibration via Hardware with ColorVision Spyder 2
      7. Generating ICC Scanner Profiles
        1. Scanner Calibration with SilverFast
    7. 6. Scanning Methods
      1. Thumbnail Index – Filmstrip Offset and Presorting
      2. Preview – Corrections Before the Scan
        1. Cropping the Image
        2. Image Corrections Before the Scan
        3. Difference Between Scanning Program and Image Editor
        4. Scan – Create the Image File
        5. Maximum Color Depth for Maximum Quality
        6. Single and Batch Scan
        7. Don’t Frame Your Slides...
      3. Multi-Sampling/Multi-Exposure
    8. 7. Scanning Correction Filters in Detail
      1. Dust and Scratch Removal in Software
        1. SilverFast SRD
        2. SilverFast iSRD
      2. Dust and Scratch Removal in Hardware
        1. Digital ICE
        2. Silver Crystals Block Infrared Detection
        3. ICE and FARE for Kodachrome Slides
        4. ICE and FARE for Black and White Negatives
        5. Infrared Clean – Scratch Removal in VueScan
      3. Restoring Faded Colors
        1. Nikon Scan: Digital ROC™
        2. VueScan: Restore Fading
      4. Grain Equalization
        1. Digital GEM
        2. VueScan Grain Reduction
        3. SilverFast GANE
      5. Highlight and Shadow Recovery
        1. Digital DEE – Correction for Highlights and Shadows
        2. SilverFast AACO – Autoadaptive Contrast Optimization
    9. 8. Configuring the Scanning Software
      1. Image Orientation
        1. Rotating and Mirroring the Image
        2. Cropping
        3. Setting Your Own Focus Point
        4. Filmstrip Offset
      2. Image Properties
        1. Setting Image Size, Position and Resolution
        2. Color Depth
        3. File format
      3. Color Balance
        1. Brightness
        2. Contrast
        3. Color Channels
      4. Unsharp Masking
        1. Amount
        2. Radius
        3. Threshold
      5. Curves
        1. Working with Histograms
        2. Before/After Histogram Button and Auto Contrast
        3. Black Point and White Point
        4. Setting the Gray Point
      6. LCH Editor
        1. Lightness
        2. Chroma
        3. Hue
      7. Analog Gain
        1. Analog Gain vs. Multi Exposure
    10. 9. Nikon Scan
      1. Installation
      2. Look and Feel
        1. Layout of the Scan Window
        2. Control Area
        3. Information Panel
        4. Preview Area
          1. Title Bar
          2. Thumbnail Drawer Tab
        5. Tool Palette 1
        6. Scan Progress
        7. Preview Area
      3. Saving Configurations
        1. The Settings Menu
        2. Store and Delete Settings
        3. Set User Settings
        4. Import and Export Settings
        5. Saving Configurations in Tool Palette 1
          1. Crop
          2. Layout Tools
          3. Curves
          4. Information
          5. Color Balance
          6. Unsharp Mask
          7. LCH Editor
          8. Digital ICE Advanced
          9. Analog Gain and Scanner Extras
      4. Preferences
        1. File Locations
        2. Single Scan
        3. Batch Scan
        4. File Saving
        5. Automatic Actions
        6. Advanced Color
        7. Preview Settings
        8. Grid Settings
      5. Color Management
        1. Input Profiles / Scanner Profiles
        2. Monitor Profiles
        3. Color Space Profiles
        4. Film Profiles
      6. Documentation
      7. Conclusion
    11. 10. VueScan
      1. Purchase and Installation
        1. Professional Edition Recommended
        2. Pure Scanning
      2. Look and Feel
        1. Input
        2. Crop
        3. Filter
        4. Color Settings
        5. No Post-Processing
        6. Output Parameters
        7. Prefs
        8. Batch Scanning and Memory Limits
        9. Beep When Done
      3. RAW Data
      4. Documentation
      5. Conclusion
    12. 11. SilverFast
      1. SilverFast SE, Ai, Ai Studio and HDR
        1. SilverFast Pricing: Pay as You Earn
        2. Installing the Scanning Programs
      2. Look and Feel
        1. SilverFast Main Window
        2. ScanPilot
        3. Prescan
        4. Overview
        5. Negafix
        6. Automatic Color Correction During Scan
        7. Densitometer
        8. Picture Settings
        9. JobManager for Batch Scans
      3. Set Basic Configuration with Options
        1. General Tab
        2. Auto Tab
        3. CMS Tab
        4. Special Tab
        5. Speeding up Scans
      4. Image Processing
      5. RAW Processing with SilverFast HDR
        1. Creating RAW Files
        2. Preselection with Virtual Light Table (VLT)
        3. VLT Automatic Closedown
        4. Automated Batch Processing
        5. Scans from Disk with HDR
      6. Documentation
      7. Conclusion
        1. Total Integration
    13. 12. Scan Workflows
      1. Vital Corrections before Scanning
        1. Set Scan Resolution
        2. Select Sufficiently Large Crop
        3. Set Focus
        4. Adjust Analog Gain
        5. Perform Scratch Removal with ICE or FARE
        6. Set Level Adjustments: Shifting Black and White Points
        7. Level Adjustment: Before or After the Scan?
        8. Drop-outs with 8-Bit
        9. Bigger Reserves with 12-Bit
      2. Nikon Scan Workflow
        1. Scanning Slides Individually and with a Slide Feeder
          1. Change and Save the Default Settings
          2. Create Preview
          3. Adjust Preview
          4. Scan
          5. Post-Process with Capture NX2 or Photoshop
        2. Nikon Scan: Batch Scanning of Negatives with Filmstrip Adapter
          1. Change and Save the Default Settings
          2. Generate Thumbnails, Correct Filmstrip Offset
          3. Assign User-Defined Settings and Adjust Preview
          4. Scan
          5. Post-Processing with Capture NX2 or Photoshop
      3. SilverFast Workflow
        1. Digitizing Black and White Negatives
          1. Generate Overview Scan
          2. Adjust PreScan
          3. Remove Scratches with SRD
          4. Scan
          5. Post-Process with Photoshop
      4. VueScan Workflow
        1. Scanning Single Slides
          1. Set Defaults for RAW Data
          2. Generate and Adjust Preview
          3. Scan and Save
          4. Load RAW Data
          5. Process and Save the Scans from the Hard Disk
          6. Post-Process with Photoshop
        2. VueScan: Scanning Negative Strips with the Filmstrip Adapter
          1. Change and Save Defaults for RAW Data
          2. Generate Preview and Correct Filmstrip Offset
          3. Scan and Save
          4. Open RAW Files
          5. Process and Save the Scans from the Hard Disk
          6. Post-Process with Photoshop
    14. 13. Nikon Capture NX 2
      1. RAW Data Processing Using Capture NX 2
        1. Differences Between Capture and Photoshop & Co.
        2. Photoshop Cannot Save NEF Natively
        3. Not Developed for Scanning Purposes
        4. Better than Adobe?
      2. The User Interface
        1. New Browser
        2. Dynamic Palettes
        3. Changes are Fully Reversible
      3. Important Features
        1. The Crop Tool
        2. D-Lighting: Successor to Digital DEE
        3. Lost Highlights and Shadows
        4. Correcting Slanted Horizons
        5. Before and After
        6. Selection Tools and Other Similar Functions
        7. Wedding Photos in RAW format
        8. Control Points
        9. The Auto Retouch Brush
        10. Limited Brush Configuration
        11. No Downward Compatibility
        12. Correcting Red-eye Effects in NEF Files
        13. Color Boost
        14. Photo Effects
      4. U Point Technology
        1. Control Points Instead of Layers and Masks
        2. More Control Points = More Precision
        3. No Masks, no Layers Needed
      5. Grain, Noise, and Unsharp Masking
        1. An Alternative to GEM
        2. New Filters
    15. 14. Correcting with Photoshop and Photoshop Plug-ins
      1. Dust and Scratch Removal
        1. Removing Scratches with the Clone Stamp
        2. Healing Brush and Spot Healing Brush
        3. Dust & Scratch Removal Plug-in from Polaroid
        4. Perfect for Fast Processing
      2. Image Corrections
        1. Correcting Perspective Distortion
        2. Selectively Correcting Shadows and Highlights
        3. Straightening Horizon
      3. Photoshop Plug-ins from Applied Science Fiction
        1. Grain Removal with Digital GEM
        2. Digital Fill-Flash with SHO
        3. Restoring Colors with Digital ROC
        4. Plug-in vs. Scan Program
      4. Removing Color Casts
        1. Identifying Color Casts
        2. Removing Color Casts
      5. Match Color
      6. Noise Reduction with Noise Ninja
      7. Noise Reduction with Neat Image
    16. 15. Backup
      1. Saved Does Not Automatically Mean Safe
      2. Backup to Hard Disk
        1. Backup to the Same Partition
        2. Backup to an Additional Hard Disk
        3. Forget about USB and FireWire
      3. Archiving on Removable Media
        1. Optical Media: CD, DVD and Blu-ray
        2. Image Tape
      4. Image Management
        1. Setting Up an Image Database – Folder and File Structures
        2. The Simpler, the Better
        3. Cataloging with IPTC Data
        4. Organizing Images with ThumbsPlus
        5. Performance Gain Through Caching
        6. Batch Renaming Files: LupasRename
    17. Glossary
    18. A. Resources
    19. B. DVD
    20. C. Scanning Correction Filters in Scan Programs and Photoshop
    21. Index