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Scalability, Density, and Decision Making in Cognitive Wireless Networks

Book Description

This cohesive treatment of cognitive radio and networking technology integrates information and decision theory to provide insight into relationships throughout all layers of networks and across all wireless applications. It encompasses conventional considerations of spectrum and waveform selection and covers topology determination, routing policies, content positioning and future hybrid architectures that fully integrate wireless and wired services. Emerging flexibility in spectrum regulation and the imminent adoption of spectrum-sharing policies make this topic of immediate relevance both to the research community and to the commercial wireless community.

  • Features specific examples of decision-making structures and criteria required to extend network density and scaling to unprecedented levels
  • Integrates sensing, control plane and content operations into a single cohesive structure
  • Provides simpler and more powerful models of network operation
  • Presents a unique approach to decision-making and to mechanisms for adjusting control plane activity to ensure network scaling
  • Generalises the concepts of shared and adaptive spectrum policies
  • Addresses network transport operations and dynamic management of cognitive wireless networks' own information seeking behaviour

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Part I Overview
    1. 1 Introduction
      1. 1.1 The challenge of dense and scalable wireless systems
      2. 1.2 Objectives of this book
      3. 1.3 Analysis architecture and book organization
      4. 1.4 Further reading
      5. Problems
      6. References
    2. 2 Theoretical foundations
      1. 2.1 Introduction to theoretical considerations in wireless systems
      2. 2.2 Decision theory in cognitive wireless systems
        1. 2.2.1 Role of decision theory
        2. 2.2.2 Belief, plausibility, and certainty
        3. 2.2.3 Application to the wireless problem
        4. 2.2.4 Information-seeking behavior and evidence
        5. 2.2.5 Dempster–Shafer theory: A theory of belief
        6. 2.2.6 Implementation of DST within decision systems
        7. 2.2.7 Decisional impacts of DST
        8. 2.2.8 Arithmetic, logical, and relational operations on DST estimates
        9. 2.2.9 Implementation concepts
      3. 2.3 Information theory in cognitive wireless systems
        1. 2.3.1 Introduction to information theory
        2. 2.3.2 Measuring information content
        3. 2.3.3 Channel capacity
        4. 2.3.4 Relevance to cognitive wireless systems
      4. 2.4 Methods of characterizing the information-access behaviors
        1. 2.4.1 Content access distribution
      5. 2.5 Fundamental device, circuit, and implementation constraints
        1. 2.5.1 Nonlinear effects
      6. 2.6 Summary
      7. 2.7 Further reading
      8. Problems
      9. References
    3. 3 Future wireless operation, environments, and dynamic spectrum access
      1. 3.1 Overview
      2. 3.2 Conventional modes of operation
        1. 3.2.1 Direct links
        2. 3.2.2 Peer-to-peer (P2P)
        3. 3.2.3 Hub/spoke wireless
        4. 3.2.4 Existing or potential hybrid modes
      3. 3.3 Future methods for management of density
      4. 3.4 Spectrum sharing and noise environments
      5. 3.5 Initial DSA objectives
      6. 3.6 Evolving DSA objectives for density and scaling
      7. 3.7 Emerging commercial wireless realities
      8. 3.8 Dynamic spectrum access as an explicit assumption in all future wireless systems and environments
      9. 3.9 Regulatory actions to establish new spectrum regimes
      10. 3.10   Summary
      11. 3.11   Further reading
      12. Problems
      13. References
    4. 4 Some fundamental challenges in cognitive radio and wireless network systems
      1. 4.1 Introduction to wireless system challenges
      2. 4.2 Evolution of wireless and mobile architectures
      3. 4.3 Classes of wireless architectures
        1. 4.3.1 Wireless link management and multiplexing
        2. 4.3.2 Methods of duplexing
        3. 4.3.3 Wireless network topology
        4. 4.3.4 Composite network organization
      4. 4.4 Recent trends in wireless architectures
      5. 4.5 Convergence of structured and unstructured networking
      6. 4.6 Constraining aspects of nonlinear and discrete effects
      7. 4.7 Key objectives and metrics for introducing cognitive processes to wireless systems
      8. 4.8 Metrics for wireless network effectiveness
        1. 4.8.1 Spectrum usage effectiveness metric
        2. 4.8.2 Architecture effectiveness metric
        3. 4.8.3 Information-theoretic effectiveness metric
      9. 4.9 Summary
      10. 4.10 Further reading
      11. Problems
      12. References
  7. Part II Generalized environmental characterization
    1. 5 The spectrum and channel environment
      1. 5.1 Introduction to wireless physical-layer environments
      2. 5.2 Initial spectrum occupancy and availability
        1. 5.2.1 General characteristics of spectrum distributions
        2. 5.2.2 Fixed bandwidth channel-occupancy probability
        3. 5.2.3 Proportional bandwidth filter band occupancy probability
      3. 5.3 Induced effects on spectrum occupancy, availability, and nonlinear effects
      4. 5.4 Effects on front-end performance
      5. 5.5 Summary
      6. 5.6 Further reading
      7. Problems
      8. References
    2. 6 Propagation modeling, characterization, and control
      1. 6.1 Approach to propagation analysis
      2. 6.2 Propagation physics
        1. 6.2.1 Overview of propagation effects
        2. 6.2.2 Realistic modeling of propagation
        3. 6.2.3 More complex models of propagation
      3. 6.3 Empirically derived complex propagation models
      4. 6.4 Summary
      5. 6.5 Further reading
      6. Problems
      7. References
    3. 7 The connectivity environment
      1. 7.1 Introduction to connectivity characterization
      2. 7.2 Characterization of propagation conditions
      3. 7.3 Impact of propagation on network density
      4. 7.4 Trades in link reliability
      5. 7.5 Trades in connectivity and bandwidth
      6. 7.6 Summary
      7. 7.7 Further reading
      8. Problems
    4. 8 The information and content environment
      1. 8.1 Introduction to information and content analysis
      2. 8.2 Quantification of temporal, community, and geographic correlation of traffic
      3. 8.3 Observed distribution characteristics of Internet traffic
      4. 8.4 Use of routing information throughout wireless networks
      5. 8.5 Summary
      6. 8.6 Further reading
      7. Problems
      8. References
  8. Part III System performance of cognitive wireless systems
    1. 9 Network scaling
      1. 9.1 Approach to network scaling analysis
      2. 9.2 Routing analysis
      3. 9.3 Network topology formation
      4. 9.4 Topology analysis considerations
        1. 9.4.1 An overly simplistic network scaling model (table-driven)
        2. 9.4.2 How the Internet handles scaling
      5. 9.5 Access to external content
      6. 9.6 Connectivity
      7. 9.7 Infrastructure access
      8. 9.8 Modeling hybrid networks
      9. 9.9 Approach to heterogeneous network architectures
      10. 9.10 Integration of backhaul and external services
      11. 9.11 Decision methods for achieving network scaling
      12. 9.12 Anticipated results of network scaling decision making
      13. 9.13 Summary
      14. 9.14 Further reading
      15. Problems
      16. References
    2. 10 Network physical density limitations
      1. 10.1 Approach to network density analysis
      2. 10.2 Impact of density-induced interference
      3. 10.3 Probability of interference
      4. 10.4 Density scaling models
        1. 10.4.1 An overly simplistic network density model
        2. 10.4.2 Network density as a function of area
        3. 10.4.3 Modulation order to achieve density
        4. 10.4.4 Impact of modulation order and propagation differences on density
      5. 10.5 Interference-free compared with interference-tolerant operation
        1. 10.5.1 Issues with non-interfering DSA
        2. 10.5.2 Time-domain interference-tolerant DSA
      6. 10.6 Physical-layer implications for scaling and density
      7. 10.7 Decision methods for achieving physical density
        1. 10.7.1 Indications of physical density conditions
        2. 10.7.2 Physical density controlling decisions
      8. 10.8 Anticipated results of physical density decision making
      9. 10.9 Summary
      10. 10.10 Further reading
      11. Problems
      12. References
    3. 11 Network sensing and exchange information effectiveness
      1. 11.1 Information-theoretic analysis of sensing and information exchange
      2. 11.2 Sensing periodicities
        1. 11.2.1 Environmental entropy, and temporal mutual information
        2. 11.2.2 Spatial mutual information
      3. 11.3 Sensing role in first- and third-party communications protection
        1. 11.3.1 Sensing for protection of third parties
        2. 11.3.2 Sensing for optimizing first-party operation
        3. 11.3.3 Rate of environmental changes
      4. 11.4 Decision-making structure for wireless systems
      5. 11.5 Decision methods for achieving information-theoretic effectiveness
      6. 11.6 Anticipated results of sensing and exchange effectiveness decision making
      7. 11.7 Summary
      8. 11.8 Further reading
      9. Problems
      10. References
    4. 12 Content-access effectiveness
      1. 12.1 Implementation of content persistence within wireless systems
      2. 12.2 Content-based networking concepts and architectures
      3. 12.3 Existing models for content-based network services
        1. 12.3.1 Cambridge Haggle
        2. 12.3.2 Content-centric networking (CCN)
        3. 12.3.3 Delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) bundles
      4. 12.4 Content-persistence model
      5. 12.5 A performance model of content-centered network operation
      6. 12.6 Decision methods for achieving content-access effectiveness
      7. 12.7 Anticipated results of content-access-effectiveness decision making
      8. 12.8 Summary
      9. 12.9 Further reading
      10. Problems
      11. References
    5. 13 Minimizing nonlinear circuit effects
      1. 13.1 Approach to avoiding nonlinear effects
      2. 13.2 Traditional design approaches to avoid nonlinear effects
      3. 13.3 Performance implications of avoiding nonlinear effects
      4. 13.4 Recognition and evidence regarding front-end filter effects
      5. 13.5 Mechanisms and decision trades for avoiding nonlinear effects
      6. 13.6 Decision methods for avoiding nonlinear effects
      7. 13.7 Anticipated results of decisions
      8. 13.8 Summary
      9. 13.9 Further reading
      10. Problems
      11. References
  9. Part IV Integrated awareness and decision making
    1. 14 Awareness structure for cognitive wireless systems
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 A closed-loop model of cognitive operation
      3. 14.3 Candidate taxonomy of hypotheses
      4. 14.4 Measurement basis for hypotheses values
      5. 14.5 Summary
      6. 14.6 Further reading
      7. Problems
      8. References
    2. 15 Instantiating and updating beliefs across wireless networks
      1. 15.1 A hierarchical model of physical awareness and belief
      2. 15.2 An object-oriented model of the cognitive decision loop
      3. 15.3 Establishing initial beliefs
      4. 15.4 Updating beliefs based on evidence and experience
        1. 15.4.1 Merging of boolean beliefs
        2. 15.4.2 Merging of interval beliefs
      5. 15.5 Derived beliefs
      6. 15.6 Determining capacity and threshold beliefs
      7. 15.7 Quantifying experience-driven beliefs
      8. 15.8 Decay of confidence in time-variant beliefs
      9. 15.9 Implementing decisions and decision beliefs
      10. 15.10 Summary
      11. 15.11 Further reading
      12. Problems
      13. References
    3. 16 Decision-making structure for cognitive wireless systems
      1. 16.1 Integrated analysis of network decision making
      2. 16.2 Optimality versus adequacy
      3. 16.3 Management of uncertainty
      4. 16.4 A sample cognitive-network decision process
        1. 16.4.1 Band change and selection
        2. 16.4.2 Frequency change and selection
        3. 16.4.3 Content-persistence policies
        4. 16.4.4 Topological structure
        5. 16.4.5 Sensing periodicity
        6. 16.4.6 Routing exchange
        7. 16.4.7 Waveform/bandwidth selection
      5. 16.5 Establishing specific values of operating variables
      6. 16.6 Summary
      7. 16.7 Further reading
      8. Problems
      9. References
  10. Part V Summary
    1. 17 Further research needs in cognitive wireless networks
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Cognitive wireless research needs
        1. 17.2.1 Question #1 – fundamental capacity benefits
        2. 17.2.2 Question #2 – awareness and decision processes
        3. 17.2.3 Question #3 – application to economically viable wireless systems
      3. 17.3 Impediments to research
        1. 17.3.1 Impediment #1 – technological partitioning
        2. 17.3.2 Impediment #2 – conservative principles
        3. 17.3.3 Impediment #3 – validation models
        4. 17.3.4 Impediment #4 – confidence in regulatory acceptance
        5. 17.3.5 Impediment #5 – implementation technology
      4. 17.4 Conclusions
      5. Problems
      6. References
  11. Part VI Appendices
  12. Appendix A Abbreviations
  13. Appendix B Symbols
  14. Appendix C Mathematica and MATLAB routines
  15. Index