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Satellite Communications Payload and System

Book Description

This is the first book primarily about the satellite payload of satellite communications systems. It represents a unique combination of practical systems engineering and communications theory. It tells about the satellites in geostationary and low-earth orbits today, both the so-called bent-pipe payloads and the processing payloads. The on-orbit environment, mitigated by the spacecraft bus, is described. The payload units (e.g. antennas and amplifiers), as well as payload-integration elements (e.g. waveguide and switches) are discussed in regard to how they work, what they do to the signal, their technology, environment sensitivity, and specifications. At a higher level are discussions on the payload as an entity: architecture including redundancy; specifications--what they mean, how they relate to unit specifications, and how to verify; and specification-compliance analysis ("budgets") with uncertainty. Aspects of probability theory handy for calculating and using uncertainty and variation are presented. The highest-level discussions, on the end-to-end communications system, start with a practical introduction to physical-layer communications theory. Atmospheric effects and interference on the communications link are described. A chapter gives an example of optimizing a multibeam payload via probabilistic analysis. Finally, practical tips on system simulation and emulation are provided. The carrier frequencies treated are 1 GHz and above. Familiarity with Fourier analysis will enhance understanding of some topics. References are provided throughout the book for readers who want to dig deeper.

Payload systems engineers, payload proposal writers, satellite-communications systems designers and analysts, and satellite customers will find that the book cuts their learning time. Spacecraft-bus systems engineers, payload unit engineers, and spacecraft operators will gain insight into the overall system. Students in systems engineering, microwave engineering, communications theory, probability theory, and communications simulation and modelling will find examples to supplement theoretical texts.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. About the Author
  7. Abbreviations
  8. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 What This Book Is About
    2. 1.2 Payload
    3. 1.3 Conventions
    4. 1.4 Book Sources
    5. 1.5 Summary of Rest of the Book
    6. References
  9. Part I: Payload
    1. Chapter 2: Payload's On-Orbit Environment
      1. 2.1 What Determines Environment
      2. 2.2 On-Orbit Environment
      3. 2.3 General Effects of Environment on Payload
      4. References
    2. Chapter 3: Antenna
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 General Antenna Concepts
      3. 3.3 Single-Beam Reflector Antenna
      4. 3.4 Horn
      5. 3.5 Antenna Array
      6. 3.6 Reflector-Based Multibeam Antenna
      7. 3.7 Autotrack
      8. Appendix 3.A
      9. References
    3. Chapter 4: Filter and Payload-Integration Elements
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Impedance Mismatch
      3. 4.3 RF Lines for Payload Integration
      4. 4.4 Other Payload-Integration Elements Aside from Switch
      5. 4.5 Filter
      6. 4.6 Switch and Redundancy
      7. Appendix 4.A
      8. References
    4. Chapter 5: Low-Noise Amplifier and Frequency Converter
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Low-Noise Amplifiers and Frequency Converters in Payload
      3. 5.3 Intermodulation Products
      4. 5.4 Low-Noise Amplifier
      5. 5.5 Frequency Converter
      6. Appendix 5.A
      7. References
    5. Chapter 6: Preamplifier and High-Power Amplifier
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 High-Power Amplifier Concepts and Terms
      3. 6.3 Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Versus Solid-State Power Amplifier
      4. 6.4 Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Subsystem
      5. 6.5 Solid-State Power Amplifier
      6. References
    6. Chapter 7: Payload's Communications Parameters
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Gain Variation with Frequency
      3. 7.3 Phase Variation with Frequency
      4. 7.4 Channel Bandwidth
      5. 7.5 Phase Noise
      6. 7.6 Frequency Stability
      7. 7.7 Spurious Signals from Frequency Converter
      8. 7.8 High-Power Amplifier Nonlinearity
      9. 7.9 Spurious Signals from High-Power Amplifier Subsystem
      10. 7.10 Stability of Gain and Power-Out of High-Power Amplifier Subsystem
      11. 7.11 Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power
      12. 7.12 Figure of Merit G/Ts
      13. 7.13 Self-Interference
      14. 7.14 Passive Intermodulation Products
      15. Appendix 7.A
      16. References
    7. Chapter 8: More Analyses for Payload Development
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 How to Deal with Noise Figure
      3. 8.3 How to Make and Maintain Payload Performance Budgets
      4. 8.4 High-Power Amplifier Topics
      5. 8.5 How to Avoid Monte Carlo Simulations on Gaussian Random Variables
      6. Appendix 8.A
      7. References
    8. Chapter 9: Processing Payload
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Capabilities of Current Processing Payloads
      3. 9.3 Digital-Processing Elements Common to Both Nonregenerative and Regenerative Payloads
      4. 9.4 Nonregenerative Processing-Payload
      5. 9.5 Regenerative Payload
      6. References
  10. Part II: Payload in End-to-End Communications System
    1. Chapter 10: Principles of Digital Communications Theory
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Communications Theory Fundamentals
      3. 10.3 Modulating Transmitter
      4. 10.4 Filters
      5. 10.5 Demodulating Receiver
      6. 10.6 SNR, ES/N0, and EB/N0
      7. 10.7 Summary of Signal Distortion Sources
      8. Appendix 10.A
      9. References
    2. Chapter 11: Communications Link
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 End-to-End C/N0
      3. 11.3 Signal Power on Link
      4. 11.4 Noise Level on Link
      5. 11.5 Interference on Link
      6. 11.6 Link Budget
      7. References
    3. Chapter 12: Probabilistic Treatment of Multibeam Downlinks
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Multibeam-Downlink Payload Specifications
      3. 12.3 Repeater-Caused Variation of C and C/Iself and Nominal Value
      4. 12.4 Combining Antenna-Caused Variation into Repeater-Caused Variation
      5. 12.5 Payload-Caused Variation of C/(I+N)
      6. 12.6 Combining Atmosphere-Caused Variation into Payload-Caused Variation
      7. 12.7 Optimizing Multibeam-Downlink Payload Specified on Link Availability
      8. Appendix 12.A
      9. References
    4. Chapter 13: End-to-End Communications System Model with Focus on Payload
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Considerations for Both Software Simulation and Hardware Emulation
      3. 13.3 Additional Considerations for Simulation
      4. 13.4 Additional Considerations for Emulation
      5. References
  11. Index