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SAP® BW: A Step-by-Step Guide

Book Description

SAP BW has recently come to the fore as a valuable tool for developing data warehouses that accurately and effectively support critical business decision making. It facilitates easy-to-use and high-performance extraction, transfer, transformation, and loading of data from a variety of data sources, including such comprehensive business management systems as SAP R/3.

This practitioner's guide uses step-by-step instructions complete with a plethora of screen captures to illustrate key SAP BW functionalities. It demonstrates how SAP BW implements the fundamental star schema and solves the major challenges inherent in the creation of data warehouses: performance, reliability, and error-handling. Using a real-world business scenario as a running example, SAP® BW presents a comprehensive view of the technology, from underlying concepts and basic techniques through its most sophisticated capabilities.

Specific topics covered include:

  • Creating an InfoCube and loading the data

  • Checking the accuracy of data with BW Monitor and the Persistent Staging Area (PSA)

  • Creating queries to generate reports using Business Explorer (BEx)

  • Managing user authorization with the Profile Generator

  • Advanced InfoCube design techniques

  • Aggregates and multicubes

  • Working with the Operational Data Store (ODS)

  • Installing business content and creating an R/3 source system in BW

  • Loading data from SAP R/3 into SAP BW

  • Data maintenance

  • Performance tuning, including parallel query option and data packet sizing

  • Object transport

  • Although the focus is on the core SAP BW technology, this book also discusses other relevant technologies, including Basis, ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming), ALE (Application Link Enabling), and ASAP (Accelerated SAP) for BW.

    With the clear explanations and practical techniques presented in SAP® BW information systems professionals will gain both the general understanding and specific skills necessary to create high quality data warehouses that support effective decision making.



    0201703661B07092002

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Preface
      1. Book Objective
      2. Intended Audience
      3. Prerequisites
      4. Book Structure
      5. Conventions Used in This Book
        1. High-Level Procedures
        2. Work Instructions and Screen Captures
        3. Transaction Codes
        4. Legends
        5. Object Names and Descriptions
        6. Field Descriptions and F1 Help
        7. Terminology
          1. For Further Information
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. I. Guided Tours
      1. 1. Business Scenario and SAP BW
        1. 1.1. Sales Analysis—A Business Scenario
        2. 1.2. Basic Concept of Data Warehousing
          1. 1.2.1. Star Schema
          2. 1.2.2. ETTL—Extracting, Transferring, Transforming, and Loading Data
        3. 1.3. BW—An SAP Data Warehousing Solution
          1. 1.3.1. BW Architecture
          2. 1.3.2. BW Business Content
            1. Quotation Processing
            2. Order Processing
            3. Delivery
            4. Analyses and Comparisons
            5. Administrative and Management Functions
          3. 1.3.3. BW in mySAP.com
        4. 1.4. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      2. 2. Creating an InfoCube
        1. 2.1. Creating an InfoArea
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        2. 2.2. Creating InfoObject Catalogs
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        3. 2.3. Creating InfoObjects—Characteristics
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        4. 2.4. Creating InfoObjects—Key Figures
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        5. 2.5. Creating an InfoCube
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        6. 2.6. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. Next…
      3. 3. Loading Data into the InfoCube
        1. 3.1. Creating a Source System
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        2. 3.2. Creating an Application Component
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        3. 3.3. Creating an InfoSource for Characteristic Data
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        4. 3.4. Creating InfoPackages to Load Characteristic Data
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        5. 3.5. Checking Loaded Characteristic Data
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
          2. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        6. 3.6. Entering the Master Data, Text, and Hierarchy Manually
          1. 3.6.1. Master Data and Text
            1. Work Instructions
              1. Result
          2. 3.6.2. Hierarchy
            1. Work Instructions
              1. Result
        7. 3.7. Creating an InfoSource for Transaction Data
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
          2. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        8. 3.8. Creating Update Rules for the InfoCube
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        9. 3.9. Create an InfoPackage to Load Transaction Data
          1. Work Instructions
            1. Result
        10. 3.10. Summary
          1. Key Terms
          2. Next…
      4. 4. Checking Data Quality
        1. 4.1. Checking InfoCube Contents
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 4.2. Using BW Monitor
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 4.3. Using the Persistent Staging Area (PSA)
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 4.4. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. Next…
      5. 5. Creating Queries and Workbooks
        1. 5.1. Creating a Query Using BEx Analyzer
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 5.2. Organizing Workbooks Using BEx Browser
          1. Method 1: BEx Analyzer
          2. Method 2: SAP GUI
          3. Method 3: BEx Browser
        3. 5.3. Using a Variable to Access a Hierarchy Node Directly
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 5.4. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
          2. Next…
      6. 6. Managing User Authorization
        1. 6.1. Creating an Authorization Profile Using Profile Generator
          1. Prerequisites
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
        2. 6.2. Creating an Authorization Object to Control User Access to the InfoCube Data
          1. Prerequisites
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
            3. Result
        3. 6.3. Integrating Profile Generator and BEx Browser
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 6.4. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
    5. II. Advanced Topics
      1. 7. InfoCube Design
        1. 7.1. BW Star Schema
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 7.2. InfoCube Design Alternative I— Time-Dependent Navigational Attributes
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 7.3. InfoCube Design Alternative II-Dimension Characteristics
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 7.4. InfoCube Design Alternative III— Time-Dependent Entire Hierarchies
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        5. 7.5. Other InfoCube Design Techniques
          1. 7.5.1. Compound Attributes
          2. 7.5.2. Line Item Dimensions
        6. 7.6. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. Next…
      2. 8. Aggregates and Multi-Cubes
        1. 8.1. Aggregates
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 8.2. Multi-Cubes
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 8.3. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      3. 9. Operational Data Store (ODS)
        1. 9.1. Creating an ODS Object
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 9.2. Preparing to Load Data into the ODS Object, Then into an InfoCube
          1. Prerequisites
            1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 9.3. Loading Data into the ODS Object
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 9.4. Loading Data into the InfoCube
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        5. 9.5. Using 0RECORDMODE for Delta Load
          1. Result
        6. 9.6. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      4. 10. Business Content
        1. 10.1. Creating an R/3 Source System
          1. 10.1.1. Creating a Logical System for the R/3 Client
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          2. 10.1.2. Creating a Logical System for the BW Client
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          3. 10.1.3. Naming Background Users
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          4. 10.1.4. Creating an R/3 Source System in BW
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
        2. 10.2. Transferring R/3 Global Settings
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 10.3. Replicating R/3 DataSources
          1. Prerequisites
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
            3. Result
        4. 10.4. Installing Business Content Objects and Loading R/3 Data
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        5. 10.5. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      5. 11. Generic R/3 Data Extraction
        1. 11.1. Creating Views in R/3
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 11.2. Creating DataSources in R/3 and Replicating Them to BW
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 11.3. Creating a Characteristic in BW
          1. Work Instructions
        4. 11.4. Loading Data from R/3 into BW
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        5. 11.5. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. Next …
      6. 12. Data Maintenance
        1. 12.1. Maintaining Characteristic Data
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
            1. Work Instructions
          3. Result
        2. 12.2. Maintaining InfoCube Data
          1. 12.2.1. InfoCube Contents
            1. Work Instructions
          2. 12.2.2. Indices and Statistics
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          3. 12.2.3. Data Load Requests
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          4. 12.2.4. Aggregate Rollup
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          5. 12.2.5. InfoCube Compression
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          6. 12.2.6. InfoCube Reconstruction
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
        3. 12.3. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      7. 13. Performance Tuning
        1. 13.1. BW Statistics
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Work Instructions
          3. Result
        2. 13.2. System Administration Assistant
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 13.3. Tuning Query Performance
          1. 13.3.1. Query Read Mode
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          2. 13.3.2. Bitmap Index
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          3. 13.3.3. Statistics for the Cost-Based Optimizer
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          4. 13.3.4. Partition
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
              1. Work Instructions
            3. Result
          5. 13.3.5. Parallel Query Option (PQO)
        4. 13.4. Tuning Load Performance
          1. 13.4.1. Number Range Buffering
            1. Work Instructions
            2. Result
          2. 13.4.2. Data Packet Sizing
            1. Work Instructions
        5. 13.5. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
      8. 14. Object Transport
        1. 14.1. System Landscape
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        2. 14.2. Development Class
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        3. 14.3. Object Transport
          1. Work Instructions
          2. Result
        4. 14.4. Summary
          1. Key Terms
            1. For Further Information
            2. Next…
    6. A. BW Implementation Methodology
      1. A.1. ASAP for BW
      2. A.2. A Simplified BW Project Plan
        1. Phase I. Design
        2. Phase II. Development
        3. Phase III. Test
        4. Phase IV. Training
        5. Phase V. Production
      3. A.3. For Further Information
    7. B. SAP Basis Overview
      1. B.1. SAP Basis 3-Tier Architecture
        1. B.1.1. Presentation Interface
        2. B.1.2. Application Server
        3. B.1.3. Database Interface
        4. B.1.4. Open SQL
        5. B.1.5. Native SQL
      2. B.2. Dispatcher, Work Processes, and Services
        1. B.2.1. Dialog Work Process
        2. B.2.2. Update Work Process
        3. B.2.3. Enqueue Work Process
        4. B.2.4. Background Work Process
        5. B.2.5. Spool Work Process
        6. B.2.6. Message Service
        7. B.2.7. Gateway Service
      3. B.3. Memory Management
        1. B.3.1. SAP Buffer
          1. For Further Information
    8. C. Glossary
    9. D. Bibliography
        1. Books
        2. BW Methodology
        3. BW Online Documentation
        4. Helpful OSS Notes
        5. SAP White Papers