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SAP® ABAP™ Questions and Answers

Book Description

Designed as an introduction to the basics of ABAP or as a quick certification review, this book guides the reader through the intricacies of this programming language used by SAP components and applications (e.g., R/3, NetWeaver, etc.). It is currently positioned, alongside the more recently introduced Java, as the language for programming SAP's Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. The question and answer format provides the reader with all of the details to pass certification exams in a step-by-step, easy to read, method of instruction.

Table of Contents

  1. THE JONES AND BARTLETT PUBLISHERS SAP® BOOK SERIES
  2. TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  3. TABLE OF CONTENTS
  4. INTRODUCTION
  5. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO SAP ERP AND ABAP
    1. 1. What is SAP ERP?
    2. 2. Explain the origin of SAP ERP.
    3. 3. What are the application areas of SAP ERP?
    4. 4. What are the advantages of SAP ERP?
    5. 5. How does SAP ERP integrate all of the application modules?
    6. 6. What are the features of SAP ERP?
    7. 7. What is the SAP landscape?
    8. 8. What are the different layers in the SAP ERP architecture?
    9. 9. Explain the SAP ERP system architecture layers.
    10. 10. What are the databases supported by SAP ERP?
    11. 11. What is the role of the message server?
    12. 12. What is a user context?
    13. 13. What is a roll area?
    14. 14. What is a dialog step?
    15. 15. What are the different ways to initiate a dialog step?
    16. 16. Explain the role of the SAP dispatcher.
    17. 17. What are the functions of a dispatcher?
    18. 18. How does the GUI manage the output screen?
    19. 19. Explain a work process.
    20. 20. Explain the structure of a work process.
    21. 21. What are the different types of work processes of the SAP ERP system?
    22. 22. What are multiple SAP sessions?
    23. 23. Describe the features of multiple sessions.
    24. 24. How do you create a new session?
    25. 25. How do you end a session?
    26. 26. What is ITS?
    27. 27. What is an LUW?
    28. 28. What are the types of LUWs?
    29. 29. What are ABAP objects?
    30. 30. What are the features of the ABAP language?
    31. 31. What is SAP memory?
    32. 32. What is ABAP memory?
    33. 33. Differentiate between SAP memory and ABAP memory.
    34. 34. What is the ABAP Workbench?
    35. 35. Explain the features of the ABAP Workbench.
    36. 36. Explain the various ABAP Workbench tools.
  6. CHAPTER 2 UNDERSTANDING ABAP DATA
    1. 1. Define the ABAP dictionary.
    2. 2. What are the functions of the ABAP dictionary?
    3. 3. What are the various options in a data type field in the Data Dictionary (SE11) screen?
    4. 4. What are the various ABAP dictionary objects?
    5. 5. Which objects are independent transport objects?
    6. 6. Explain ABAP dictionary objects.
    7. 7. What are the different types of tables in the ABAP dictionary?
    8. 8. Explain the different types of tables in the ABAP dictionary.
    9. 9. Explain the step-by-step process used to create a table in the Data Dictionary.
    10. 10. Explain table attributes.
    11. 11. What is a delivery class?
    12. 12. What are the different types of delivery classes?
    13. 13. Explain the main function of the delivery class attribute.
    14. 14. What is the currency field used for in the Data Dictionary?
    15. 15. What is the quantity field used for in the Data Dictionary?
    16. 16. Explain the importance of technical settings.
    17. 17. What are the parameters used in technical settings?
    18. 18. Why is table buffering used?
    19. 19. What are the types of buffering?
    20. 20. Explain the different types of buffering.
    21. 21. When should single-record buffering be selected?
    22. 22. When should full buffering be used?
    23. 23. When should generic buffering be used?
    24. 24. What are control tables?
    25. 25. Differentiate between a table and a structure in the Data Dictionary.
    26. 26. Explain a foreign key.
    27. 27. For what is a foreign key used?
    28. 28. Explain cardinality.
    29. 29. What are the prerequisites for constructing foreign key relationships?
    30. 30. How can you set the table spaces and extent sizes?
    31. 31. What is the maximum number of structures that can be included in a table or structure?
    32. 32. What are the two ways of restricting the value range for a domain?
    33. 33. What are base tables of an aggregate object?
    34. 34. Can you include an append structure with pooled or cluster tables?
    35. 35. What is F1 help?
    36. 36. Can you delete data elements that are used by table fields?
    37. 37. Are data elements and domains reusable?
    38. 38. How can you create data elements without domains?
    39. 39. What are the functions of a domain?
    40. 40. What is the procedure for creating a domain?
    41. 41. Can you delete a domain that is used by data elements?
    42. 42. What are the types of search help?
    43. 43. What are the different parameters in search help?
    44. 44. Explain the different parameters of search help.
    45. 45. How is the type defined in search help?
    46. 46. What is a two-level domain concept?
    47. 47. What are the various aggregate objects?
    48. 48. Explain aggregate objects.
    49. 49. What are the different types of views in ABAP?
    50. 50. Explain the different types of views.
    51. 51. Differentiate between the projection view and the database view.
    52. 52. Which functional modules are generated using a lock object?
    53. 53. How are lock objects created?
    54. 54. What is lock mode?
    55. 55. Explain the different lock modes.
    56. 56. How are match codes defined?
    57. 57. What are the different ways of building a match code object?
    58. 58. What are data classes?
    59. 59. What are the various types of data classes?
    60. 60. Explain the various types of data classes.
    61. 61. Define a dialog type, and give the three dialog types.
    62. 62. Explain the different dialog types.
    63. 63. Explain an append structure.
    64. 64. What is a conversion routine?
    65. 65. What are the functional modules assigned to a conversion routine?
  7. CHAPTER 3 PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS
    1. 1. What are the three data types in ABAP?
    2. 2. Explain the different data types.
    3. 3. What is the structure of a data type?
    4. 4. Describe the visibility of data types using types.
    5. 5. Describe the validity of data objects using types.
    6. 6. What are data objects?
    7. 7. Explain data objects.
    8. 8. Describe the compatibility of all data types.
    9. 9. What are the main events in the ABAP language?
    10. 10. Explain the features of system fields.
    11. 11. What are the different ways to debug an ABAP program?
    12. 12. What are the ABAP debugger functions?
    13. 13. What is Runtime Analysis?
    14. 14. List the uses of Runtime Analysis.
    15. 15. How do you initiate Runtime Analysis?
    16. 16. What is a breakpoint?
    17. 17. What are the different breakpoints?
    18. 18. Explain the different breakpoints and breakpoint variants.
    19. 19. What are the benefits of a dynamic breakpoint?
    20. 20. What are the steps for setting breakpoints?
    21. 21. What are watch points?
    22. 22. Describe the features of watch points.
    23. 23. What are the steps for creating watch points?
    24. 24. What is the structure of the processing logic for an ABAP program?
    25. 25. What are the different types of programs?
    26. 26. Explain the different types of programs.
    27. 27. What is a program type 1?
    28. 28. What is the editor lock flag?
    29. 29. Are ABAP programs objects of the SAP repository?
    30. 30. What are the naming rules for writing ABAP programs?
    31. 31. What are the various types of comments used in ABAP programming?
    32. 32. What are the different ways to open the Editor for writing a program?
    33. 33. What are the various operators used to compare strings?
    34. 34. What are the various logical operators available in ABAP?
    35. 35. What are the various control structures available in ABAP?
    36. 36. Explain the control structures available in ABAP.
    37. 37. What are the different types of loops in ABAP?
    38. 38. Describe the program structure in ABAP.
    39. 39. How do you save, check, and activate programs?
    40. 40. Explain field symbols.
    41. 41. How do you declare a field symbol?
    42. 42. How can values be reset to their initial values?
    43. 43. How can we assign a value at the declaration level in Data and Parameter statements?
    44. 44. What is the TRANSLATE statement used for?
    45. 45. What are offset and length specifications in a string operation?
    46. 46. Describe the offset and length specifications in the MOVE statement.
    47. 47. What are the various options in a program attribute?
    48. 48. What is the fixed-point arithmetic attribute defined in the attribute section of SE38?
    49. 49. What are the features of text elements?
    50. 50. What are the various commands used for formatting options with the Write statement?
    51. 51. What are the various formatting options for date fields?
    52. 52. What are the country-specific and user output formats?
    53. 53. What is the syntax for generating horizontal lines?
    54. 54. What is the syntax for generating vertical lines?
    55. 55. What is the syntax for generating blank lines?
    56. 56. What is a selection screen?
    57. 57. What are the statements used for defining selection screens?
    58. 58. How do you define the default standard selection screen?
    59. 59. How are user-defined selection screens defined?
    60. 60. How can elements of one selection screen be reused in another selection screen?
    61. 61. When can you call the standard selection screen?
    62. 62. How do you call a user-defined selection screen?
    63. 63. How do you define check boxes?
    64. 64. How do you create a pushbutton?
    65. 65. How do you define radio buttons?
    66. 66. What is the syntax for allowing uppercase or lowercase for character string parameters?
    67. 67. How do you define the selection screen block with a frame?
    68. 68. How do you place a comment on the selection screen?
    69. 69. How do you place the input fields on the same line?
    70. 70. How do you create blank lines on the selection screen?
    71. 71. What is the main difference between select-options and parameters?
    72. 72. What is the internal structure of the select-options statement of a selection screen?
    73. 73. What are the various additions of the select-options statement?
    74. 74. What are the different ways to modify the screen dynamically?
  8. CHAPTER 4 INTERNAL TABLES
    1. 1. What are internal tables?
    2. 2. How do you declare an internal table?
    3. 3. Explain the data types of an internal table.
    4. 4. Differentiate between internal tables and extract datasets.
    5. 5. What are the different types of internal tables?
    6. 6. Explain the different types of internal tables.
    7. 7. What is OCCURS used for?
    8. 8. Explain an internal table declared as a data object.
    9. 9. What is the editor-call statement of an internal table used for?
    10. 10. What values can be set for SY-SUBRC after the editor-call statement?
    11. 11. How is an internal table assigned?
    12. 12. For what is the clear statement used?
    13. 13. How can internal tables be compared?
    14. 14. How do you sort internal tables?
    15. 15. How do you insert a single line into an internal table?
    16. 16. What rules must be followed to insert lines into internal tables?
    17. 17. How is it possible to insert several lines into an internal table from another internal table?
    18. 18. Give an example of inserting several lines into an internal table from another internal table.
    19. 19. What is the collect statement used for?
    20. 20. What is the difference between the append statement and the collect statement?
    21. 21. How do you read a single line of a table?
    22. 22. How do you make changes in the lines of an internal table?
    23. 23. How do you delete lines in an internal table?
    24. 24. What is the refresh statement used for?
    25. 25. What is the free statement used for?
    26. 26. How do you process table entries in loops?
    27. 27. How do you determine whether an internal table is empty?
    28. 28. What is the describe table statement used for?
    29. 29. What are the control break statements in an internal table?
    30. 30. What is the syntax of the at first and at last statements?
    31. 31. What are the at first and at last statements used for?
    32. 32. What are the at new and at end statements used for?
    33. 33. What are the rules for the control break statements?
    34. 34. What is the sum statement used for?
    35. 35. What is the on change of statement used for?
    36. 36. What is the difference between the on change of and at new field statements?
    37. 37. How do you copy data from one internal table to another internal table using a body operator?
  9. CHAPTER 5 MODULARIZATION
    1. 1. Explain modularization.
    2. 2. What are the different types of processing blocks?
    3. 3. What are the benefits of modularization in a processing block?
    4. 4. What are the modularization techniques in procedures?
    5. 5. Explain the various modularization techniques in procedures.
    6. 6. What are the various types of subroutines?
    7. 7. How do you define and call an internal subroutine?
    8. 8. How do you exit from a subroutine?
    9. 9. How do you define an external subroutine?
    10. 10. How do you call an external subroutine?
    11. 11. What is the syntax for the form statement?
    12. 12. What is the syntax of the perform statement?
    13. 13. What are the different types of parameters?
    14. 14. What is a typed parameter? Explain it with syntax.
    15. 15. What are the advantages of typed parameters?
    16. 16. Name the additions that are used to pass field strings.
    17. 17. What is an untyped parameter?
    18. 18. What are the various methods of passing parameters to a subroutine?
    19. 19. What is meant by pass by reference?
    20. 20. What is meant by pass by value?
    21. 21. What is meant by pass by value and result?
    22. 22. What is a function module?
    23. 23. Which transaction code is used to create a functional module?
    24. 24. What are the benefits of function modules?
    25. 25. What are the statements used in a function module?
    26. 26. What is the function module interface?
    27. 27. What are the various parameters used in a function module?
    28. 28. What are the methods of passing parameters in a functional module?
    29. 29. How do you call a functional module in an ABAP editor?
    30. 30. What are table parameters?
    31. 31. What is a function group?
    32. 32. What are include programs?
    33. 33. What is the syntax of the include statement?
    34. 34. What are the functions of include programs?
    35. 35. Explain system variables.
    36. 36. What are macros?
    37. 37. What is the syntax for defining a macro?
  10. CHAPTER 6 LOGICAL DATABASES
    1. 1. Define a logical database.
    2. 2. What are the advantages of a logical database?
    3. 3. What are the disadvantages of a logical database?
    4. 4. What are the main components of a logical database?
    5. 5. Explain the main components of a logical database.
    6. 6. What are selection views?
    7. 7. What are the tasks of a logical database?
    8. 8. Explain the two events used in a logical database.
    9. 9. What are the common subroutines contained by a logical database (LDB) program?
    10. 10. What are the two ways of using a logical database?
    11. 11. How do you link a logical database to an executable program?
    12. 12. What are the authorization checks available in a logical database?
    13. 13. How do you call a logical database using a functional module?
    14. 14. What are the parameters of the LDB_PROCESS functional module?
    15. 15. What are the various import parameters?
    16. 16. What are the various table parameters?
    17. 17. What are the exceptions of the LDB_PROCESS functional module?
    18. 18. How do you create a logical database?
  11. CHAPTER 7 FORMS
    1. 1. What is SAPscript?
    2. 2. Why is SAPscript needed?
    3. 3. What are the advantages of SAPscript?
    4. 4. What are the main components of SAPscript?
    5. 5. Explain the various components of SAPscript.
    6. 6. How do you create SAPscript forms?
    7. 7. What are the various parts of an SAPscript form?
    8. 8. Explain the various pars of an SAPscript form.
    9. 9. What is a layout set?
    10. 10. Explain the Visual Composer.
    11. 11. What are the components of a layout set?
    12. 12. What is a window?
    13. 13. What is a page window?
    14. 14. For what is a page window used?
    15. 15. How do you call a subroutine in an SAPscript form?
    16. 16. Describe the window types in SAPscript.
    17. 17. What is an SAPscript control command?
    18. 18. What is the syntax of the NEW-PAGE command?
    19. 19. Define the PROTECT…ENDPROTECT command.
    20. 20. For what is the NEW-WINDOW command used?
    21. 21. For what is the DEFINE command used?
    22. 22. For what is the SET COUNTRY command used?
    23. 23. For what is the SET SIGN command used?
    24. 24. For what is the RESET command used?
    25. 25. For what is the INCLUDE command used?
    26. 26. For what is the STYLE command used?
    27. 27. For what is the TOP…ENDTOP command used?
    28. 28. For what is the BOTTOM command used?
    29. 29. For what is the IF control command used?
    30. 30. For what is the CASE command used?
    31. 31. For what is the PRINT-CONTROL command used?
    32. 32. For what are the BOX, POSITION, and SIZE commands used?
    33. 33. For what is the SUMMING command used?
    34. 34. What are the various SAPscript symbols?
    35. 35. What are the various system symbols?
    36. 36. What are the formatting options in SAPscript?
    37. 37. For what is offset used?
    38. 38. What is an output length specification?
    39. 39. How can you omit a leading sign?
    40. 40. How can you omit a leading zero?
    41. 41. How can you ignore conversion rules?
    42. 42. What is page layout?
    43. 43. What are elements?
    44. 44. What is the procedure to debug an SAPscript?
    45. 45. How do we set date and time formats in SAPscript?
    46. 46. In what format does SAPscript store text?
    47. 47. What is the function of the Compare tool in SAPscript?
    48. 48. What is the procedure for creating and inserting logos in SAPscript?
    49. 49. What are the functions of SAPscript?
    50. 50. What are the parameters used in SAPscript functions?
    51. 51. What are SAP Smart Forms?
    52. 52. What types of tables are included in a Smart Form?
    53. 53. Describe the features of Smart Forms.
    54. 54. What are the advantages of Smart Forms?
    55. 55. Describe the architecture of a SAP Smart Form.
    56. 56. Describe form logic.
    57. 57. What are the types of inferior nodes?
    58. 58. What is the SAP Form Builder?
    59. 59. What are the different command nodes?
    60. 60. How do you download and upload Smart Forms?
    61. 61. Can an SAPscript form be migrated to a Smart Form?
    62. 62. How do you migrate an SAPscript form?
    63. 63. How do you convert an SAPscript style?
    64. 64. For what is form graphics administration used?
    65. 65. How do you create pages in Smart Forms?
    66. 66. How do you create windows in Smart Forms?
    67. 67. How do you define the form interface?
    68. 68. How do you integrate a Smart Form into an application?
    69. 69. What are the types of fields?
    70. 70. Where are the fields included?
    71. 71. What are included fields used for in the PC Editor?
    72. 72. What are the features of system fields?
    73. 73. Describe the various types of system fields of Smart Forms.
    74. 74. What are the rules for defining a field name?
    75. 75. What are the formatting options for fields in Smart Forms?
    76. 76. What are the node types for tables?
    77. 77. What are line types?
    78. 78. Compare the features of Smart Forms and SAPscript.
  12. CHAPTER 8 DIALOG PROGRAMMING
    1. 1. What is dialog programming?
    2. 2. What are the events used in dialog programming?
    3. 3. Explain the events used in dialog programming.
    4. 4. Describe the components of dialog programming.
    5. 5. How is a screen processed?
    6. 6. How can users interact with a screen?
    7. 7. How is an ABAP dialog module called?
    8. 8. Which function is used to modify a screen dynamically?
    9. 9. What is Screen Painter?
    10. 10. What is Menu Painter?
    11. 11. What is Dynpro?
    12. 12. What are the steps to create a screen?
    13. 13. Describe screen attributes.
    14. 14. What are screen elements?
    15. 15. Describe the various screen elements.
    16. 16. How do you create and display input help?
    17. 17. How are screen sequences defined?
    18. 18. How can a screen be used to leave a program?
    19. 19. How are sequences of screens called?
    20. 20. What are messages?
    21. 21. How are messages sent?
    22. 22. How many variants are there in the MESSAGE statement?
    23. 23. Explain the various message types.
    24. 24. How do you process a message without a screen?
    25. 25. How do you process a message in a screen?
    26. 26. How do you process a message on selection screens?
    27. 27. How do you maintain transaction codes?
    28. 28. How do you create transactions codes?
    29. 29. How do you set the GUI status?
    30. 30. How do you set the GUI title?
    31. 31. Describe the function codes of the standard toolbar.
    32. 32. Describe the function codes of the application toolbar.
    33. 33. How do you find the cursor position?
    34. 34. How are conditional modules called?
    35. 35. Define input checks and their types.
    36. 36. What are the various fields of automatic input checks?
    37. 37. How do you check the values of screen fields?
    38. 38. What are the input checks available in a dialog module?
    39. 39. How are attributes set dynamically?
    40. 40. What is a tabstrip control?
    41. 41. How do you create a tabstrip control?
    42. 42. What are the different forms of the LOOP statement?
    43. 43. How are dialog transactions created?
    44. 44. How are report transactions created?
    45. 45. How are object-oriented transactions created?
    46. 46. Define variant transactions, and also give the steps to create one.
    47. 47. How are parameter transactions created?
  13. CHAPTER 9 DATA TRANSFERS
    1. 1. What is a data transfer?
    2. 2. What are the various data transfer methods?
    3. 3. Explain the data transfer methods.
    4. 4. What is BDC?
    5. 5. Where is BDC used?
    6. 6. What is a batch input session?
    7. 7. How is a batch input session processed?
    8. 8. How is a batch input session generated?
    9. 9. How is a batch input session processed automatically?
    10. 10. How is a batch input session displayed?
    11. 11. Describe the structure of a session queue.
    12. 12. What are the various session statuses?
    13. 13. What are the different modes of a session?
    14. 14. How is a session corrected?
    15. 15. How is a session interrupted?
    16. 16. How is a session locked?
    17. 17. Explain batch input process flow.
    18. 18. How many functional modules are used to create a batch input session?
    19. 19. How is a batch input session created?
    20. 20. What are the EXPORTING parameters of BDC_OPEN_GROUP ?
    21. 21. How are data added to a batch input session?
    22. 22. What are the parameters of BDC_INSERT ?
    23. 23. How is a batch input session closed?
    24. 24. Explain the features of a call transaction method.
    25. 25. Explain the features of a batch input session.
    26. 26. What are the differences between a transaction method and a session method?
    27. 27. What is done in a batch process?
    28. 28. For what is a transaction recorder used?
    29. 29. How do you record a transaction?
    30. 30. For what is the recording editor used?
    31. 31. How is a batch input session generated from the recordings?
    32. 32. How is a function module generated?
    33. 33. How is the data transfer program tested?
    34. 34. What are data sets?
    35. 35. What are the various statements used in a data set?
    36. 36. What are the various opening modes in OPEN DATASET?
    37. 37. What are the various problems involved in a batch input session?
    38. 38. What is the procedure for writing a BDC program?
    39. 39. How can errors be found in a call transaction?
    40. 40. What is the syntax for the call transaction method?
    41. 41. Write a BDC table structure.
    42. 42. How do you determine the system data?
    43. 43. How are program names and screen numbers determined?
    44. 44. How are function codes determined?
    45. 45. How are field names determined?
    46. 46. What are the most common data transfer errors?
    47. 47. What is LSMW?
    48. 48. Describe the basic principles of LSMW.
    49. 49. Describe the advantages of LSMW.
    50. 50. What are the LSMW steps for data transfer?
  14. CHAPTER 10 REPORTING
    1. 1. What is an interactive report?
    2. 2. How are interactive reports helpful to users?
    3. 3. What are the events of an interactive report?
    4. 4. Explain how an interactive report works.
    5. 5. What are the events that provide the drill-down features in an interactive list?
    6. 6. What is the HIDE command?
    7. 7. When is the get cursor command used in interactive lists?
    8. 8. What is drill-down reporting?
    9. 9. What is the function of the environment variable SY-LISEL in interactive reporting?
    10. 10. What are lists?
    11. 11. How many basic lists can be created?
    12. 12. How many detail lists can be created?
    13. 13. What is the maximum number of lists in a report?
    14. 14. What happens if a user tries to create more than 20 lists?
    15. 15. Describe the system fields for detail lists.
    16. 16. How are the page headers for detail lists set?
    17. 17. What are the list events in an ABAP program?
    18. 18. What are classical reports?
    19. 19. What are the various events in classical reports?
    20. 20. What are event keywords in reports?
    21. 21. How is list width determined?
    22. 22. What are text elements?
    23. 23. What is PF-STATUS ?
    24. 24. What is the function of the SY-LSIND field?
    25. 25. Differentiate between a classical report and an interactive report.
    26. 26. What is the ALV?
    27. 27. What are the features of the ALV?
    28. 28. For what is the ALV used?
    29. 29. What are the various functional modules of the ALV?
    30. 30. What is a report layout?
    31. 31. How is the report layout defined?
    32. 32. How can changes in the report layout parameters be made?
    33. 33. How are individual page headers of a self-defined list defined?
    34. 34. How is a list in a dialog box displayed?
    35. 35. How can data be passed from lists to programs?
    36. 36. How can data be passed automatically?
    37. 37. How can data be passed through program statements?
    38. 38. How is scrolling done in a detail list?
    39. 39. How is the cursor in a list set?
    40. 40. How is the cursor set explicitly?
    41. 41. How is the cursor in a field set?
    42. 42. How is the cursor set in a line?
    43. 43. How are the lines of a list modified?
    44. 44. How is the line formatting modified?
  15. CHAPTER 11 MISCELLANEOUS
    1. 1. Give the list of system variables.
    2. 2. Give the list of transaction codes.
    3. 3. Give the list of functional modules.
  16. QUESTION INDEX
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to SAP ERP and ABAP
    2. Chapter 2: Understanding ABAP Data
    3. Chapter 3: Programming Concepts
    4. Chapter 4: Internal Tables
    5. Chapter 5: Modularization
    6. Chapter 6: Logical Databases
    7. Chapter 7: Forms
    8. Chapter 8: Dialog Programming
    9. Chapter 9: Data Transfers
    10. Chapter 10: Reporting
    11. Chapter 11: Miscellaneous