Understanding binary and hexadecimal numbering systems is extremely useful for C++ programmers.

When you look at the number 145, you instantly see “one hundred forty-five” without much reflection. Understanding binary and hexadecimal requires that you reexamine the number 145 and see it not as a number but as a code for a number.

Consider the relationship between the number three and 3. The numeral 3 is a symbol on a piece of paper; the number three is an idea. The numeral is used to represent the number.

The distinction can be made clear by realizing that three, 3, |||, and *** can all be used to represent the same idea of three.

In base 10 math, also called *decimal math*, you use combinations of the numerals ...

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