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Safety Design for Space Operations

Book Description

Endorsed by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) and drawing on the expertise of the world’s leading experts in the field, Safety Design for Space Operations provides the practical how-to guidance and knowledge base needed to facilitate effective launch-site and operations safety in line with current regulations.

With information on space operations safety design currently disparate and difficult to find in one place, this unique reference brings together essential material on:

  • Best design practices relating to space operations, such as the design of spaceport facilities.
  • Advanced analysis methods, such as those used to calculate launch and re-entry debris fall-out risk.
  • Implementation of safe operation procedures, such as on-orbit space traffic management.
  • Safety considerations relating to the general public and the environment in addition to personnel and asset protection.

Taking in launch operations safety relating unmanned missions, such as the launch of probes and commercial satellites, as well as manned missions, Safety Design for Space Operations provides a comprehensive reference for engineers and technical managers within aerospace and high technology companies, space agencies, spaceport operators, satellite operators and consulting firms.



  • Fully endorsed by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS), with contributions from leading experts at NASA, the European Space Agency (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), amongst others
  • Covers all aspects of space operations relating to safety of the general public, as well as the protection of valuable assets and the environment
  • Focuses on launch operations safety relating to manned and unmanned missions, such as the launch of probes and commercial satellites

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Copyright
  6. Preface
  7. About the Editors and Contributors
    1. Firooz A. ALLAHDADI, Ph.D
    2. Isabelle RONGIER
    3. Paul D. WILDE, Ph.D., P.E
    4. Tommaso SGOBBA
    5. William AILOR, Ph.D
    6. Fernand ALBY
    7. John B. BACON, Ph.D
    8. Sayavur I. BAKHTIYAROV, Ph.D
    9. Christophe BONNAL
    10. Curt D. BOTTS
    11. Bernard BRANDT
    12. Kenneth BUTTON
    13. Estelle CHAMPESTING
    14. Jon CHROSTOWSKI
    15. Nathalie COSTEDOAT
    16. Robert DEMPSEY, Ph.D
    17. John DOLLBERG
    18. Melissa EMERY
    19. Wigbert FEHSE, Ph.D
    20. David FINKLEMAN, Ph.D
    21. Jean-François GOESTER
    22. Charles GRAY
    23. Jerry HABER
    24. Andrew HERD
    25. Lark HOWORTH
    26. Nicholas JOHNSON
    27. Michael T. KEZIRIAN, Ph.D
    28. Paul KIRKPATRICK
    29. Steven L. KOONTZ, Ph.D
    30. Georg KOPPENWALLNER, Ph.D. (1935–2012)
    31. Leonard KRAMER, Ph.D
    32. Udaya KUMAR, Ph.D
    33. Erik LARSON Ph.D
    34. Wim van LEEUWEN
    35. Carine LEVEAU
    36. Eugene LEVIN, Ph.D
    37. Michael G. LUTOMSKI
    38. Kelli MALONEY
    39. Ronald R. MIKATARIAN
    40. D. F. Kip MIKULA
    41. Erwin MOOIJ, Ph.D
    42. Randy NYMAN
    43. Ron NOOMEN
    44. Gary F. POLANSKI, Ph.D
    45. Sandrine RICHARD
    46. Karl U. SCHREIBER, Ph.D
    47. Joseph A. SHOLTIS
    48. Carlos E. SOARES
    49. Richard G. STERN
    50. Marc TOUSSAINT
    51. Jean-Pierre TRINCHERO
    52. Jérôme VILA
    53. Gregory D. WYSS, Ph.D
  8. Chapter 1. Introduction to Space Operations Safety
    1. 1.1 General
    2. 1.2 Safety Risk Management
    3. 1.3 Launch Site Safety
    4. 1.4 Launch Safety
    5. 1.5 Nuclear-Powered Payloads Safety
    6. 1.6 Orbital Safety
    7. 1.7 Re-Entry Safety
    8. 1.8 Aircraft Protection
  9. Chapter 2. Spaceport Design for Safety
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Choice of Launch Site
    3. 2.3 Master Plan of a Spaceport
    4. 2.4 Ground Risk Control
    5. 2.5 Flight Risk Control
    6. 2.6 Safety Design for a Spaceport
    7. 2.7 Major Impacts of Safety Requirements on Spaceport Design
    8. 2.8 Specificity of Launch Pad Escape System Design for Human Spaceflight
    9. 2.9 Environment Protection
    10. 2.10 General Conclusion
    11. Further Reading
  10. Chapter 3. Ground Safety: Special Topics
    1. 3.1 Safety During Payload Ground Processing
    2. 3.2 Gases Storage and Handling Safety
  11. Chapter 4. Safety in Launch Operations
    1. 4.1 Launch Operations Safety
    2. 4.2 Re-Entry of the Main Cryotechnic Stage of Ariane 5: Challenges, Modeling and Observations
    3. Further Reading
  12. Chapter 5. Other Launch Safety Hazards
    1. 5.1 Toxic Hazards
    2. 5.2 Distant Focusing Overpressure Risk Analysis
    3. 5.3 Other Launches and Platforms
  13. Chapter 6. Nuclear-Powered Payload Safety
    1. 6.1 Introduction to Space Nuclear Systems
    2. 6.2 SNPS Launch History and Accidents
    3. 6.3 Launch Abort Environments Affecting SNPSs
    4. 6.4 Containment Design
    5. 6.5 Risk Assessment for Nuclear Missions
    6. 6.6 International Protocols and U.S. Environmental Review
    7. 6.7 Nuclear Mission Launch Approval
    8. 6.8 Nuclear Mission Launch Integration
    9. 6.9 Symbols and Acronyms
    10. References
  14. Chapter 7. On-Orbit Mission Control
    1. 7.1 Mission Control Center Design and Operations
    2. 7.2 Hazardous Commands Identification and Control
    3. 7.3 Flight Rules: Purpose and Use
  15. Chapter 8. Orbital Operations Safety
    1. 8.1 Space Situational Awareness Systems and Space Traffic Control
    2. 8.2 Orbit Design for Safety
    3. 8.3 Conjunction Analysis
    4. 8.4 Collision Avoidance Maneuvers for the International Space Station (ISS)
    5. 8.5 Safe On-Orbit Manoeuvres Design
    6. 8.5.2 Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO
    7. 8.6 Spacecraft Charging Hazards
    8. 8.7 Spacecraft Contamination Hazard
    9. 8.8 End-of-Life Debris Mitigation Measures
    10. 8.9 Space Debris Removal
  16. Chapter 9. Re-Entry Operations Safety
    1. 9.1 Introduction to Re-Entry Operations Safety Design
    2. 9.2 Re-Entry Trajectory Analyses
    3. 9.3 Re-Entry Breakup and Survivability Analyses
    4. 9.4 Evidence of Re-Entry Breakup and Survivability
    5. 9.5 Re-Entry Risk and Hazard Analyses
    6. 9.6 Design for Re-Entry Demise
  17. Chapter 10. Air-Space Traffic Interface Management
    1. 10.1 Computing Risk to Aircraft
    2. 10.2 Aircraft Vulnerability
    3. 10.3 Typical Aircraft Risk Mitigation Approach
    4. 10.4 Alternative Approaches
    5. 10.5 Real-Time Management
    6. 10.6 Summary
    7. References
  18. Chapter 11. Safety of Ground-based Space Laser Application
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 History of Satellite Laser Ranging
    3. 11.3 Concept of SLR Technology
    4. 11.4 International Laser Ranging Service and Mission Safety
    5. 11.5 In-Sky Laser Safety
    6. 11.6 Laser Safety in Space
    7. 11.7 Summary
    8. References
  19. Chapter 12. The Use of Quantitative Risk Assessment in the Operations Phase of Space Missions
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Communicating Risk to the Customer
    3. 12.3 Examples of PRA Applied to an Operational Program
    4. 12.4 Conclusion
    5. References
  20. Appendix A. Meteorology and Range Safety
  21. Appendix B. Human and Structural Vulnerability
    1. Human Vulnerability
    2. Structure Vulnerability
  22. Appendix C. Launch Chronology and Launch Failures
    1. Introduction
    2. Reference Documents and Sources
    3. Database Description and Summary
    4. Orbital Launch Attempts by Date
    5. Orbital Launch Attempts by Launch Vehicle Family Type
    6. Orbital Launch Attempts by Country/Launch Provider and by Launch Site
    7. Derived Orbital Launch Attempt Failure Rate Data
    8. Conclusion
  23. Appendix D. Lightning Protection Systems
    1. Introduction to Lightning
    2. Charge Structure of a Thundercloud
    3. Types of Lightning Discharge
    4. Vehicle Triggered Lightning
    5. Electrical Discharges above Thundercloud
    6. Occurrence Probability
    7. Events in a Cloud-to-Ground Lightning
    8. Parameters Involved
    9. General Threats
    10. Lightning Protection System – Components of External Protection System
    11. Lightning Protection System – Internal Protection
    12. Lightning Launch Commit Criteria
    13. Protection of Other Important Structures
    14. Additional Issues
    15. Further Reading
  24. Appendix E. The Role of Economics in Spaceport Safety
    1. Introduction
    2. The Economics of Spaceports
    3. Issues of Safety
    4. Reactions to Safety Concerns
    5. Demand-Side Design Considerations
    6. Public Interest and Safety
    7. The Institutional Context
    8. Some Other Considerations
    9. Conclusions
  25. Appendix F. Re-Entry Risk Formulas
  26. Index