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Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law by Cheryl Saunders, Thomas Fleiner, Mark Tushnet

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18Freedom of expression and association

Iain Currie

18.1 Freedom of expression

18.1.1 Structure and constituent elements of the right

All countries with a Bill of Rights protect freedom of expression.1 Those that do not have a Bill of Rights will often protect it as a sort of constitutional principle (e.g. the United Kingdom, Australia and Israel; see Stone, 2011). The right is protected by all the international and regional human rights instruments. The ubiquity of the right in the constitutional systems of the world (and, it seems, the ubiquity of its infringement2) has spawned a massive and diverse jurisprudence, and an equally massive and daunting body of secondary literature. One might attempt only the most sweeping generalisation about ...

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