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Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law by Cheryl Saunders, Thomas Fleiner, Mark Tushnet

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11Elections and electoral systems in constitutional regimes

Mahendra Pal Singh*

11.1 Introduction

Except in case of direct democracy where all eligible citizens participate in decision-making, some kind of electoral system is inevitable for making a democracy work. Direct democracy at the national level has long become part of history, though a handful of nations still have reasonably robust systems of direct democracy with respect to some matters, such as constitutional amendment. Direct democracy’s replacement, representative democracy, requires some mechanism for making representation operational. Election of some kind is universally considered the legitimate mechanism for such representation. Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil ...

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