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Routledge Enyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning, 2nd Edition by Adelheid Hu, Michael Byram

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Objectives in language learning and teaching

The setting of aims and objectives is a general pedagogical principle, intimately linked to curriculum development, syllabus design and subsequently to the evaluation and assessment of learning outcomes. Increasing professional mobility has led to a need for greater transparency in the description of language proficiency. As a consequence, transparent curricula and clearly stated outcomes of language and intercultural learning have become an important goal in educational policy. This is reflected in the harmonisation strategies in Europe, especially the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) defining ‘common reference levels' of proficiency in different aspects of communicative competence. ...

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