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Routing TCP/IP, Volume II: CCIE Professional Development, Second Edition

Book Description

Routing TCP/IP, Volume II: CCIE Professional Development, Second Edition

The definitive guide to Cisco exterior routing protocols and advanced IP routing issues—now completely updated

Praised in its first edition for its readability, breadth, and depth, Routing TCP/IP, Volume II, Second Edition will help you thoroughly understand modern exterior routing protocols and implement them with Cisco routers.

Best-selling author Jeff Doyle offers crucial knowledge for every network professional who must manage routers to support growth and change. You’ll find configuration and troubleshooting lessons that would cost thousands to learn in a classroom, plus up-to-date case studies, examples, exercises, and solutions.

Routing TCP/IP, Volume II, Second Edition covers routing and switching techniques that form the foundation of all Cisco CCIE tracks. Its expert content and CCIE structured review makes it invaluable for anyone pursuing this elite credential.

While its examples focus on Cisco IOS, the book illuminates concepts that are fundamental to virtually all modern networks and routing platforms. Therefore, it serves as an exceptionally practical reference for network designers, administrators, and engineers in any environment.

·         Review core inter-domain routing concepts, and discover how exterior routing protocols have evolved

·         Master BGP’s modern operational components

·         Effectively configure and troubleshoot BGP

·         Control path attributes and selection to define better routes

·         Take full advantage of NLRI and routing policies

·         Provide for load balancing and improved network scalability

·         Extend BGP to multiprotocol environments via MP-BGP

·         Deploy, configure, manage, troubleshoot, and scale IP multicast routing

·         Implement Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM): Dense Mode, Sparse Mode, and Bidirectional

·         Operate, configure, and troubleshoot NAT in IPv4-IPv4 (NAT44) and IPv6-IPv4 (NAT64) environments

·         Avoid policy errors and other mistakes that damage network performance

This book is part of the CCIE Professional Development series,which offers expert-level instruction on network design, deployment, and support methodologies to help networking professionals manage complex networks and prepare for the CCIE exams.

Category: Networking

Covers: BGP, Multicast, and NAT

Table of Contents

  1. About This E-Book
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. About the Author
  5. About the Contributing Authors
  6. About the Technical Reviewers
  7. Dedications
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Contents at a Glance
  10. Contents
  11. Command Syntax Conventions
  12. Introduction
    1. Introduction to the Second Edition
    2. What’s Changed in the Industry?
      1. BGP
      2. IP Multicast
      3. IPv6
    3. What’s Changed in This Edition?
    4. Answers to Configuration and Troubleshooting Exercises
  13. Chapter 1. Inter-Domain Routing Concepts
    1. Early Inter-Domain Routing: The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
      1. Origins of EGP
      2. Operation of EGP
      3. Shortcomings of EGP
    2. The Advent of BGP
    3. BGP Basics
    4. Autonomous System Types
    5. External and Internal BGP
    6. Multihoming
      1. Transit AS Multihoming
      2. Stub AS Multihoming
      3. Multihoming and Routing Policies
      4. Multihoming Issues: Load Sharing and Load Balancing
      5. Multihoming Issues: Traffic Control
      6. Multihoming Issues: Provider-Assigned Addressing
    7. Classless Inter-Domain Routing
      1. A Summarization Summary
      2. Classless Routing
      3. Summarization: The Good, the Bad, and the Asymmetric
      4. CIDR: Reducing Class B Address Space Depletion
      5. CIDR: Reducing Routing Table Explosion
      6. Managing and Assigning IPv4 Address Blocks
      7. CIDR Issues: Multihoming and Provider-Assigned Addresses
      8. CIDR Issues: Address Portability
      9. CIDR Issues: Provider-Independent Addresses
      10. CIDR Issues: Traffic Engineering
      11. CIDR Approaches Its Limits
      12. IPv6 Comes of Age
      13. Routing Table Explosion, Again
    8. Looking Ahead
    9. Review Questions
  14. Chapter 2. Introduction to BGP
    1. Who Needs BGP?
      1. Connecting to Untrusted Domains
      2. Connecting to Multiple External Neighbors
      3. Setting Routing Policy
      4. BGP Hazards
    2. Operation of BGP
      1. BGP Message Types
      2. BGP Finite State Machine
      3. Path Attributes
      4. BGP Decision Process
      5. BGP Message Formats
      6. Open Message
      7. Update Message
      8. Keepalive Message
      9. Notification Message
    3. Configuring and Troubleshooting BGP Peering
      1. Case Study: EBGP Peering
      2. Case Study: EBGP Peering over IPv6
      3. Case Study: IBGP Peering
      4. Case Study: Connected Check and EBGP Multihop
      5. Case Study: Managing and Securing BGP Connections
    4. Looking Ahead
    5. Review Questions
    6. Configuration Exercises
    7. Troubleshooting Exercises
  15. Chapter 3. BGP and NLRI
    1. Configuring and Troubleshooting NLRI in BGP
      1. Injecting Prefixes with the network Statement
      2. Using the network mask Statement
      3. Injecting Prefixes with Redistribution
    2. NLRI and IBGP
      1. Managing Prefixes in an IBGP Topology
      2. IBGP and IGP Synchronization
    3. Advertising BGP NLRI into the Local AS
      1. Redistributing BGP NLRI into the IGP
      2. Case Study: Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with IBGP
      3. Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with Static Routes
      4. Advertising a Default Route to a Neighboring AS
    4. Advertising Aggregate Routes with BGP
      1. Case Study: Aggregation Using Static Routes
      2. Aggregation Using the aggregate-address Statement
      3. ATOMIC_AGGREGATE and AGGREGATOR Attributes
      4. Using AS_SET with Aggregates
    5. Looking Ahead
    6. Review Questions
    7. Configuration Exercises
    8. Troubleshooting Exercises
  16. Chapter 4. BGP and Routing Policies
    1. Policy and the BGP Database
    2. IOS BGP Implementation
      1. InQ and OutQ
      2. IOS BGP Processes
      3. NHT, Event, and the Open Processes
      4. Table Versions
    3. Managing Policy Changes
      1. Clearing BGP Sessions
      2. Soft Reconfiguraton
      3. Route Refresh
    4. Route Filtering Techniques
      1. Filtering Routes by NLRI
      2. Case Study: Using Distribute Lists
      3. Route Filtering with Extended ACLs
      4. Case Study: Using Prefix Lists
      5. Filtering Routes by AS_PATH
      6. Regular Expressions
      7. Case Study: Using AS-Path Filters
      8. Case Study: Setting Policy with Route Maps
      9. Filter Processing
    5. Influencing the BGP Decision Process
      1. Case Study: Administrative Weights
      2. Case Study: Using the LOCAL_PREF Attribute
      3. Case Study: Using the MULTI_EXIT_DISC Attribute
      4. Case Study: Prepending the AS_PATH
      5. Case Study: Administrative Distances and Backdoor Routes
    6. Controlling Complex Route Maps
      1. Continue Clauses
      2. Policy Lists
    7. Looking Ahead
    8. Review Questions
    9. Configuration Exercises
    10. Troubleshooting Exercises
  17. Chapter 5. Scaling BGP
    1. Scaling the Configuration
      1. Peer Groups
      2. Peer Templates
      3. Communities
    2. Scaling BGP Functions
      1. Route Flap Dampening
      2. Outbound Route Filters (ORF)
      3. Next-Hop Tracking
      4. Fast External Fallover
      5. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
      6. BGP Prefix Independent Convergence (PIC)
      7. Graceful Restart
      8. Maximum Prefixes
      9. Tuning BGP CPU
      10. Tuning BGP Memory
      11. BGP Transport Optimization
    3. Scaling the BGP Network
      1. Private AS Numbers
      2. 4-Byte AS Numbers
      3. IBGP and the N-Squared Problem
      4. Confederations
      5. Route Reflectors
    4. Looking Ahead
    5. Review Questions
    6. Configuration Exercises
    7. Troubleshooting Exercises
  18. Chapter 6. Multiprotocol BGP
    1. Multiprotocol Extensions to BGP
    2. MBGP Support for the IPv6 Address Family
    3. Configuring MBGP for IPv6
      1. IPv4 and IPv6 Prefixes over an IPv4 TCP Session
      2. Upgrading IPv4 BGP Configurations to the Address Family Format
      3. IPv4 and IPv6 over an IPv6 TCP Connection
      4. Dual Stack MBGP Connection
      5. Multihop Dual Stack MBGP Connection
      6. Mixed IPv4 and IPv6 Sessions
      7. Multiprotocol IBGP
      8. Case Study: Multiprotocol Policy Configuration
    4. Looking Ahead
    5. Review Questions
    6. Configuration Exercises
      1. Question 1:
    7. Troubleshooting Exercises
  19. Chapter 7. Introduction to IP Multicast Routing
    1. Requirements for IP Multicast
      1. IPv4 Multicast Addresses
      2. IPv6 Multicast Addresses
      3. Group Membership Concepts
      4. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
      5. Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
      6. IGMP/MLD Snooping
      7. Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)
    2. Multicast Routing Issues
      1. Multicast Forwarding
      2. Multicast Routing
      3. Sparse Versus Dense Topologies
      4. Implicit Joins Versus Explicit Joins
      5. Source-Based Trees Versus Shared Trees
      6. Source-Specific Multicast (SSM)
      7. Multicast Scoping
    3. Looking Ahead
    4. Recommended Reading
    5. Review Questions
    6. Configuration Exercises
  20. Chapter 8. Protocol Independent Multicast
    1. Introduction to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)
    2. Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM)
      1. PIM-DM Basics
      2. Prune Overrides
      3. Unicast Route Changes
      4. PIM-DM Designated Routers
      5. PIM Forwarder Election
    3. Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
      1. PIM-SM Basics
      2. Finding the Rendezvous Point
      3. PIM-SM and Shared Trees
      4. Source Registration
      5. PIM-SM and Shortest Path Trees
      6. PIMv2 Message Formats
    4. Configuring IP Multicast Routing
      1. Case Study: Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM)
      2. Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
      3. Case Study: Multicast Load Sharing
    5. Troubleshooting IP Multicast Routing
      1. Using mrinfo
      2. Using mtrace and mstat
    6. Looking Ahead
    7. Recommended Reading
    8. Review Questions
    9. Configuration Exercises
    10. Troubleshooting Exercises
  21. Chapter 9. Scaling IP Multicast Routing
    1. Multicast Scoping
    2. Case Study: Multicasting Across Non-Multicast Domains
    3. Connecting to DVMRP Networks
    4. Inter-AS Multicasting
      1. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP)
      2. Operation of Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)
      3. MSDP Message Formats
    5. Case Study: Configuring MBGP
    6. Case Study: Configuring MSDP
    7. Case Study: MSDP Mesh Groups
    8. Case Study: Anycast RP
    9. Case Study: MSDP Default Peers
    10. Looking Ahead
    11. Review Questions
    12. Configuration Exercise
  22. Chapter 10. IPv4 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT44)
    1. Operation of NAT44
      1. Basic NAT Concepts
      2. NAT and IP Address Conservation
      3. NAT and ISP Migration
      4. NAT and Multihomed Autonomous Systems
      5. Port Address Translation (PAT)
      6. NAT and TCP Load Distribution
      7. NAT and Virtual Servers
    2. NAT Issues
      1. Header Checksums
      2. Fragmentation
      3. Encryption
      4. Security
      5. Protocol-Specific Issues
    3. Configuring NAT44
      1. Case Study: Static NAT
      2. NAT44 and DNS
      3. Case Study: Dynamic NAT
      4. Case Study: A Network Merger
      5. Case Study: ISP Multihoming with NAT
      6. Port Address Translation
      7. Case Study: TCP Load Balancing
      8. Case Study: Service Distribution
    4. Troubleshooting NAT44
    5. Looking Ahead
    6. Review Questions
    7. Configuration Exercises
    8. Troubleshooting Exercises
  23. Chapter 11. IPv6 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT64)
    1. Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT)
      1. IPv4/IPv6 Header Translation
      2. ICMP/ICMPv6 Translation
      3. Fragmentation and PMTU
      4. Upper-Layer Header Translation
    2. Network Address Translation with Port Translation (NAT-PT)
      1. Operation of NAT-PT
      2. Configuring NAT-PT
      3. Why Is NAT-PT Obsolete?
    3. Stateless NAT64
      1. Operation of Stateless NAT64
      2. Configuration of Stateless NAT64
      3. Limitations of NAT64
    4. Stateful NAT64
      1. Operation of Stateful NAT64
      2. Configuration of Stateful NAT64
      3. Limitations of Stateful NAT64
    5. Looking Ahead
    6. Review Questions
    7. Configuration Exercise
      1. Configuration Exercise Premise
  24. Appendix A. Answers to Review Questions
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  25. Index
  26. Appendix B. Answers to Configuration Exercises
    1. Chapter 2
    2. Chapter 3
    3. Chapter 4
      1. Answer to Configuration Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Configuration Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Configuration Exercise 3
      4. Answer to Configuration Exercise 4
      5. Answer to Configuration Exercise 5
      6. Answer to Configuration Exercise 6
      7. Answer to Configuration Exercise 7
      8. Answer to Configuration Exercise 8
      9. Answer to Configuration Exercise 9
      10. Answer to Configuration Exercise 10
      11. Answer to Configuration Exercise 11
      12. Answer to Configuration Exercise 12
      13. Answer to Configuration Exercise 13
    4. Chapter 5
      1. Answer to Question 1
      2. Answer to Question 2
      3. Answer to Question 3
      4. Answer to Question 4
      5. Answer to Question 5
      6. Answer to Question 6
      7. Answer to Question 7
      8. Answer to Question 8
      9. Answer to Question 9
      10. Answer to Question 10
    5. Chapter 6
      1. Question 1:
      2. Answer to Configuration Exercise 1
      3. Answer to Configuration Exercise 2
      4. Answer to Configuration Exercise 3
      5. Answer to Configuration Exercise 4
      6. Answer to Configuration Exercise 5
      7. Answer to Configuration Exercise 6
      8. Answer to Configuration Exercise 7
      9. Answer to Configuration Exercise 8
      10. Answer to Configuration Exercise 9
      11. Answer to Configuration Exercise 10
    6. Chapter 7
      1. Answer to Question 1
      2. Answer to Question 2
      3. Answer to Question 3
    7. Chapter 8
      1. Answer to Question 1
      2. Answer to Question 2
      3. Answer to Question 3
      4. Answer to Question 4
    8. Chapter 9
      1. Answer to Configuration Exercise
    9. Chapter 10
      1. Answer to Configuration Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Configuration Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Configuration Exercise 3
      4. Answer to Configuration Exercise 4
      5. Answer to Configuration Exercise 5
      6. Answer to Configuration Exercise 6
    10. Chapter 11
      1. Configuration Exercise Premise
      2. Answer to Configuration Exercise
  27. Appendix C. Answers to Troubleshooting Exercises
    1. Chapter 2
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 3
      4. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 4
      5. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 5
    2. Chapter 3
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
    3. Chapter 4
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 3
    4. Chapter 5
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
    5. Chapter 6
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 3
    6. Chapter 8
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 3
      4. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 4
      5. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 5
      6. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 6
      7. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 7
    7. Chapter 10
      1. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 1
      2. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 2
      3. Answer to Troubleshooting Exercise 3
  28. Where are the companion content files?
  29. Inside Front Cover
  30. Inside Back Cover
  31. Code Snippets