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Routing TCP/IP, Volume 1, 2/e

Book Description

A detailed examination of interior routing protocols -- completely updated in a new edition

  • A complete revision of the best-selling first edition--widely considered a premier text on TCP/IP routing protocols

  • A core textbook for CCIE preparation and a practical reference for network designers, administrators, and engineers

  • Includes configuration and troubleshooting lessons that would cost thousands to learn in a classroom and numerous real-world examples and case studies

  • Praised in its first edition for its approachable style and wealth of information, this new edition provides readers a deep understanding of IP routing protocols, teaches how to implement these protocols using Cisco routers, and brings readers up to date protocol and implementation enhancements. Routing TCP/IP, Volume 1, Second Edition, includes protocol changes and Cisco features that enhance routing integrity, secure routers from attacks initiated through routing protocols, and provide greater control over the propagation of routing information for all the IP interior routing protocols. Routing TCP/IP, Volume 1, Second Edition, provides a detailed analysis of each of the IP interior gateway protocols (IGPs). Its structure remains the same as the best-selling first edition, though information within each section is enhanced and modified to include the new developments in routing protocols and Cisco implementations. What's New In This Edition? The first edition covers routing protocols as they existed in 1998. The new book updates all covered routing protocols and discusses new features integrated in the latest version of Cisco IOS Software. IPv6, its use with interior routing protocols, and its interoperability and integration with IPv4 are also integrated into this book. Approximately 200 pages of new information are added to the main text, with some old text removed. Additional exercise and solutions are also included.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Foreword
    7. Introduction
      1. Objectives
      2. Audience
      3. Changes from First Edition
      4. Organization
      5. Book Features
    8. I. Routing Basics
      1. 1. TCP/IP Review
        1. TCP/IP Protocol Layers
        2. IP Packet Header
        3. IPv4 Addresses
          1. First Octet Rule
          2. Address Masks
          3. Subnets and Subnet Masks
          4. Designing Subnets
          5. Breaking the Octet Boundary
          6. Troubleshooting a Subnet Mask
        4. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
          1. Proxy ARP
          2. Gratuitous ARP
          3. Reverse ARP
        5. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
        6. Host-to-Host Layer
          1. TCP
          2. UDP
        7. Looking Ahead
        8. Summary Table: Chapter 1 Command Review
        9. Recommended Reading
        10. Review Questions
        11. Configuration Exercises
        12. Troubleshooting Exercises
      2. 2. IPv6 Overview
        1. IPv6 Addresses
          1. Address Representation
          2. IPv6 Address Types
            1. Global Unicast Addresses
            2. Identifying IPv6 Address Types
            3. Local Unicast Addresses
            4. Anycast Addresses
            5. Multicast Addresses
            6. Embedded IPv4 Addresses
        2. IPv6 Packet Header Format
        3. Extension Headers
        4. ICMPv6
        5. Neighbor Discovery Protocol
          1. NDP Messages
          2. Router Discovery
          3. Address Autoconfiguration
          4. Duplicate Address Detection
          5. Neighbor Address Resolution
          6. Privacy Addresses
          7. Neighbor Unreachability Detection
        6. Looking Ahead
        7. Review Questions
      3. 3. Static Routing
        1. Route Table
        2. Configuring Static Routes
          1. Case Study: Simple IPv4 Static Routes
          2. Case Study: Simple IPv6 Static Routes
          3. Case Study: Summary Routes
          4. Case Study: Alternative Routes
          5. Case Study: Floating Static Routes
          6. Case Study: IPv6 Floating Static Routes
          7. Case Study: Load Sharing
            1. Load Sharing and Cisco Express Forwarding
            2. Per Destination Load Sharing and Fast Switching
            3. Per Packet Load Sharing and Process Switching
            4. Which Switching Method Will Be Used?
          8. Case Study: Recursive Table Lookups
        3. Troubleshooting Static Routes
          1. Case Study: Tracing a Failed Route
          2. Case Study: A Protocol Conflict
          3. Case Study: A Replaced Router
          4. Case Study: Tracing An IPv6 Failed Route
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 3 Command Review
        6. Review Questions
        7. Configuration Exercises
        8. Troubleshooting Exercises
      4. 4. Dynamic Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocol Basics
          1. Path Determination
          2. Metrics
            1. Hop Count
            2. Bandwidth
            3. Load
            4. Delay
            5. Reliability
            6. Cost
          3. Convergence
          4. Load Balancing
        2. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
          1. Common Characteristics
            1. Periodic Updates
            2. Neighbors
            3. Broadcast Updates
            4. Full Routing Table Updates
          2. Routing by Rumor
          3. Route Invalidation Timers
          4. Split Horizon
          5. Counting to Infinity
          6. Triggered Updates
          7. Holddown Timers
          8. Asynchronous Updates
        3. Link State Routing Protocols
          1. Neighbors
          2. Link State Flooding
            1. Sequence Numbers
              1. Linear Sequence Number Spaces
              2. Circular Sequence Number Spaces
              3. Lollipop-Shaped Sequence Number Spaces
            2. Aging
          3. Link State Database
          4. SPF Algorithm
          5. Areas
        4. Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocols
        5. Static or Dynamic Routing?
        6. Looking Ahead
        7. Recommended Reading
        8. Review Questions
    9. II. Interior Routing Protocols
      1. 5. Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
        1. Operation of RIP
          1. RIP Timers and Stability Features
          2. RIP Message Format
          3. Request Message Types
          4. Classful Routing
            1. Classful Routing: Directly Connected Subnets
            2. Classful Routing: Summarization at Boundary Routers
            3. Classful Routing: Summary
        2. Configuring RIP
          1. Case Study: A Basic RIP Configuration
          2. Case Study: Passive Interfaces
          3. Case Study: Configuring Unicast Updates
          4. Case Study: Discontiguous Subnets
          5. Case Study: Manipulating RIP Metrics
          6. Case Study: Minimizing the Impact of Updates
        3. Troubleshooting RIP
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 5 Command Review
        6. Recommended Reading
        7. Review Questions
        8. Configuration Exercises
        9. Troubleshooting Exercises
      2. 6. RIPv2, RIPng, and Classless Routing
        1. Operation of RIPv2
          1. RIPv2 Message Format
          2. Compatibility with RIPv1
          3. Classless Route Lookups
          4. Classless Routing Protocols
          5. Variable-Length Subnet Masking
          6. Authentication
        2. Operation of RIPng
        3. Configuring RIPv2
          1. Case Study: A Basic RIPv2 Configuration
          2. Case Study: Compatibility with RIPv1
          3. Case Study: Using VLSM
          4. Case Study: Discontiguous Subnets and Classless Routing
          5. Case Study: Authentication
        4. Configuring RIPng
          1. Case Study: Basic RIPng Configuration
          2. Case Study: RIPng Process Customization
          3. Case Study: Metric Manipulation
          4. Case Study: Route Summarization
        5. Troubleshooting RIPv2 and RIPng
          1. Case Study: Misconfigured VLSM
        6. Looking Ahead
        7. Summary Table: Chapter 6 Command Review
        8. Recommended Reading
        9. Review Questions
        10. Configuration Exercises
        11. Troubleshooting Exercises
      3. 7. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
        1. The Roots of EIGRP: An Overview of IGRP
          1. Process Domains
          2. IGRP Timers and Stability Features
          3. IGRP Metrics
        2. From IGRP to EIGRP
        3. Operation of EIGRP
          1. Protocol-Dependent Modules
          2. Reliable Transport Protocol
          3. Neighbor Discovery/Recovery
          4. Diffusing Update Algorithm
            1. DUAL: Preliminary Concepts
            2. DUAL Finite State Machine
            3. Diffusing Computation: Example 1
            4. Diffusing Computation: Example 2
          5. EIGRP Packet Formats
            1. EIGRP Packet Header
            2. General TLV Fields
            3. IP-Specific TLV Fields
              1. IP Internal Routes TLV
              2. IP External Routes TLV
          6. Address Aggregation
          7. EIGRP and IPv6
        4. Configuring EIGRP
          1. Case Study: A Basic EIGRP Configuration
          2. Case Study: Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
          3. Case Study: Setting Maximum Paths
          4. Case Study: Multiple EIGRP Processes
          5. Case Study: Disabling Automatic Summarization
          6. Case Study: Stub Routing
          7. Case Study: Address Summarization
          8. Authentication
        5. Troubleshooting EIGRP
          1. Case Study: A Missing Neighbor
          2. Stuck-in-Active Neighbors
        6. Looking Ahead
        7. Summary Table: Chapter 7 Command Review
        8. Review Questions
        9. Configuration Exercises
        10. Troubleshooting Exercises
      4. 8. OSPFv2
        1. Operation of OSPF
          1. Neighbors and Adjacencies
            1. Hello Protocol
            2. Network Types
            3. Designated Routers and Backup Designated Routers
            4. OSPF Interfaces
              1. Interface Data Structure
              2. Interface State Machine
            5. OSPF Neighbors
              1. Neighbor Data Structure
              2. Neighbor State Machine
              3. Building an Adjacency
            6. Flooding
              1. Reliable Flooding: Acknowledgments
              2. Reliable Flooding: Sequencing, Checksums, and Aging
          2. Areas
            1. Router Types
            2. Partitioned Areas
            3. Virtual Links
          3. Link-State Database
            1. LSA Types
            2. Stub Areas
              1. Totally Stubby Areas
              2. Not-So-Stubby Areas
          4. Route Table
            1. Destination Types
            2. Path Types
            3. Route Table Lookups
          5. Authentication
          6. OSPF over Demand Circuits
          7. OSPF Packet Formats
            1. Packet Header
            2. Hello Packet
            3. Database Description Packet
            4. Link State Request Packet
            5. Link State Update Packet
            6. Link State Acknowledgment Packet
          8. OSPF LSA Formats
            1. LSA Header
            2. Router LSA
            3. Network LSA
            4. Network and ASBR Summary LSAs
            5. Autonomous System External LSA
          9. NSSA External LSA
          10. Options Field
        2. Configuring OSPF
          1. Case Study: A Basic OSPF Configuration
          2. Case Study: Setting Router IDs with Loopback Interfaces
          3. Case Study: Domain Name Service Lookups
          4. Case Study: OSPF and Secondary Addresses
          5. Case Study: Stub Areas
          6. Case Study: Totally Stubby Areas
          7. Case Study: Not-So-Stubby Areas
          8. Case Study: Address Summarization
          9. Case Study: Filtering Between Areas
          10. Case Study: Authentication
          11. Case Study: Virtual Links
          12. Case Study: OSPF on NBMA Networks
          13. Case Study: OSPF over Demand Circuits
        3. Troubleshooting OSPF
          1. Case Study: An Isolated Area
          2. Case Study: Misconfigured Summarization
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 8 Command Review
        6. Recommended Reading
        7. Review Questions
        8. Configuration Exercises
        9. Troubleshooting Exercises
      5. 9. OSPFv3
        1. Operation of OSPFv3
          1. OSPFv3 Differences from OSPFv2
          2. OSPFv3 Messages
          3. An Overview of OSPFv3 LSAs
          4. OSPFv3 LSA Formats
            1. The Router LSA
            2. Network LSA
            3. Inter-Area Prefix LSA
            4. Inter-Area Router LSA
            5. AS-External LSA
            6. Link LSA
            7. Intra-Area Prefix LSA
            8. Options Field
        2. Configuring OSPFv3
          1. Case Study: A Basic OSPFv3 Configuration
          2. Case Study: Stub Areas
          3. Case Study: Multiple Instances on a Link
          4. Case Study: OSPFv3 on NBMA Networks
        3. Troubleshooting OSPFv3
          1. Case Study: Frame Relay Mapping
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 9 Command Review
        6. Recommended Reading
        7. Review Questions
        8. Configuration Exercises
      6. 10. Integrated IS-IS
        1. Operation of Integrated IS-IS
          1. IS-IS Areas
          2. Network Entity Titles
          3. IS-IS Functional Organization
            1. Subnetwork Dependent Functions
              1. Neighbors and Adjacencies
              2. Designated Routers
            2. Subnetwork Independent Functions
              1. Update Process
              2. Decision Process
          4. IS-IS PDU Formats
            1. TLV Fields
            2. IS-IS Hello PDU Format
              1. Area Addresses TLV
              2. Intermediate System Neighbors TLV (Hello)
              3. Padding TLV
              4. Authentication Information TLV
              5. Protocols Supported TLV
              6. IP Interface Address TLV
            3. IS-IS Link State PDU Format
              1. Intermediate System Neighbors TLV (LSP)
              2. IP Internal Reachability Information TLV
              3. IP External Reachability Information TLV
              4. Inter-Domain Routing Protocol Information TLV
            4. IS-IS Sequence Numbers PDU Format
              1. LSP Entries TLV
          5. Extensions to IS-IS
            1. 3-Way Handshaking
            2. Domain-Wide Prefix Distribution
            3. Wide Metrics
            4. Routing IPv6 with IS-IS
            5. Dynamic Hostname Exchange
            6. Multiple Topologies
            7. Mesh Groups
          6. Flooding Delays
          7. Improving SPF Efficiency
        2. Configuring Integrated IS-IS
          1. Case Study: A Basic IPv4 Integrated IS-IS Configuration
          2. Case Study: Changing the Router Types
          3. Case Study: An Area Migration
          4. Case Study: Route Summarization
          5. Case Study: Authentication
          6. Case Study: A Basic Integrated IS-IS Configuration for IPv6
          7. Case Study: Transition to Multiple Topology Mode
          8. Case Study: Route Leaking Between Levels
          9. Case Study: Multiple L1 Areas Active on a Router
        3. Troubleshooting Integrated IS-IS
          1. Troubleshooting IS-IS Adjacencies
          2. Troubleshooting the IS-IS Link-State Database
          3. Case Study: Integrated IS-IS on NBMA Networks
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 10 Command Review
        6. Review Questions
        7. Configuration Exercises
        8. Troubleshooting Exercises
    10. III. Route Control and Interoperability
      1. 11. Route Redistribution
        1. Principles of Redistribution
          1. Metrics
          2. Administrative Distances
          3. Redistributing from Classless to Classful Protocols
        2. Configuring Redistribution
          1. Case Study: Redistributing IGRP and RIP
          2. Case Study: Redistributing EIGRP and OSPF
          3. Case Study: Redistribution and Route Summarization
          4. Case Study: Redistributing OSPFv3 and RIPng
          5. Case Study: Redistributing IS-IS and RIP/RIPng
          6. Case Study: Redistributing Static Routes
        3. Looking Ahead
        4. Summary Table: Chapter 11 Command Review
        5. Review Questions
        6. Configuration Exercises
        7. Troubleshooting Exercises
      2. 12. Default Routes and On-Demand Routing
        1. Fundamentals of Default Routes
        2. Fundamentals of On-Demand Routing
        3. Configuring Default Routes and ODR
          1. Case Study: Static Default Routes
          2. Case Study: The Default-Network Command
          3. Case Study: The Default-Information Originate Command
          4. Case Study: Configuring On-Demand Routing
        4. Looking Ahead
        5. Summary Table: Chapter 12 Command Review
        6. Review Questions
      3. 13. Route Filtering
        1. Configuring Route Filters
          1. Case Study: Filtering Specific Routes
          2. Case Study: Route Filtering and Redistribution
          3. Case Study: A Protocol Migration
          4. Case Study: Multiple Redistribution Points
          5. Case Study: Using Administrative Distances to Set Router Preferences
        2. Looking Ahead
        3. Summary Table: Chapter 13 Command Review
        4. Configuration Exercises
        5. Troubleshooting Exercises
      4. 14. Route Maps
        1. Basic Uses of Route Maps
        2. Configuring Route Maps
          1. Case Study: Policy Routing
          2. Case Study: Policy Routing and Quality of Service Routing
          3. Case Study: Route Maps and Redistribution
          4. Case Study: Route Tagging
          5. Case Study: Filtering Tagged Routes Out of OSPF Route Table
          6. Case Study: IPv6 Redistribution with Route Maps
        3. Looking Ahead
        4. Summary Table: Chapter 14 Command Review
        5. Review Questions
        6. Configuration Exercises
        7. Troubleshooting Exercise
    11. IV. Appendixes
      1. A. Tutorial: Working with Binary and Hex
        1. Working with Binary Numbers
        2. Working with Hexadecimal Numbers
      2. B. Tutorial: Access Lists
        1. Access List Basics
          1. Implicit Deny Any
          2. Sequentiality
          3. Access List Types
          4. Editing Access Lists
        2. Standard IP Access Lists
        3. Extended IP Access Lists
          1. TCP Access Lists
          2. UDP Access Lists
          3. ICMP Access Lists
        4. Calling the Access List
        5. Reflexive Access Lists
        6. Keyword Alternatives
        7. Named Access Lists
        8. Prefix Lists
        9. Filter Placement Considerations
        10. Access List Monitoring and Accounting
      3. C. CCIE Preparation Tips
        1. Laying the Foundations
        2. Following the Certification Path
        3. Hands-On Experience
        4. Intensifying the Study
        5. The Final Six Months
        6. Exam Day
      4. D. Answers to Review Questions
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 14
      5. E. Solutions to Configuration Exercises
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 3
        3. Chapter 5
        4. Chapter 6
        5. Chapter 7
        6. Chapter 8
        7. Chapter 9
        8. Chapter 10
        9. Chapter 11
        10. Chapter 13
        11. Chapter 14
      6. F. Solutions to Troubleshooting Exercises
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 3
        3. Chapter 5
        4. Chapter 6
        5. Chapter 7
        6. Chapter 8
        7. Chapter 10
        8. Chapter 11
        9. Chapter 13
        10. Chapter 14