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Robotics

Book Description

As mechanical and cybernetic technologies gain prominence and usability, robots have become ever more present in our everyday lives, with applications in education, transportation, and the workforce. Robotics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores some of the most recent developments in robotic motion, artificial intelligence, and human-machine interaction. The chapters in this extensive multi-volume reference source provide insight into a wide variety of applications and functional areas: from robots used in educational and medical settings to autonomous military and exploratory machines. Scientists, engineers, specialists, and programmers will all find valuable information and insight within these pages, applicable to a multitude of fields and professions.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: History of Service Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND: WHAT IS A SERVICE ROBOT
      3. SOME PAST AND RECENT PROGNOSES
      4. HISTORY OF SERVICE ROBOTS
      5. THE FUTURE
    2. Chapter 2: Task Coordination for Service Robots Based on Multiple Markov Decision Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MARKOV DECISION PROCESSES
      4. MDPs WITH MULTIPLE ACTIONS: NO CONFLICTS
      5. MDPs WITH MULTIPLE ACTIONS: SOLVING POLICY CONFLICTS
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    3. Chapter 3: Task Analysis and Motion Generation for Service Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GARMENT HANDLING AND IRONING
      4. IRONING PATHS
      5. FOLDING AND UNFOLDING
      6. ORIENTATION OF THE IRONING PROCESS
      7. POTENTIAL MULTI-FINGERED HANDS FOR HANDLING
      8. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
      9. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: From Object Recognition to Object Localization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCAL APPEARANCE-BASED OBJECT RECOGNITION AND MULTI-CAMERA SYSTEMS
      4. OBJECTS’ POSE AND POSITION ESTIMATION IN THE 3D SPACE
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    5. Chapter 5: 3D Scene Capture and Analysis for Intelligent Robotics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RANGING METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Support Vector Machine Based Mobile Robot Motion Control and Obstacle Avoidance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FUNCTIONS OF SVM
      4. MODEL OF TWMR AND PATH PLANNING
      5. CONTROLLER DESIGN IN STATIC ENVIRONMENT
      6. CONTROLLER DESIGN IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: A Framework for Prototyping of Autonomous Multi-Robot Systems for Search, Rescue, and Reconnaissance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HARDWARE PROTOTYPING FOR MULTI-ROBOT SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS
      4. PROTOTYPING CONTROL APPROACHES FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE MULTI-ROBOT TEAMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Applications of DEC-MDPs in Multi-Robot Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DECENTRALIZED CONTROL IN MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS
      4. RESCUE MISSIONS
      5. DECENTRALIZED MARKOV DECISION PROCESSES
      6. 2V-DEC-MDP FOR FLOCKING AND PLATOONING
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: The Inevitability of Library Automation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AUTOMATION IN LIBRARIES
      3. A PROPOSED STRUCTURE
      4. ACQUISITIONS AND COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT
      5. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES AND SYSTEMS
      6. THE OPEN SOURCE WILDCARD
      7. AIS AND SELF CORRECTION
      8. ECONOMICS
      9. THE FUTURE IS UNCERTAIN
      10. REAFFIRM VALUE/VALUES
      11. CHANGE OUR ROLE IN THE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
      12. DATA CURATION
      13. HIGH LEVEL COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES
      14. MAKERSPACES
    10. Chapter 10: Lending and Borrowing Library Materials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OVERVIEW OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION
      4. CIRCULATION TECHNOLOGY: REVIEW OF CURRENT APPLICATIONS
      5. CIRCULATION TECHNOLOGY: WHAT LIES AHEAD
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: Educational Robotics Theories and Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS
      4. LEARNING EXPERIENCE WITH EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS
      5. LEARNING THROUGH EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS IN PRACTICE
      6. THEORIES BEHIND EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS
      7. CREATING EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS FOR EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS
      8. FROM HERE ON: THE CHALLENGE
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 12: Mission Planning of Mobile Robots and Manipulators for Service Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADVANCES AND TRENDS IN MISSION PLANNING OF SERVICE ROBOTS
      4. THE MISSION-PLANNING PROBLEM
      5. CHARACTERISTICS OF A SERVICE ROBOT
      6. OPTIMAL MISSION PLANNING
      7. THE WORKSPACE MODEL
      8. STATIC PATH PLANNING
      9. MISSION PLANNING FOR THE MOBILE PLATFORM
      10. DETERMINING AN OPTIMUM PATH IN STATIC ENVIRONMENT
      11. AVOIDING MOVING OBSTACLES
      12. MANIPULATOR MOTION PLANNING
      13. SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS
      14. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 13: Relational Representations and Traces for Efficient Reinforcement Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    3. Chapter 14: Gesture Learning by Imitation Architecture for a Social Robot
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 15: A Human Affect Recognition System for Socially Interactive Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BODY LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION
      5. EXPERIMENTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 16: Reasoning about Space, Actions, and Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPACE, ACTIONS, AND CHANGE: APPLICATION PERSPECTIVES
      4. RSAC: A LOGICAL PERSPECTIVE TO INTEGRATION
      5. RSAC: KEY CHALLENGES AND QUESTIONS
      6. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
      7. LITERATURE AND COMMUNITY
    6. Chapter 17: Intelligent Stereo Vision in Autonomous Robot Traversability Estimation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STEREO VISION FOR AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS
      5. FUZZY OBSTACLE ANALYSIS
      6. V-DISPARITY FEATURE EXTRACTION AND SVM-BASED LEARNING
      7. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    7. Chapter 18: Mobile/Wireless Robot Navigation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO NAVIGATION
      3. AIM OF THE CHAPTER
      4. LOCALIZATION
      5. WORKING
      6. BELIEF UPDATE USING MARKOV LOCALIZATION
      7. WORKING OF MONTE CARLO
      8. TRACKING AND KALMAN FILTER
      9. MARKOV LOCALIZATION AS THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM
      10. MATHEMATICAL FORMULA
      11. EXAMPLE AND WORKING
      12. MONTE CARLO LOCALIZATION
      13. OUR MODEL
      14. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 19: Self Control and Server-Supervisory Control for Multiple Mobile Robots and its Applicability to Intelligent DNC System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE ROBOT WITH MULTIPLE PSD SENSORS
      4. BASIC MOTION CONTROL OF MOBILE ROBOT
      5. SELF-CONTROL MODE
      6. EXPERIMENT AND DISCUSSION
      7. SERVER-SUPERVISORY CONTROL MODE
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    9. Chapter 20: Distributed Multi-Robot Localization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SETTING AND APPROACH
      5. BACKGROUND: THE INTERLACED EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER
      6. DISTRIBUTED MULTI-ROBOT LOCALIZATION USING IEKF
      7. CASE STUDIES
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 21: Static and Dynamic Multi-Robot Coverage with Grammatical Evolution Guided by Reinforcement and Semantic Rules
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. GRAMMATICAL EVOLUTION GUIDED BY REINFORCEMENT
      5. SEMANTIC RULES IN GRAMMATICAL EVOLUTION GUIDED BY REINFORCEMENT
      6. STATIC MULTI-ROBOT COVERAGE
      7. DYNAMIC MULTI-ROBOT COVERAGE
      8. RESULTS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 22: How Ants Can Efficiently Solve the Generalized Watchman Route Problem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      5. ANT ALGORITHM FOR MOBOTS
      6. SIMULATION EXPERIMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 23: Distributed Task Allocation in Swarms of Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISTRIBUTED TASK ALLOCATION
      5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      6. TUNING OF CONTROL PARAMETERS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    13. Chapter 24: Design and Operation of Two Service Robot Arms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE WIDE SURFACES PRINTING ROBOT
      4. THE ARTIST ROBOT
      5. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    14. Chapter 25: Prototyping of Lunabotic Excavator Robotic System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NASA LUNABOTIC MINING COMPTITION
      4. ROBOTIC SYSTEM DESIGN OF UB EXCAVATOR
      5. DESIGN OF UB EXCAVATOR LUNABOTIC SYSTEM
      6. PROTOTYPING OF UB EXCAVATOR ROBOTIC SYSTEM
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 26: Modular Cable-Driven Robotic Arms for Intrinsically Safe Manipulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CABLE-DRIVEN UNIVERSAL JOINT (CDUJ) MODULE
      4. DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS FOR CDUJ MODULE
      5. TENSION ANALYSIS
      6. WORKSPACE ANALYSIS
      7. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
      8. KINEMATICS ANALYSIS FOR CABLE-DRIVEN ROBOTIC ARM (CDRA)
      9. PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 27: Portable Haptic Arm Exoskeleton
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN
      4. CONTROL EXPERIMENTS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 28: Lagrangian Dynamics of Manipulators
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FORMULATION OF THE EQUATION OF MOTION
      4. EXAMPLES OF DYNAMIC MODELING USING THE LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION: ROBOT HANDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 29: Optimal Design of Three-Link Planar Manipulators Using Grashof's Criterion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEXTERITY INDEX AS A PERFORMANCE MEASURE
      4. GRASHOF'S CRITERION
      5. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
      6. EXAMPLE 1: TRAJECTORY
      7. EXAMPLE 2: INDEPENDENT TASK POINTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. Chapter 30: Medical Manipulators for Surgical Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
      4. THE CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICAL MANIPULATORS BY JOINT CATEGORY
      5. THE CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICAL MANIPULATOR BY AUTOMATICITY
      6. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
    6. Chapter 31: Needle Insertion Force Modeling using Genetic Programming Polynomial Higher Order Neural Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOFT TISSUE INSERTION METHODS AND FORMULATION
      4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR SOFT TISSUE NEEDLE INSERTION
      5. GENETIC-BASED POLYNOMIAL HIGHER ORDER NEURAL NETWORK
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    7. Chapter 32: Small Medical Robot
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDICAL ROBOT OPERATION
      4. TRAVEL VERIFICATION
      5. CLINICAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 33: A Mechatronic Description of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Dam Inspection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE
      4. EMBEDDED INSTRUMENTATION
      5. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. Chapter 34: Agile Wheeled Mobile Robots for Service in Natural Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SKID-STEERING AT LOW SPEED WITH A 6X6 ARCHITECTURE
      4. 3. AGILE ROBOTS FOR OBSTACLE CROSSING AT LOW SPEED
      5. 4. HIGH SPEED SAFE CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC STABILITY
      6. 5. INNOVATIVE SUSPENSIONS WITH 2 DOF FOR HIGH SPEED OBSTACLE CROSSING
      7. 6. GENERAL CONCLUSION: TOWARDS NEW AGILE VEHICLES
    10. Chapter 35: Prototyping and Real-Time Implementation of Bipedal Humanoid Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROTOTYPING OF BIPEDAL ROBOTS
      5. DYNAMICALLY EQUILIBRATED BIPEDAL MOTION PLANNING
      6. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. APPENDIX A: RATE CHANGE OF INTRINSIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM
      10. APPENDIX B: BIPEDAL MOTION GENERATION BASED ON CONVENTIONAL ZMP APPROACH
    11. Chapter 36: Design of a Mobile Robot to Clean the External Walls of Oil Tanks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. VORTEX ADHESION SYSTEM
      6. MECHANICAL SYSTEM
      7. RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 37: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of On-Board Subsystems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SYSTEM IN THE LOOP TESTING: INTRODUCTION
      3. AN INTRODUCTIVE EXAMPLE: TESTING OF RAILWAY DISKS AND BRAKE PADS
      4. HIL SIMULATION OF RAILWAY PANTOGRAPHS
      5. WEAR OF SLIDING SURFACES AND ARCING: APPLICATION OF HIL TECHNIQUES TO PANTOGRAPH TESTING
      6. MUTUAL INTERACTION OF SAFETY-RELEVANT SUB-SYSTEMS WITH DEGRADED ADHESION CONDITIONS: THE APPLICATION OF HIL TESTING TO ODOMETRY, WSP, AND ANTI-SKID SYSTEMS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
    13. Chapter 38: Attentive Visual Memory for Robot Localization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. DESIGN
      5. LOCAL VISUAL MEMORY
      6. VISUAL ATTENTION
      7. EVOLUTIONARY VISUAL LOCALIZATION
      8. EXPERIMENTS
      9. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 39: A Neuromorphic Robot Vision System to Predict the Response of Visual Neurons
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR VERGENCE EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL
      4. BINOCULAR ROBOT VISION SYSTEM
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 40: Visual Control of an Autonomous Indoor Robotic Blimp
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BLIMP EXTRACTION
      5. BLIMP’S VISUAL ODOMETRY
      6. VISUAL SERVOING CONTROLLER
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 41: Indoor Surveillance Application using Wireless Robots and Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SURV-TRACK APPLICATION
      5. MULTI-ROBOT TASK ALLOCATION FOR TARGET CAPTURING
      6. ROBOT PATH PLANNING USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    2. Chapter 42: Prototyping of Fully Autonomous Indoor Patrolling Mobile Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OMNI-DIRECTIONAL DRIVE MODULE
      5. LOCALIZATION MODULE
      6. NAVIGATION MODULE: MOTION PLANNING IN TYPICAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT WITH COMPLEX OBJECTS
      7. AUTO-DOCKING MODULE
      8. AN INTEGRATED TEST: ROBOT AUTO PATROLLING IN A TYPICAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT WITH AUTO-CHARGING
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    3. Chapter 43: Mobile Worm-Like Robots for Pipe Inspection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INVESTIGATION OF MOTION OF A MOBILE TWO-MASS WLR
      4. INVESTIGATION OF LOCOMOTION OF WLR
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 44: Study and Design of an Autonomous Mobile Robot Applied to Underwater Cleaning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 45: Safer and Faster Humanitarian Demining with Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRUCTURE OF EXISTING EOD ROBOTS
      4. PROTOTYPING AND CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE M122 ROBOT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 46: A Swarm Robotics Approach to Decontamination
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS
      4. DISTRIBUTED AND PARALLEL DECONTAMINATION
      5. A SWARM ROBOTICS APPROACH TO FIREFIGHTING
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    7. Chapter 47: A Resource-Oriented Petri Net Approach to Scheduling and Control of Time-Constrained Cluster Tools in Semiconductor Fabrication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPERATION MODE AND MOTIVATION
      4. PETRI NET MODELING
      5. OPERATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND CONTROL POLICY
      6. WAFER SOJOURN TIME DELAY ANALYSIS
      7. SCHEDULABILITY AND SCHEDULING ALGORITHM
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    8. Chapter 48: Unpredicted Trajectories of an Automated Guided Vehicle with Chaos
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AGV NAVIGATION CHAOTIC WITH OBSTACLES
      4. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 49: Stereoscopic Vision for Off-Road Intelligent Vehicles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE WEIGHT OF NOISE IN REAL-TIME FIELD APPLICATIONS
      5. CONFIGURATION OF 3D PERCEPTION ENGINES FOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLES
      6. PROCESSING 3D DATA IN REAL TIME
      7. AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 50: Mechatronics Technology for Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN OF A SOLAR TRACKER
      4. PROGRAMMING OF A SOLAR TRACKER
      5. PROTOTYPE AND EXPERIMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 51: Service Robots for Agriculture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MECHANIZATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL FIELD
      4. PNEUMATICS IN HARVESTING
      5. AN APPLICATION OF SERVICE ROBOT TO SAFFRON FLOWER HARVESTING AND SPICE SEPARATION SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 52: Transforming Technical Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. JOURNEY TO THE TRANSFORMATION
      5. SYSTEMS AND TOOLS FOR TECHNOLOGY MAXIMIZATION
      6. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR TECHNOLOGY MAXIMIZATION
      7. USAGE BEYOND ORIGINAL INTENT
      8. BARRIERS TO TECHNOLOGICAL MAXIMIZATION
      9. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 53: Medical Robotics in K-12 Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEDIBOTICS
      5. MEDIBOTICS SHOWCASE
      6. TEACHER WORKBOOK: AN EXAMPLE
      7. EVALUATION
      8. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 54: Medical Robotics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDICAL ROBOTICS
      4. APPLICATIONS OF SURGICAL ROBOTS
      5. LIMITATIONS OF SURGICAL ROBOTICS
      6. FUTURE CHALLENGES OF SURGICAL ROBOTICS
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 55: Surgical Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND COMMUNITY
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. SUMMARY
      6. ADDITIONAL READING MATERIALS
    16. Chapter 56: Wearable Power Assist Robot Driven with Pneumatic Rubber Artificial Muscles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF POWER ASSIST ROBOTS
      4. PNEUMATIC RUBBER ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES
      5. EXOSKELETON TYPE STANDING UP MOTION ASSIST DEVICE
      6. POWER ASSIST WEAR
      7. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 57: Gait Rhythm of Parkinson’s Disease Patients and an Interpersonal Synchrony Emulation System based on Cooperative Gait
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 58: Robot Modeling for Physical Rehabilitation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. JOINTS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE HUMAN BODY
      4. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS FOR REHABILITATION
      5. MATHEMATICAL MODELING
      6. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 59: Interactive Games with Robotic and Augmented Reality Technology in Cognitive and Motor Rehabilitation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. PILOT DESIGN
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 60: An Integrated Framework for Robust Human-Robot Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR HRI
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. Chapter 61: Making Use of Multi-Modal Synchrony
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION AND LEARNING
      4. A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF ACOUSTIC PACKAGING
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 62: Human-Friendly Mechatronics Systems with Functional Fluids and Elastomers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATIONS TO HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS
      4. APPLICATIONS TO LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
      5. APPLICATION TO EVALUATION SYSTEMS FOR HUMANS
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 63: Effects of Human-Machine Integration on the Construction of Identity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS ON THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY
      4. THE BODY AS THE INTEGRATION PLACE: TOWARD THE CYBORG
      5. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND DISCUSSION OF TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 64: Android Robots as Telepresence Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEMINOIDS AND TELEOPERATION SYSTEM
      4. EXPERIMENTS USING GEMINOID
      5. TOWARDS “MINIMALISTIC HUMANS”
      6. FIELD EXPERIMENTS USING TELENOID
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 65: Developmental Language Learning from Human/Humanoid Robot Social Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING
      3. NEW PARADIGMS FOR HUMANOID ROBOTS
      4. DEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE LEARNING BY ROBOTS
      5. CROSS-MODAL PERCEPTS ASSOCIATED TO ACOUSTIC INFORMATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 66: Just Doesn’t Look Right
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHAPTER OVERVIEW
      4. THE ECOLOGY OF MILITARY EOD WORK: ORGANIZATION, PEOPLE, ROBOTS, OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, TASKS
      5. CONSTRUCTING AN UNDERSTANDING OF HRI IN EOD TEAMS
      6. DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF WORKING WITH HUMANOID ROBOTS IN EOD TEAMS
    11. Chapter 67: Robotic Hardware and Software Integration for Changing Human Intentions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR HARDWARE PROTOTYPING
      5. SOFTWARE PROTOTYPING
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    12. Chapter 68: Building a Technoself
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTER
      4. HOW DO CHILDREN CONCEPTUALIZE ROBOTIC PETS?
      5. HOW DO CHILDREN CONCEPTUALIZE THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH AIBO?
      6. HOW DO CHILDREN CONCEPTUALIZE THE SELF-IN-RELATIONSHIP WITH AIBO?
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    13. Chapter 69: The Mediating Role of Context in an Urban After-School Robotics Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE
      4. BEECH HILL ROBOTICS
      5. METHODS
      6. ANALYSIS USING ACTIVITY SYSTEMS
      7. DESIGN USING ACTIVITY SYSTEMS
    14. Chapter 70: The Impact of Educational Robotics on Student STEM Learning, Attitudes, and Workplace Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH BASE FOR EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS
      4. DESCRIPTION OF THE ROBOTICS PROGRAM
      5. CURRENT RESEARCH
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. SUMMARY
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 71: Stereo Vision Depth Estimation Methods for Robotic Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ISSUES OF ROBOTICS-ORIENTED STEREO VISION
      4. DEPTH MAPS COMPUTATION
      5. TRAVERSABILITY ESTIMATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 72: Self-Calibration of Eye-to-Hand and Workspace for Mobile Service Robot
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CALIBRATION OF GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG EYE-TO-HAND AND WORKSPACE
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 73: Optimal Location of the Workpiece in a PKM-Based Machining Robotic Cell
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PKM CONFIGURATION AND MODELLING
      4. STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION
      5. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION
      6. STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION RESULTS
      7. WORKPIECE OPTIMAL LOCATION
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 74: Visual Detection in Linked Multi-Component Robotic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROBOTIC VISION SYSTEM
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 75: Ad Hoc Communications for Wireless Robots in Indoor Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. THE EVOLUTION OF ROBOT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
      5. SCENARIOS
      6. THE IEEE 802.11n STANDARD
      7. THE IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD
      8. ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION MODELS
      9. INDOORS ATTENUATION BY DISTANCE WITH IEEE 802.11n
      10. INDOOR ATTENUATION CAUSED BY OBSTACLES WITH THE IEEE 802.11n STANDARD
      11. INDOOR ATTENUATION BY DISTANCE WITH IEEE 802.15.4
      12. INDOORS ATTENUATION BY OBSTACLES WITH 802.15.4
      13. EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WIRELESS PROPAGATION MODELS
      14. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 76: Real-Time Fuzzy Logic-Based Hybrid Robot Path-Planning Strategies for a Dynamic Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CASCADE OF FUZZY SYSTEMS
      5. SAMPLE EMPIRICAL RESULT: THE HYBRID FUZZY A* ALGORITHM USING A FIXED GRID
      6. SAMPLE EMPIRICAL RESULT: THE HYBRID FUZZY A* UTILISING THE VORONOI DIAGRAM: NEAR-OPTIMAL PATH PLANNING (SHORTEST SAFEST PATH)
      7. SYSTEM CALIBRATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 77: Collaborative Exploration based on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT
      5. MULTI-ROBOT EXPLORATION: ASSIGNMENT OF ROBOTS TO REGIONS
      6. EXPERIMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. Chapter 78: Modular Assembly Micro-Robots for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MICRO-ROBOTS FOR NOTES
      4. MODULAR ASSEMBLING RECONFIGURABLE MICRO-ROBOTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 79: Biorobotics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. A COMPREHENSIVE DEFINITION OF BIOROBOTICS
      5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      6. ROBOTICS FOR THERAPY AND SURGERY
      7. ROBOTICS FOR REHABILITATION AND ASSISTANCE
      8. BIOINSPIRED AND BIOMIMETIC ROBOTICS
      9. THE FUTURE OF BIOROBOTICS
      10. CHAPTER SUMMARY
    10. Chapter 80: Mobile Laboratory Model for Next-Generation Heterogeneous Wireless Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF MOBILE LABORATORY MODEL
      4. COMPONENTS OF MOBILE LABORATORY MODEL
      5. MLM-ADAPTED UBIQUITOUS MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ARCHITECTURE FOR NEXT-GENERATION WIRELESS SYSTEMS
      6. A MOBILE LABORATORY PROTOTYPE
      7. TESTING THE MOBILE LABORATORY MODEL SCENARIOS
      8. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 81: Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION, REVIEW OF AI TECHNIQUES
      3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
      4. FUZZY LOGIC
      5. GENETIC ALGORITHMS
      6. HYBRID SYSTEMS
      7. METEOROLOGICAL-BASED SOLAR RADIATION DATA ANALYSIS, MODELING AND FORECASTING
      8. CONVENTIONAL MODELS FOR SOLAR RADIATION
      9. TERRESTRIAL RADIATION
      10. INSULATION ON TILTED SURFACES
      11. APPLICATION OF AI TECHNIQUES FOR SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION AND MODELING
      12. ANN MODELS FOR SOLAR RADIATION ESTIMATION, PREDICTION, AND FORECASTING
      13. FUZZY LOGIC AND HYBRID APPROACHES TO MODEL AND PREDICT SOLAR RADIATION
      14. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS AND MARKOV CHAINS FOR SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION
      15. CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR PV SYSTEM SEIZING
      16. AI TECHNIQUES FOR SEIZING PV SYSTEMS
      17. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 82: Understanding the Human-Machine Interface in a Time of Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HUMAN IDENTITY IN A VIRTUAL WORLD
      5. THE COMINGLING OF REAL AND DIGITAL WORLDS: REALITY MINING AND PREDICTIVE MODELING
      6. EFFECT OF THE HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE ON PRIVACY
      7. HUMAN IDENTITY AND THE SHIFT TO “BIG SYSTER”
      8. CONNECTOMAPPING
      9. THE INTEGRATED HUMAN
      10. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 83: A Neurorobotics Approach to Investigating Word Learning Behaviors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MULTIMODAL HABITUATION AND THE SYNCHRONY CONSTRAINT
      5. FREE LOOKING BEHAVIOR
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION