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RESTful Web Services

Cover of RESTful Web Services by Leonard Richardson... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. RESTful Web Services
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Foreword
    4. Preface
      1. The Web Is Simple
      2. Big Web Services Are Not Simple
      3. The Story of the REST
      4. Reuniting the Webs
      5. What’s in This Book?
      6. Administrative Notes
      7. Conventions Used in This Book
      8. Using Code Examples
      9. Safari® Enabled
      10. How to Contact Us
      11. Acknowledgments
    5. 1. The Programmable Web and Its Inhabitants
      1. Kinds of Things on the Programmable Web
      2. HTTP: Documents in Envelopes
      3. Method Information
      4. Scoping Information
      5. The Competing Architectures
      6. Technologies on the Programmable Web
      7. Leftover Terminology
    6. 2. Writing Web Service Clients
      1. Web Services Are Web Sites
      2. The Sample Application
      3. Making the Request: HTTP Libraries
      4. Processing the Response: XML Parsers
      5. JSON Parsers: Handling Serialized Data
      6. Clients Made Easy with WADL
    7. 3. What Makes RESTful Services Different?
      1. Introducing the Simple Storage Service
      2. Object-Oriented Design of S3
      3. Resources
      4. HTTP Response Codes
      5. An S3 Client
      6. Request Signing and Access Control
      7. Using the S3 Client Library
      8. Clients Made Transparent with ActiveResource
      9. Parting Words
    8. 4. The Resource-Oriented Architecture
      1. Resource-Oriented What Now?
      2. What’s a Resource?
      3. URIs
      4. Addressability
      5. Statelessness
      6. Representations
      7. Links and Connectedness
      8. The Uniform Interface
      9. That’s It!
    9. 5. Designing Read-Only Resource-Oriented Services
      1. Resource Design
      2. Turning Requirements Into Read-Only Resources
      3. Figure Out the Data Set
      4. Split the Data Set into Resources
      5. Name the Resources
      6. Design Your Representations
      7. Link the Resources to Each Other
      8. The HTTP Response
      9. Conclusion
    10. 6. Designing Read/Write Resource-Oriented Services
      1. User Accounts as Resources
      2. Custom Places
      3. A Look Back at the Map Service
    11. 7. A Service Implementation
      1. A Social Bookmarking Web Service
      2. Figuring Out the Data Set
      3. Resource Design
      4. Design the Representation(s) Accepted from the Client
      5. Design the Representation(s) Served to the Client
      6. Connect Resources to Each Other
      7. What’s Supposed to Happen?
      8. What Might Go Wrong?
      9. Controller Code
      10. Model Code
      11. What Does the Client Need to Know?
    12. 8. REST and ROA Best Practices
      1. Resource-Oriented Basics
      2. The Generic ROA Procedure
      3. Addressability
      4. State and Statelessness
      5. Connectedness
      6. The Uniform Interface
      7. This Stuff Matters
      8. Resource Design
      9. URI Design
      10. Outgoing Representations
      11. Incoming Representations
      12. Service Versioning
      13. Permanent URIs Versus Readable URIs
      14. Standard Features of HTTP
      15. Faking PUT and DELETE
      16. The Trouble with Cookies
      17. Why Should a User Trust the HTTP Client?
    13. 9. The Building Blocks of Services
      1. Representation Formats
      2. Prepackaged Control Flows
      3. Hypermedia Technologies
    14. 10. The Resource-Oriented Architecture Versus Big Web Services
      1. What Problems Are Big Web Services Trying to Solve?
      2. SOAP
      3. WSDL
      4. UDDI
      5. Security
      6. Reliable Messaging
      7. Transactions
      8. BPEL, ESB, and SOA
      9. Conclusion
    15. 11. Ajax Applications as REST Clients
      1. From AJAX to Ajax
      2. The Ajax Architecture
      3. A Example
      4. The Advantages of Ajax
      5. The Disadvantages of Ajax
      6. REST Goes Better
      7. Making the Request
      8. Handling the Response
      9. JSON
      10. Don’t Bogart the Benefits of REST
      11. Cross-Browser Issues and Ajax Libraries
      12. Subverting the Browser Security Model
    16. 12. Frameworks for RESTful Services
      1. Ruby on Rails
      2. Restlet
      3. Django
    17. A. Some Resources for REST and Some RESTful Resources
      1. Standards and Guides
      2. Services You Can Use
    18. B. The HTTP Response Code Top 42
      1. Three to Seven Status Codes: The Bare Minimum
      2. 1xx: Meta
      3. 2xx: Success
      4. 3xx: Redirection
      5. 4xx: Client-Side Error
      6. 5xx: Server-Side Error
    19. C. The HTTP Header Top Infinity
      1. Standard Headers
      2. Nonstandard Headers
    20. Index
    21. About the Authors
    22. Colophon
    23. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Clients Made Transparent with ActiveResource

Since all RESTful web services expose basically the same simple interface, it’s not a big chore to write a custom client for every web service. It is a little wasteful, though, and there are two alternatives. You can describe a service with a WADL file (introduced in the previous chapter, and covered in more detail in Chapter 9), and then access it with a generic WADL client. There’s also a Ruby library called ActiveResource that makes it trivial to write clients for certain kinds of web services.

ActiveResource is designed to run against web services that expose the rows and tables of a relational database. WADL can describe almost any kind of web service, but ActiveResource only works as a client for web services that follow certain conventions. Right now, Ruby on Rails is the only framework that follows the conventions. But any web service can answer requests from an ActiveResource client: it just has to expose its database through the same RESTful interface as Rails.

As of the time of writing, there are few publicly available web services that can be used with an ActiveResource client (I list a couple in Appendix A). To show you an example I’m going create a small Rails web service of my own. I’ll be able to drive my service with an ActiveResource client, without writing any HTTP client or XML parsing code.

Creating a Simple Service

My web service will be a simple notebook: a way of keeping timestamped notes to myself. I’ve got Rails 1.2 installed on my computer, so I can create the notebook service like this:

$ rails notebook    
$ cd notebook

I create a database on my system called notebook_development, and edit the Rails file notebook/config/database.yml to give Rails the information it needs to connect to my database. Any general guide to Rails will have more detail on these initial steps.

Now I’ve created a Rails application, but it doesn’t do anything. I’m going to generate code for a simple, RESTful web service with the scaffold generator. I want my notes to contain a timestamp and a body of text, so I run the following command:

$ ruby script/generate scaffold note date:date body:text
create  app/views/notes
create  app/views/notes/index.rhtml
create  app/views/notes/show.rhtml
create  app/views/notes/new.rhtml
create  app/views/notes/edit.rhtml
create  app/views/layouts/notes.rhtml
create  public/stylesheets/scaffold.css
create  app/models/note.rb
create  app/controllers/notes_controller.rb
create  test/functional/notes_controller_test.rb
create  app/helpers/notes_helper.rb
create  test/unit/note_test.rb
create  test/fixtures/notes.yml
create  db/migrate
create  db/migrate/001_create_notes.rb
route  map.resources :notes

Rails has generated a complete set of web service code—model, view, and controller—for my “note” object. There’s code in db/migrate/001_create_notes.rb that creates a database table called notes with three fields: a unique ID, a date (date), and a piece of text (body).

The model code in app/models/note.rb provides an ActiveResource interface to the database table. The controller code in app/controllers/notes_controller.rb exposes that interface to the world through HTTP, and the views in app/views/notes define the user interface. It adds up to a RESTful web service—not a very fancy one, but one that’s good enough for a demo or to use as a starting point.

Before starting the service I need to initialize the database:

$ rake db:migrate
== CreateNotes: migrating =====================================================
-- create_table(:notes)
   -> 0.0119s
== CreateNotes: migrated (0.0142s) ============================================

Now I can start the notebook application and start using my service:

$ script/server
=> Booting WEBrick...
=> Rails application started on
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server; call with --help for options

An ActiveResource Client

The application I just generated is not much use except as a demo, but it demos some pretty impressive features. First, it’s both a web service and a web application. I can visit http://localhost:3000/notes in my web browser and create notes through the web interface. After a while the view of http://localhost:3000/notes might look like Figure 3-1.

The notebook web application with a few entered notes

Figure 3-1. The notebook web application with a few entered notes

If you’ve ever written a Rails application or seen a Rails demo, this should look familiar. But in Rails 1.2, the generated model and controller can also act as a RESTful web service. A programmed client can access it as easily as a web browser can.

Unfortunately, the ActiveResource client itself was not released along with Rails 1.2. As of the time of writing, it’s still being developed on the tip of the Rails development tree. To get the code I need to check it out from the Subversion version control repository:

$ svn co activeresource_client
$ cd activeresource_client

Now I’m ready to write ActiveResource clients for the notebook’s web service. Example 3-24 is a client that creates a note, modifies it, lists the existing notes, and then deletes the note it just created.

Example 3-24. An ActiveResource client for the notebook service

#!/usr/bin/ruby -w
# activeresource-notebook-manipulation.rb

require 'activesupport/lib/active_support'
require 'activeresource/lib/active_resource'

# Define a model for the objects exposed by the site
class Note < ActiveResource::Base = 'http://localhost:3000/'

def show_notes
  notes = Note.find :all                 # GET /notes.xml
  puts "I see #{notes.size} note(s):"
  notes.each do |note|
    puts " #{}: #{note.body}"

new_note = =>, :body => "A test note")                            # POST /notes.xml

new_note.body = "This note has been modified."                            # PUT /notes/{id}.xml


new_note.destroy                         # DELETE /notes/{id}.xml


Example 3-25 shows the output when I run that program:

Example 3-25. A run of activeresource-notebook-manipulation.rb

I see 3 note(s):
 2006-06-05: What if I wrote a book about REST?
 2006-12-18: Pasta for lunch maybe?
 2006-12-18: This note has been modified.

I see 2 note(s):
 2006-06-05: What if I wrote a book about REST?
 2006-12-18: Pasta for lunch maybe?

If you’re familiar with ActiveRecord, the object-relational mapper that connects Rails to a database, you’ll notice that the ActiveResource interface looks almost exactly the same. Both libraries provide an object-oriented interface to a wide variety of objects, each of which exposes a uniform interface. With ActiveRecord, the objects live in a database and are exposed through SQL, with its SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. With ActiveResource, they live in a Rails application and are exposed through HTTP, with its GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE.

Example 3-26 is an excerpt from the Rails server logs at the time I ran my ActiveResource client. The GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE requests correspond to the commented lines of code back in Example 3-24.

Example 3-26. The HTTP requests made by activeresource-notebook-manipulation.rb

"POST /notes.xml HTTP/1.1" 201
"PUT /notes/5.xml HTTP/1.1" 200
"GET /notes.xml HTTP/1.1" 200
"DELETE /notes/5.xml HTTP/1.1" 200 
"GET /notes.xml HTTP/1.1" 200

What’s going on in these requests? The same thing that’s going on in requests to S3: resource access through HTTP’s uniform interface. My notebook service exposes two kinds of resources:

  • The list of notes (/notes.xml). Compare to an S3 bucket, which is a list of objects.

  • A note (/notes/{id}.xml). Compare to an S3 object.

These resources expose GET, PUT, and DELETE, just like the S3 resources do. The list of notes also supports POST to create a new note. That’s a little different from S3, where objects are created with PUT, but it’s just as RESTful.

When the client runs, XML documents are transferred invisibly between client and server. They look like the documents in Example 3-27 or 3-28: simple depictions of the underlying database rows.

Example 3-27. The response entity-body from a GET request to /notes.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <body>What if I wrote a book about REST?</body>
  <date type="date">2006-06-05</date>
  <id type="integer">2</id>
  <body>Pasta for lunch maybe?</body>
  <date type="date">2006-12-18</date>
  <id type="integer">3</id>

Example 3-28. A request entity-body sent as part of a PUT request to /notes/5.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 <body>This note has been modified.</body>

A Python Client for the Simple Service

Right now the only ActiveResource client library is the Ruby library, and Rails is the only framework that exposes ActiveResource-compatible services. But nothing’s happening here except HTTP requests that pass XML documents into certain URIs and get XML documents back. There’s no reason why a client in some other language couldn’t send those XML documents, or why some other framework couldn’t expose the same URIs.

Example 3-29 is a Python implementation of the client program from Example 3-24. It’s longer than the Ruby program, because it can’t rely on ActiveResource. It has to build its own XML documents and make its own HTTP requests, but its structure is almost exactly the same.

Example 3-29. A Python client for an ActiveResource service


from elementtree.ElementTree import Element, SubElement, tostring
from elementtree import ElementTree
import httplib2
import time

BASE = "http://localhost:3000/"
client = httplib2.Http(".cache")

def showNotes():
    headers, xml = client.request(BASE + "notes.xml")
    doc = ElementTree.fromstring(xml)
    for note in doc.findall('note'):
        print "%s: %s" % (note.find('date').text, note.find('body').text)

newNote = Element("note")
date = SubElement(newNote, "date")
date.attrib['type'] = "date"
date.text = time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d", time.localtime())
body = SubElement(newNote, "body")
body.text = "A test note"
headers, ignore = client.request(BASE + "notes.xml", "POST",
                                 body= tostring(newNote),
                                 headers={'content-type' : 'application/xml'})
newURI = headers['location']

modifiedBody = Element("note")
body = SubElement(modifiedBody, "body")
body.text = "This note has been modified"

client.request(newURI, "PUT",
               headers={'content-type' : 'application/xml'})


client.request(newURI, "DELETE")


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