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RESTful Web Services

Cover of RESTful Web Services by Leonard Richardson... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. RESTful Web Services
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Foreword
    4. Preface
      1. The Web Is Simple
      2. Big Web Services Are Not Simple
      3. The Story of the REST
      4. Reuniting the Webs
      5. What’s in This Book?
      6. Administrative Notes
      7. Conventions Used in This Book
      8. Using Code Examples
      9. Safari® Enabled
      10. How to Contact Us
      11. Acknowledgments
    5. 1. The Programmable Web and Its Inhabitants
      1. Kinds of Things on the Programmable Web
      2. HTTP: Documents in Envelopes
      3. Method Information
      4. Scoping Information
      5. The Competing Architectures
      6. Technologies on the Programmable Web
      7. Leftover Terminology
    6. 2. Writing Web Service Clients
      1. Web Services Are Web Sites
      2. The Sample Application
      3. Making the Request: HTTP Libraries
      4. Processing the Response: XML Parsers
      5. JSON Parsers: Handling Serialized Data
      6. Clients Made Easy with WADL
    7. 3. What Makes RESTful Services Different?
      1. Introducing the Simple Storage Service
      2. Object-Oriented Design of S3
      3. Resources
      4. HTTP Response Codes
      5. An S3 Client
      6. Request Signing and Access Control
      7. Using the S3 Client Library
      8. Clients Made Transparent with ActiveResource
      9. Parting Words
    8. 4. The Resource-Oriented Architecture
      1. Resource-Oriented What Now?
      2. What’s a Resource?
      3. URIs
      4. Addressability
      5. Statelessness
      6. Representations
      7. Links and Connectedness
      8. The Uniform Interface
      9. That’s It!
    9. 5. Designing Read-Only Resource-Oriented Services
      1. Resource Design
      2. Turning Requirements Into Read-Only Resources
      3. Figure Out the Data Set
      4. Split the Data Set into Resources
      5. Name the Resources
      6. Design Your Representations
      7. Link the Resources to Each Other
      8. The HTTP Response
      9. Conclusion
    10. 6. Designing Read/Write Resource-Oriented Services
      1. User Accounts as Resources
      2. Custom Places
      3. A Look Back at the Map Service
    11. 7. A Service Implementation
      1. A Social Bookmarking Web Service
      2. Figuring Out the Data Set
      3. Resource Design
      4. Design the Representation(s) Accepted from the Client
      5. Design the Representation(s) Served to the Client
      6. Connect Resources to Each Other
      7. What’s Supposed to Happen?
      8. What Might Go Wrong?
      9. Controller Code
      10. Model Code
      11. What Does the Client Need to Know?
    12. 8. REST and ROA Best Practices
      1. Resource-Oriented Basics
      2. The Generic ROA Procedure
      3. Addressability
      4. State and Statelessness
      5. Connectedness
      6. The Uniform Interface
      7. This Stuff Matters
      8. Resource Design
      9. URI Design
      10. Outgoing Representations
      11. Incoming Representations
      12. Service Versioning
      13. Permanent URIs Versus Readable URIs
      14. Standard Features of HTTP
      15. Faking PUT and DELETE
      16. The Trouble with Cookies
      17. Why Should a User Trust the HTTP Client?
    13. 9. The Building Blocks of Services
      1. Representation Formats
      2. Prepackaged Control Flows
      3. Hypermedia Technologies
    14. 10. The Resource-Oriented Architecture Versus Big Web Services
      1. What Problems Are Big Web Services Trying to Solve?
      2. SOAP
      3. WSDL
      4. UDDI
      5. Security
      6. Reliable Messaging
      7. Transactions
      8. BPEL, ESB, and SOA
      9. Conclusion
    15. 11. Ajax Applications as REST Clients
      1. From AJAX to Ajax
      2. The Ajax Architecture
      3. A Example
      4. The Advantages of Ajax
      5. The Disadvantages of Ajax
      6. REST Goes Better
      7. Making the Request
      8. Handling the Response
      9. JSON
      10. Don’t Bogart the Benefits of REST
      11. Cross-Browser Issues and Ajax Libraries
      12. Subverting the Browser Security Model
    16. 12. Frameworks for RESTful Services
      1. Ruby on Rails
      2. Restlet
      3. Django
    17. A. Some Resources for REST and Some RESTful Resources
      1. Standards and Guides
      2. Services You Can Use
    18. B. The HTTP Response Code Top 42
      1. Three to Seven Status Codes: The Bare Minimum
      2. 1xx: Meta
      3. 2xx: Success
      4. 3xx: Redirection
      5. 4xx: Client-Side Error
      6. 5xx: Server-Side Error
    19. C. The HTTP Header Top Infinity
      1. Standard Headers
      2. Nonstandard Headers
    20. Index
    21. About the Authors
    22. Colophon
    23. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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JSON Parsers: Handling Serialized Data

Most web services return XML documents, but a growing number return simple data structures (numbers, arrays, hashes, and so on), serialized as JSON-formatted strings. JSON is usually produced by services that expect to be consumed by the client half of an Ajax application. The idea is that it’s a lot easier for a browser to get a JavaScript data structure from a JSON data structure than from an XML document. Every web browser offers a slightly different JavaScript interface to its XML parser, but a JSON string is nothing but a tightly constrained JavaScript program, so it works the same way in every browser.

Of course, JSON is not tied to JavaScript, any more than JavaScript is to Java. JSON makes a lightweight alternative to XML-based approaches to data serialization, like XML Schema. The JSON web site links to implementations in many languages, and I refer you to that site rather than mentioning a JSON library for every language.

JSON is a simple and language-independent way of formatting programming language data structures (numbers, arrays, hashes, and so on) as strings. Example 2-11 is a JSON representation of a simple data structure: a mixed-type array.

Example 2-11. A mixed-type array in JSON format

[3, "three"]

By comparison, Example 2-12 is one possible XML representation of the same data.

Example 2-12. A mixed-type array in XML-RPC format


Since a JSON string is nothing but a tightly constrained JavaScript program, you can “parse” JSON simply by calling eval on the string. This is very fast, but you shouldn’t do it unless you control the web service that served your JSON. An untested or untrusted web service can send the client buggy or malicious JavaScript programs instead of real JSON structures. For the JavaScript examples in Chapter 11, I use a JSON parser written in JavaScript and available from (see Example 2-13).

Example 2-13. A JSON demo in JavaScript

<!-- json-demo.html -->
<!-- In a real application, you would save json.js locally
     instead of fetching it from every time. -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="">

<script type="text/javascript">
 array = [3, "three"]
 alert("Converted array into JSON string: '" + array.toJSONString() + "'")
 json = "[4, \"four\"]"
 alert("Converted JSON '" + json + "' into array:")
 array2 = json.parseJSON()
 for (i=0; i < array2.length; i++) 
   alert("Element #" + i + " is " + array2[i])

The Dojo JavaScript framework has a JSON library in the dojo.json package, so if you’re using Dojo you don’t have to install anything extra. A future version of the ECMAScript standard may define JSON serialization and deserialization methods as part of the JavaScript language, making third-party libraries obsolete.

In this book’s Ruby examples, I’ll use the JSON parser that comes from the json Ruby gem. The two most important methods are Object#to_json and JSON.parse. Try running the Ruby code in Example 2-14 through the irb interpreter.

Example 2-14. A JSON demo in Ruby

# json-demo.rb
require 'rubygems'
require 'json'

[3, "three"].to_json                 # => "[3,\"three\"]"
JSON.parse('[4, "four"]')            # => [4, "four"]

Right now, Yahoo! Web Services are the most popular public web services to serve JSON. Example 2-15 shows a command-line program, written in Ruby, that uses the Yahoo! News web service to get a JSON representation of current news stories.

Example 2-15. Searching the Web with Yahoo!’s web service (JSON edition)

# yahoo-web-search-json.rb
require 'rubygems'
require 'json'
require 'open-uri'

# Search the web for a term, and print the titles of matching web pages.
def search(term)
  base_uri = ''

  # Make the HTTP request and read the response entity-body as a JSON
  # document.
  json = open(base_uri + "?appid=restbook&output=json&query=#{term}").read

  # Parse the JSON document into a Ruby data structure.
  json = JSON.parse(json)

  # Iterate over the data structure...
  json['ResultSet']['Result'].each do
    # ...and print the title of each web page.
    |r| puts r['Title']

# Main program.
unless ARGV[0]
  puts "Usage: #{$0} [search term]"

Compare this to the program yahoo-web-search.rb in Example 2-1. That program has the same basic structure, but it works differently. It asks for search results formatted as XML, parses the XML, and uses an XPath query to extract the result titles. This program parses a JSON data structure into a native-language data structure (a hash), and traverses it with native-language operators instead of XPath.

If JSON is so simple, why not use it for everything? You could do that, but I don’t recommend it. JSON is good for representing data structures in general, and the Web mainly serves documents: irregular, self-describing data structures that link to each other. XML and HTML are specialized for representing documents. A JSON representation of a web page would be hard to read, just like the XML representation of an array in Example 2-12 was hard to read. JSON is useful when you need to describe a data structure that doesn’t fit easily into the document paradigm: a simple list, for instance, or a hash.

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