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Research Methods

Book Description

Across a variety of disciplines, data and statistics form the backbone of knowledge. To ensure the reliability and validity of data, appropriate measures must be taken in conducting studies and reporting findings. Research Methods: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications compiles chapters on key considerations in the management, development, and distribution of data. With its focus on both fundamental concepts and advanced topics, this multi-volume reference work will be a valuable addition to researchers, scholars, and students of science, mathematics, and engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Critical Parameters for Fuzzy Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING UP THE CHAPTER
      5. CRITICAL PARAMETERS FOR APPLYING FUZZY DATA MINING
      6. DISCUSSION AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
      7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Mixed Methods Research Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: METHODS IN BUSINESS ETHICS RESEARCH
      4. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH ONLINE SURVEYS
      5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. Chapter 3: Navigators on the Research Path
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
      4. TEACHING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A DISCUSSION OF POSSIBILITIESS
      6. BEYOND DIDACTIC PRESCRIPTIVE INSTRUCTION: METHODS AND STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Type-One Fuzzy Logic for Quantitatively Defining Imprecise Linguistic Terms in Politics and Public Policy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. TYPES OF IMPRECISION AND UNCERTAINTY
      4. 3. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH AT THE SADDLEBACK CIVIL FORUM ON THE PRESIDENCY
      5. 4. TRANSCRIPTS ON QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A CRISP SET AT THE SADDLEBACK CIVIL FORUM ON THE PRESIDENCY
      6. 5. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A CRISP SET
      7. 6. MULTIPLE DETERMINANTS OF FINANCIAL WELL-BEING
      8. 7. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH A FUZZY SET
      9. 8. QUALITATIVE DEFINITIONS, CRISP QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS, AND FUZZY QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS OF IMPRECISE WORDS
      10. 9. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING MIDDLE CLASS WITH A FUZZY SET
      11. 10. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING POOR WITH A FUZZY SET
      12. 11. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING INFLATION LEVELS WITH FUZZY SETS
      13. 12. LINGUISTIC HEDGES
      14. 13. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
      17. Key Terms and Definitions
    5. Chapter 5: Demystifying the Delphi Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DELPHI RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. AS A RESEARCH METHOD
      6. DELPHI ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Evidence-Based Uncertainty Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BASIC CONCEPTS OF DEMPSTER-SHAFER THEORY (DST)
      4. 3. COMBINING EVIDENCES
      5. 4. EVIDENCE THEORY IN RELATION TO POSSIBILITY AND PROBABILITY THEORY
      6. 5. DST WITH FUZZY FOCAL ELEMENTS
      7. 6. UNCERTAINTY MEASURES IN EVIDENCE THEORY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Multi-Method Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTE
    8. Chapter 8: Dynamic Spectrum Access Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COGNITIVE RADIO
      4. DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS
      5. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF SPECTRUM ACCESS METHODS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX: REVIEW QUESTIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Rule Optimization of Web-Logs Data Using Evolutionary Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORKS
      4. 3. OBJECTIVE
      5. 4. PROPOSED SOLUTION
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Hybrid Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Bspline Based SSSC Damping Control Paradigm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. POWER SYSTEM MODEL
      5. CONTROL PROBLEM
      6. CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
      7. TRANSIENT STABILITY SIMULATION
      8. SIMULATION RESULTS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      15. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 11: Nonlinear Structural Control Using Magnetorheological Damper
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL DAMPERS
      5. INTELLIGENT FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONTROL DESIGN
      6. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF OPTIMAL FUZZY CONTROL
      7. NONLINEAR CONTROL STRATEGIES
      8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR CONTROL STRATEGIES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 12: Algorithms and Methods Inspired from Nature for Solving Supply Chain and Logistics Optimization Problems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
      3. NATURE-INSPIRED INTELLIGENT METHODS AND ALGORITHMS
      4. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
      5. LITERATURE SURVEY FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 13: Fuzzy Logic-Based Security Evaluation of Stream Cipher
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUZZY LOGIC APPLICATIONS
      4. FUZZY LOGIC
      5. SECURITY EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSYSTEM
      6. SECURITY EVALUATION OF STREAM CIPHER
      7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 14: A Framework Proposal to Assess the LARG Index of a Supply Chain in a Fuzzy Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPOSITE LARG INDEX CONSTRUCTION
      5. THE FUZZY ENTERPRISE 2.0 ASSESSMENT APPROACH
      6. FINAL REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 15: Comprehensive Survey of the Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. HYBRID MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS
      4. 3. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTE
    4. Chapter 16: Discount Focus Subgroup Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION
      3. FOCUS GROUP METHOD IN IS RESEARCH
      4. HOW TO APPLY THE DFSG METHOD
      5. DFSG QUALITY EVALUATION CRITERIA
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. LIMITATIONS OF THE DFSG METHOD
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 17: Risk Management Research Design Ideologies, Strategies, Methods, and Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 18: Demonic Fuzzy Relational Calculus
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOTIVATION
      3. ELEMENTARY THEORY ON RELATIONS
      4. RELATIONAL CALCULUS
      5. FUZZY RELATIONAL CALCULUS
      6. FUZZY RELATIONS
      7. DEMONIC FUZZY ORDER AND FUZZY DEMONIC OPERATORS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 19: An IT Project Management Framework for Assessing the Dynamism of Culture under Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODS AND APPROACH
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 20: Recent Advancement in Fuzzy System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNCERTAINTY
      4. FUZZY THEORY
      5. GENERATION OF FULL TYPE 2 FUZZY SYSTEM MODELS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 21: Fuzzy Logic-Based Round Trip Time Scaling and Scheduling in High Speed TCP Stacks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONTROL METHODOLOGY
      4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 22: Load Frequency Control in Power System via Improving PID Controller Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and ANFIS Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. OVERVIEW ON PRACTICAL SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE
      5. 4. PREFACE TO FUZZY LOGIC
      6. 5. CASES STUDY
      7. 6. COMPARATIVE STUDY
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 23: An Agent-Based Knowledge Management Framework for Marketing-Mix Decision Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. ARCHITECTURE OF AGENT-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
      5. 4. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. 5. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION AND FINDINGS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 24: Chaotic Map Model-Based Interference Employed in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm to Determine the Optimum Gray Level Image Thresholding
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. QUANTUM COMPUTING RUDIMENTS
      4. 3. NP-COMPLETE PROBLEMS AND QUANTUM COMPUTING
      5. 4. QUANTUM EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM
      6. 5. IMAGE THRESHOLDING
      7. 6. EVALUATION METRICS
      8. 7. QUANTUM INSPIRED GENETIC ALGORITHM
      9. 8. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      10. 9. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 25: Design and Implementation of a Fast General Purpose Fuzzy Processor
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PREVIOUS WORK
      4. 3. PROPOSED FUZZY PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
      5. 4. GUI PROGRAM
      6. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 26: Data Mining Models as a Tool for Churn Reduction and Custom Product Development in Telecommunication Industries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. VEZA COMPANY: GOALS OF THE PROJECT
      5. 4. PROPOSED SOLUTION FROM PERSPECTIVE OF DATA MINING METHODS
      6. 5. DATA FOUNDATION
      7. 6. MODELING SOLUTION FOR PROSPECTIVE CUSTOMER VALUE CALCULATION
      8. 7. CHURN PREDICTION MODELLING
      9. 8. REVEALED KNOWLEDGE AS A BASE FOR THE CHURN MITIGATION STRATEGIES AND THE NEW PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT
      10. 9. DISCUSSION
      11. 10. FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. 11. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      16. APPENDIX
    15. Chapter 27: Ordering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED AND PREVIOUS WORK
      4. QUALITATIVE REPRESENTATIONS FOR ORDERING INFORMATION
      5. EVALUATION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 28: Practical Wisdom of Tool and Task
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ADHERING TO METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
      4. MEETING THE DEMANDS OF THE METHOD
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 29: Intelligent Questioning System Based on Fuzzy Logic
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED MODELS
      5. THE DEVELOPED SYSTEM: IQS
      6. WORKING MECHANISM
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION
    3. Chapter 30: Interval Type-Two Fuzzy Logic for Quantitatively Defining Imprecise Linguistic Terms in Politics and Public Policy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING RICH WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
      4. 3. QUALITATIVE DEFINITIONS, CRISP QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS, TYPE-ONE FUZZY QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS, AND INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY QUANTITATIVE DEFINITIONS OF IMPRECISE WORDS
      5. 4. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING MIDDLE CLASS WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
      6. 5. QUANTITATIVELY DEFINING POOR WITH AN INTERVAL TYPE-TWO FUZZY SET
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 31: Technology-Enhanced Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DATA TYPES
      5. E-LEARNING MODULE AND BLENDED LEARNING
      6. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF RESEARCH
      7. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 32: Research E-Journaling to Enhance Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. UNGUIDED AND GUIDED ELECTRONIC RESEARCH JOURNAL STRUCTURES
      5. POTENTIAL CONCERNS AND LIABILITIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 33: Verbal and Pictorial Representations of Beverage Consumption Patterns
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. IMAGE INTERPRETATION AND RESEARCH APPROACHES
      4. 3. THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND THE WALL OF PICTURES PROTOCOL
      5. 4. THE DATA COLLECTION AND CODING PROCESS
      6. 5. RESULTS AND AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE OPTIONS PROVIDED BY THE WALL OF PICTURES
      7. 6. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
      11. APPENDIX: PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WALL OF PICTURES
    7. Chapter 34: A Hybrid Technique Using PCA and Wavelets in Network Traffic Anomaly Detection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. RELATED WORKS
      4. 2. ANOMALY DETECTION DATA AND ALGORITHMS
      5. 3. PROTOTYPE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      6. 4. EXPERIMENTS AND EVALUATION
      7. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 35: Multi-Objective Optimization Design of Control Devices to Suppress Tall Buildings Vibrations against Earthquake Excitations Using Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE CHAPTER
      4. ASSUMPTIONS
      5. EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION TIME HISTORIES
      6. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION
      7. BASE ISOLATION SYSTEMS
      8. SEMI-ACTIVE TUNED MASS DAMPER SYSTEM
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 36: An Integrated Infrastructure Using Process Mining Techniques for Software Process Verification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PLUG-IN AND FEATURES
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTE
    10. Chapter 37: Surveys as Tools to Measure Qualitative and Quantitative Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS A SURVEY?
      4. HOW TO WRITE SURVEY QUESTIONS?
      5. HOW TO COLLECT SURVEY DATA?
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 38: SOSPD Controllers Tuning by Means of an Evolutionary Algorithm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CONTROLLERS
      4. 3. TUNING OF PID CONTROLLERS USING AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM
      5. 4. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 39: Research Intentions are nothing without Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: WEB SURVEYS AS A SOLUTION FOR OPTIMISING MIXED METHOD POSSIBILITIES
      3. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COBEREN PROJECT: METHODOLOGY AND OPERATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 40: Leveraging Two Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software Packages to Support Discourse Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CAQDAS: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION
      5. OVERVIEW OF ATLAS.ti AND TRANSANA
      6. RESEARCH STUDY EXAMPLE
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 41: Experiences in Applying Mixed-Methods Approach in Information Systems Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH
      4. APPLICATION OF MIXED-METHODS DESIGN IN IS RESEARCH
      5. FURTHER GUIDANCE FOR APPLYING MIXED-METHODS DESIGNS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 42: Bangla User Adaptive Word Speech Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORKS
      4. 4. RESULT ANALYSIS
      5. 5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 43: Online Focus Groups
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF ONLINE FOCUS GROUPS IN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 44: Online Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Full Car Suspension Control Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VEHICLE MODEL
      4. SEMI-ACTIVE CAR SUSPENSION SYSTEM
      5. CONTROL PROBLEM
      6. ADAPTIVE PID CONTROLLER DESIGN
      7. ADAPTIVE MAMDANI FUZZY LOGIC (AMFL) STRUCTURE
      8. ADAPTIVE SLIDING MODE BASED NEURO-FUZZY STRATEGY
      9. SIMULATION RESULTS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON THE MAJOR ADVANTAGES AND THE MAJOR DISADVANTAGES
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
      17. APPENDIX: KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 45: Predicting Drilling Forces and Delamination in GFRP Laminates using Fuzzy Logic
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
      4. INTRODUCTION TO FUZZY LOGIC
      5. FUZZY RULE BASED MODEL FOR PREDICTING DELAMINATION, THRUST FORCE AND TORQUE DURING DRILLING OF GFREP
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 46: Assessment of Fuzzy Logic Radioisotopic Pattern Identifier on Gamma-Ray Signals with Application to Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NUCLEAR DETECTION SYSTEM
      4. FUZZY LOGIC BASED IDENTIFICATION
      5. APPLICATION ON GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 47: Hybrid Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING MODEL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 48: Solution of “Hard” Knapsack Instances Using Quantum Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPANNER INSTANCES
      4. QUANTUM-INSPIRED EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM (QEA)
      5. QEA ENGINEERED (QEA-E)
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 49: Genetic Algorithms Quality Assessment Implementing Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GENETIC ALGORITHMS QUALITY ASSESSMENT APPLYING IFL
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. NOMENCLATURE
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 50: Statistical Based Analysis of Electrooculogram (EOG) Signals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 51: Adaptive and Neural pH Neutralization for Strong Acid-Strong Base System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE pH PROCESS: PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
      5. STRONG ACID: STRONG BASE SYSTEM MODELING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 52: Computational Intelligence in Used Products Retrieval and Reproduction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
      4. 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      5. 4. TRANSPORTATION METHOD OPTIMIZATION
      6. 5. PART-MACHINE CLUSTERING
      7. 6. REPROCESSING SCHEDULING
      8. 7. REPROCESSING CELL LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 53: A Fuzzy Cyber-Risk Analysis Model for Assessing Attacks on the Availability and Integrity of the Military Command and Control Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FUZZY CYBER-RISK ANALYSIS MODEL
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    14. Chapter 54: A Particle Swarm Optimizer for Constrained Multiobjective Optimization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. PROPOSED APPROACH
      5. COMPARATIVE STUDY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 55: Applications of Fuzzy Logic to Systems' Modelling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GENERAL FUZZY MODEL
      4. FUZZY MEASURES OF A SYSTEM’S EFFECTIVENESS
      5. MODELLING THE PROCESS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
      6. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      7. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 56: Application of Meta-Heuristic Optimization Algorithms in Electric Power Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. GENETIC ALGORITHMS (GA)
      4. 2. SIMULATED ANNEALING METHOD (SA)
      5. 3. ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION
      6. 4. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN)
      7. 5. COMBINATION OF METAHEURISTIC METHODS WITH FUZZY LOGIC AND ANN
      8. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 57: Triangulation in Organizational Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORY OF MIXED-METHODS: TRIANGULATION
      4. TYPOLOGY OF TRIANGULATION
      5. TRIANGULATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH
      6. VALIDATING KNOWLEDGE IN HUMAN COMPETENCE AT WORK
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTE
    2. Chapter 58: The Use of Mixed Methods in Organizational Communication Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM MULTIPLE METHODS TO MIXED MODELS
      4. MIXED METHODS DESIGNS
      5. INFERENCE QUALITY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 59: Soft Methods for Automatic Drug Infusion in Medical Care Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODEL-BASED CONTROL
      4. SOFT COMPUTING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE
      5. AUTOMATIC DRUG INFUSION SYSTEMS
      6. FINAL REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 60: A Second Life in Qualitative Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SECOND LIFE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
      5. RESEARCHING SECOND LIFE USE IN A QUALITATIVE METHODS COURSE
      6. TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCES
      7. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTE
      11. APPENDIX A
      12. APPENDIX B
      13. APPENDIX C
    5. Chapter 61: Soccer Game Optimization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF METAHEURISTICS
      5. THE SOCCER GAME OPTIMIZATION
      6. APPLICATION EXAMPLES
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 62: Archetypal Personalized Recommender System for Mobile Phone Users
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      4. 3. PROPOSED METHOD
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 63: An Advanced Fuzzy Logic Based Traffic Controller
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMAGE PROCESSING
      4. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER
      5. PIC16F877A MICROCONTROLLER
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 64: Combining Research Paradigms to Improve Poor Student Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EMPIRICAL STUDY: NETWORKING STUDENTS
      5. REFLECTION ON RESEARCH PARADIGMS
      6. REFLECTIONS ON MIXED METHODS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 65: EvoWebReg
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: CASE STUDY
      4. COURSE SECTIONING: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      5. REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
      6. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
      7. EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM DESIGN
      8. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
      9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 66: Analysing the Performance of a Fuzzy Lane Changing Model Using Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRAJECTORY DATASET
      5. FUZZY LANE CHANGING MODELS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 67: A Measure to Detect Sleep Onset Using Statistical Analysis of Spike Rhythmicity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREPROCESSING
      4. FEATURE SELECTION
      5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 68: Building a User Centric Success Factors Model for Mobile Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. META-ANALYSIS FINDINGS
      5. 4. SURVEY FINDINGS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 69: Integration between Mathematical Programming and Fuzzy Logic to Optimize Consumers Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASIC CONCEPTS
      4. PROPOSED MODEL
      5. ANALYZING EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON UTILITY
      6. OPTIMIZING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
      7. CASE STUDY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 70: Fuzzy System Dynamics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. FUZZY SYSTEM DYNAMICS PARADIGM
      6. FUZZIFICATION
      7. DEFUZZIFICATION
      8. FUZZY SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL DEVELOPMENT
      9. CAUSAL LOOP ANALYSIS
      10. FUZZY SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL
      11. ILLUSTRATIVE EXPERIMENTS
      12. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. CONTRIBUTION TO THEORY
      15. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      16. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ADDITIONAL READING
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 71: Fuzzy System Dynamics of Manpower Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUZZY SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH
      5. ILLUSTRATIVE APPLICATIONS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 72: Instance-Specific Parameter Tuning for Meta-Heuristics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PARAMETER SETTING STRATEGIES
      4. 3. INSTANCE-SPECIFIC PARAMETER TUNING
      5. 4. CASE STUDY: TSP AND GUIDED LOCAL SEARCH
      6. 5. EXPERT-BASED IPTS DESIGN USING STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
      7. 6. AUTOMATED IPTS DESIGN USING FUZZY CLUSTERING
      8. 7. DISCUSSION
      9. 8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 73: Analysing Blogs in Market Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USING BLOGS IN RESEARCH
      4. CASE STUDY 1: ANALYSING LEISURE ACTIVITIES THROUGH BLOGS
      5. CASE STUDY 2: ANALYSING SPECTATORS’ EXPERIENCE THROUGH BLOGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 74: Theoretical and Empirical Comparative Analysis on Quantitative and Qualitative Marketing Researches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH: IDEA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN RESEARCH DESIGN
      3. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH
      4. TRIANGULATION OF MARKETING RESEARCH
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 75: Teamwork Assessment and Self/Peer Evaluation in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEAMWORK ASSESSMENT AND SELF/PEER EVALUATION IN BT2 UNIT
      4. ESTABLISHING TEAMS IN BT2 UNIT
      5. METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH QUESTION
      6. BT2 PARTICIPANTS
      7. BT2 ASSESSMENTS
      8. RESULTS
      9. DISCUSSION AND LESSONS LEARNED
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTEGRATING TEAM WORK ASSESSMENT AND SELF/PEER EVALUATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 76: Intelligent Computation for Manufacturing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS
      3. FUZZY LOGIC
      4. INDUCTIVE LEARNING
      5. NEURAL NETWORKS
      6. GENETIC ALGORITHMS
      7. SWARM INTELLIGENCE
      8. SOME APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 77: QoE Prediction for Multimedia Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PRELIMINARIES
      4. 3. USING DIFFERENT LOGICS TO PREDICT THE QoE VALUE OF MULTIMEDIA SERVICES
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 78: An On-Line PSO-Based Fuzzy Logic Tuning Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. MICROGRID TEST SYSTEM
      6. PROPOSED OPTIMAL CONTROL DESIGN
      7. SIMULATION RESULTS
      8. ROBUSTNESS AGAINST PARAMETERS VARIATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 79: Computer-Aided Deductive Critical Discourse Analysis of a Case Study from Mauritius with ATLAS-ti 6.2
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPUTER-AIDED DEDUCTIVE CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 80: Fuzzy Systems for Spectrum Access, Mobility and Management for Cognitive Radios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 SOFT COMPUTING AND COGNITIVE CYCLE
      4. 3 AIR INTERFACE SOLUTIONS USING FUZZY SYSTEMS
      5. 4 SPECTRUM ACCESS POSSIBILITY
      6. 5 SPECTRUM MOBILITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
      7. 6 FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7 CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 81: Uncertainty Modeling Using Expert's Knowledge as Evidence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REASONING WITH IGNORANCE
      5. UNCERTAINTY MEASURES OF EVIDENCE THEORY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 82: Comparative Study on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms for Seismic Response Controls of Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS
      4. EXAMPLE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 83: Comparison of Linguistic Summaries and Fuzzy Functional Dependencies Related to Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND DEPENDENCIES IN DATA
      4. ROLE OF FUZZY LOGIC IN DATA MINING
      5. FUZZY FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES
      6. LS FOR EXTRACTING RELATIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN DATA
      7. CONSTRUCTION OF MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS
      8. CASE STUDIES
      9. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 84: Intelligent Bandwidth Allocation of IPTV Streams with Bitstream Complexity Measures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 85: New Trends in Fuzzy Clustering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNCERTAINTY, IMPRECISION, AND FUZZINESS
      4. SETS AND SYSTEM MODELING
      5. LOGICAL CONCEPTS
      6. CLUSTER METHODOLOGIES
      7. FORMAL CLUSTER METHODS
      8. INNOVATIVE FUZZY TREND CLUSTERING
      9. EARTHQUAKE VISUAL DATA AND FUZZY CLUSTER ASSESSMENT
      10. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 86: An Efficient Evolutionary Algorithm for Strict Strong Graph Coloring Problem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. NECESSARY NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS
      5. 4. EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR STRICT STRONG GRAPH COLORING ALGORITHM
      6. 5. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 87: Power Electronics and Controls in Solar Photovoltaic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
      4. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM MODEL, SOLAR CELL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
      5. PV INVERTER CONFIGURATIONS AND TOPOLOGIES
      6. MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTIACS
      7. MPPT ALGORITHMS AND METHODS USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES
      8. OTHER MPPT TECHNIQUES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS