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Research Approaches to Sustainable Biomass Systems

Book Description

Researchers, students and engineers working with biofuels and biomass are increasingly expected to comprehend a new holistic systems perspective that begins with wise crop breeding and cultivation techniques and informs the entire conversion to energy process. This volume provides diverse examples of successfully implemented sustainable biomass research in Asia, highlighting the challenges faced by designers of new biomass production facilities and tips on how to develop approaches to overcome them. In addition to providing an authoritative guide on the utilization of the authors’ sample feedstocks, rice straw and sunflower, the authors provide lessons relevant to stakeholders involved with all manner of biomass production projects by drawing out important comparisons and contrasts that must be taken into account when deciding how to utilize biomass as an energy resource in a way that is economically feasible and environmentally sustainable.

  • Provides diverse examples of successfully implemented biomass research, highlighting insights on common bottlenecks and approaches developed to overcome them
  • Features coverage of the full feedstock life cycle, from crop breeding to commercial
    application, focusing on 3 key areas: biomass production, biofuel conversion technologies, and sustainable practices
  • Examines two regionally compatible feedstock, rice-straw and sunflower, performing a compare and contrast analysis of agricultural production methods, economics, conversion systems, and environmental impacts

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. List of Contributors
  8. Chapter 1. Background of Bioenergy Utilization Development in Japan
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Environmental Change with Human Activities
    3. 1.2 Japanese Biomass Utilization Policy
    4. References
  9. Chapter 2. Biomass as Local Resource
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1 Definition and Category of Biomass
    3. 2.2 Potential Amount of Biomass and Use of Bioenergy
    4. 2.3 Biomass Systems
    5. References
  10. Chapter 3. Ecosystems and Biomass Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1 Natural Ecosystems and Satoyama Utilization
    3. 3.2 Biomass Production in Cultivated Fields and Conservation of Ecosystems
    4. 3.3 Biomass Production and Biodiversity in Paddy Field Ecosystems
    5. References
  11. Chapter 4. Production Technology for Bioenergy Crops and Trees
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1 Photosynthesis and Biomass Production in Energy Crops
    3. 4.2 Agronomy and Breeding Technology for Bioenergy Crops
    4. 4.3 Plant Molecular Breeding to Energy Crops as Genetic Improvements of Biomass Saccharification
    5. 4.4 Improvement of Woody Biomass
    6. References
  12. Chapter 5. Soil Fertility and Soil Microorganisms
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Soil Fertility
    3. 5.2 Soil Management and Soil Organic Matter
    4. 5.3 Soil Microorganisms
    5. 5.4 Microbially Mediated Soil Fertility
    6. References
  13. Chapter 6. Machinery and Information Technology for Biomass Production
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 Machinery for Production of Energy Crop
    3. 6.2 Information Systems in Crop Production
    4. 6.3 Harvesting the Forest Biomass
    5. 6.4 Information System for Forestry Production
    6. References
  14. Chapter 7. Pretreatment and Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 Composition and Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass
    3. 7.2 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
    4. 7.3 Pretreatment and Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass using Solid Acid Catalysts
    5. References
  15. Chapter 8. Energy-Saving Biomass Processing with Polar Ionic Liquids
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1 Cellulose Dissolution and Ionic Liquids
    3. 8.2 Required Factors of Ionic Liquids for Cellulose Dissolution
    4. 8.3 Design of a New Class of Polar Ionic Liquids
    5. 8.4 Polar Ionic Liquids for Biomass Processing without Heating
    6. 8.5 Conclusion and Future Aspects
    7. References
  16. Chapter 9. Enzymes for Cellulosic Biomass Conversion
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1 General Information on Cellulases
    3. 9.2 Structure and Function of Cellulases
    4. 9.3 Other Biomass-Degrading Enzymes
    5. References
  17. Chapter 10. Ethanol Production from Biomass
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1 Ethanol Fermentation
    3. 10.2 Ethanol-Producing Microorganisms
    4. 10.3 Methods of Ethanol Fermentation
    5. References
  18. Chapter 11. Co-Generation by Ethanol Fuel
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1 Fuel Cell: Innovative Technology for Generating Power and Heat
    3. 11.2 Hydrogen Production Through Ethanol Steam Reforming
    4. References
  19. Chapter 12. Thermochemical Transformation of Biomass
    1. Abstract
    2. 12.1 Need for Biomass Utilization Technology in Japan
    3. 12.2 Solidification of Biomass Fuel
    4. 12.3 Combustion
    5. 12.4 Gasification with Methanol Synthesis
    6. 12.5 Energy Production from Livestock Wastes
    7. References
  20. Chapter 13. Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling
    1. Abstract
    2. 13.1 Crop Production and Cycling of Nutrients
    3. 13.2 Biofertilizer
    4. 13.3 Methane Fermentation and Use of Digested Slurry
    5. 13.4 Influence of Fodder Rice Production Using Biogas Slurry for Better Nutrient Cycling on Environmental Quality
    6. References
  21. Chapter 14. Evaluation of Biomass Production and Utilization Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 14.1 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on Bioenergy
    3. 14.2 Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy
    4. 14.3 Management of Forest Land for Biomass Production
    5. 14.4 Management of Farming Land for Biomass Production
    6. 14.5 Monitoring System for Forest Management
    7. 14.6 Monitoring System for Farm Management
    8. References
  22. Chapter 15. Local Activity of Biomass Use in Japan
    1. Abstract
    2. 15.1 Overview of the Performance of Biomass Towns
    3. 15.2 Case Study of Kuzumaki Town, IWATE
    4. 15.3 Case Study of Higashiomi City, SHIGA
    5. 15.4 Toward the Creation of an Effective Biomass System: Lessons from Germany
    6. References
  23. Index