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Research and Applications in Global Supercomputing

Book Description

Rapidly generating and processing large amounts of data, supercomputers are currently at the leading edge of computing technologies. Supercomputers are employed in many different fields, establishing them as an integral part of the computational sciences. Research and Applications in Global Supercomputing investigates current and emerging research in the field, as well as the application of this technology to a variety of areas. Highlighting a broad range of concepts, this publication is a comprehensive reference source for professionals, researchers, students, and practitioners interested in the various topics pertaining to supercomputing and how this technology can be applied to solve problems in a multitude of disciplines.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. List of Reviewers
    1. List of Reviewers
  6. Preface
    1. REFERENCES
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Section 1: Overview to Global Supercomputing and its Current Challenges
    1. Chapter 1: Overview of Global Supercomputing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCOMPUTERS
      4. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURAL CLASSES
      5. OVERVIEW OF TIANHE-2 (MILKYWAY-2) SUPERCOMPUTER
      6. TITAN III SUPERCOMPUTER
      7. IBM’s SEQUIOA SUPERCOMPUTER
      8. K COMPUTER
      9. MIRA SUPERCOMPUTER
      10. PIZ DAINT SUPERCOMPUTER
      11. STAMPEDE SUPERCOMPUTER
      12. SuperMUC PETASCALE SYSTEM
      13. PANGEA SUPERCOMPUTER
      14. PLEIADES SUPERCOMPUTER
      15. BLUE WATERS SUPERCOMPUTER
      16. SUPERCOMPUTING WITH PARALLELLA
      17. SYMBOLIC SUPERCOMPUTER FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE RESEARCH
      18. COMPARISON OF SUPERCOMPUTING ABILITIES ACROSS DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
      19. SUPERCOMPUTING IN CHINA
      20. SUPERCOMPUTING IN EUROPE
      21. SUPERCOMPUTING IN INDIA
      22. SUPERCOMPUTING IN JAPAN
      23. SUPERCOMPUTING IN PAKISTAN
      24. CONCLUSION
      25. REFERENCES
      26. ADDITIONAL READING
      27. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: History of Supercomputing and Supercomputer Centers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ISSUE OF COST AND TIME
      4. THE BEGINNING OF THE ERA OF SUPERCOMPUTING
      5. BEOWULFS
      6. S1 SUPERCOMPUTER
      7. SUPERCOMPUTING AND HEALTHCARE
      8. BRIEF HISTORY OF SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
      9. BRIEF HISTORY OF MINNESOTA SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER
      10. BRIEF HISTORY OF MOSCOW UNIVERSITY SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER
      11. FASTEST SUPERCOMPUTER NOW BECOMES HISTORY
      12. THE HISTORY OF MESSAGE PASSING INTERFACE (MPI)
      13. BRIEF COMMENTARY OF SUPERCOMPUTING HISTORY (2000-2010)
      14. SUPERCOMPUTING AND DELL IN 21 CENTURY
      15. PETAFLOP COMPUTING IN THE 21 CENTURY
      16. EXASCALE CHALLENGES-POWER
      17. THE VALUE AND COST OF SUPERCOMPUTING
      18. CURRENT TRENDS IN SUPERCOMPUTING
      19. THE FUTURE OF SUPERCOMPUTING
      20. CURRENT GLOBAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTERS
      21. CONCLUSION
      22. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      23. REFERENCES
      24. ADDITIONAL READING
      25. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Applications and Current Challenges of Supercomputing across Multiple Domains of Computational Sciences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUPERCOMPUTING IN MULTIPLE DOMAINS OF COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: Supercomputing Applications
    1. Chapter 4: Accelerated Discovery and Design of Nano-Material Applications in Nuclear Power by Using High Performance Scientific Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUMMARY OF NANO-MATERIALS, NANO-TECHNOLOGIES, AND ASSOCIATED PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING CAPABLE OF IMPROVING NUCLEAR POWER PERFORMANCE
      4. Motivation to Use High Performance Scientific Computing
      5. Examples of Different Nuclear Energy-Related Problems and their Solutions that Led to Accelerated Development of HPSC
      6. The Race for More Powerful HPSC Machines
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 5: Using High Performance Scientific Computing to Accelerate the Discovery and Design of Nuclear Power Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AVAILABLE ARCHITECTURES AND SOLUTION APPROACHES
      4. ISSUES IN CURRENT LANDSCAPE
      5. MODERN TRENDS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING WITH RESPECT TO NUCLEAR POWER APPLICATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 6: Applications of Supercomputers in Sequence Analysis and Genome Annotation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUPERCOMPUTERS IN SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
      5. SUPERCOMPUTERS IN GENOME ANNOTATION
      6. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 7: Applications of Supercomputers in Population Genetics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUPERCOMPUTERS IN POPULATION GENETICS
      5. CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 8: Supercomputers in Modeling of Biological Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction
      4. PROTEIN STRUCTURE LEVELS
      5. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR PROTEIN-LIGAND BINDING SITE IDENTIFICATION
      6. PROTEIN-SURFACE INTERACTIONS
      7. CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 9: Role of Supercomputers in Bioinformatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUPERCOMPUTING IN SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
      4. SUPERCOMPUTING IN VIRTUAL SCREENING
      5. SUPERCOMPUTING IN QSAR
      6. SUPERCOMPUTING IN DOCKING STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 10: Energy Network Operation in the Supercomputing Era
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNIQUE INTRODUCTION
      4. APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCOMPUTING IN THE FIELD
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 3: Supercomputer Theory
    1. Chapter 11: Steganography Encoding as Inverse Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: PICTURE OF STEGANOGRAPHY
      3. STEGANOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS
      4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
      5. STEGANOGRAPHIC METHODS
      6. THE LINKAGE BETWEEN STEGANOGRAPHY, CLOUD ARCHITECTURE, AND SUPERCOMPUTERS
      7. ONE DIMENSIONAL STEGANOGRAPHY
      8. TWO DIMENSIONAL STEGANOGRAPHY
      9. DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
      10. OTHER ALTERANTIVES TO SUPERCOMPUTERS: nCUBE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 12: Cloud Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. MOTIVATION TO USE CLOUD COMPUTING
      3. 2. CLOUD COMPUTING: BASIC CONCEPTS
      4. 3. APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. 4. ARCHITECTURAL APPROACHES
      6. 5. SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING (SDN)
      7. 6. NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION (NFV)
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 13: Programming Paradigms in High Performance Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
      4. SHARED-MEMORY PARADIGAM
      5. HASKELL CONCURRENT PROGRAMMING MODEL
      6. DISTRIBUTED MEMORY PARADIGM
      7. ERLANG MESSAGE BASED CONCURRENT PROGRAMMING MODEL
      8. TRENDS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 14: Data Mining for High Performance Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DATA MINING
      4. EXPERIMENTS
      5. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
      6. PROCESS MANAGEMENT
      7. NAMING
      8. MESSAGE PASSING
      9. REMOTE PROCEDURE CALLS
      10. DISTRIBUTED SHARED MEMORY
      11. SYNCHRONIZATION
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      17. APPENDIX: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OUTPUT OF DATA MINING USING SUPERCOMPUTER LONESTAR AT UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN COMPUTER CENTER (TACC)
  11. Section 4: Supercomputing Leadership and Philosophy
    1. Chapter 15: Super Leaders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 16: Supercomputers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THIS CHAPTER
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. CREATING OURSELVES
      6. BUILDING A BRAIN
      7. A SUPERCOMPUTER AS THINKING ORGANISM
      8. CHALLENGES
      9. CAN WE TURN OURSELVES OFF?
      10. ARE WE RE-CREATING OURSELVES?
      11. THE MIND AS A PROBLEM SOLVER
      12. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: Supercomputers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THIS CHAPTER
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. THE DEEP STRUCTURE OF BINARY LOGIC
      6. A VERY SHORT HISTORY OF BIVALENCY
      7. THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIVALENCY
      8. THE ONTOLOGICAL MECHANICS OF BIVALENCY
      9. THE TABLE OF FUNCTIONAL COMPLETENESS
      10. MATH OR LOGIC: WHICH CAME FIRST?
      11. ABOUT BINARY SPACES GENERALLY
      12. THE BIVALENT SYSTEM AS RECURSIVE
      13. FUNCTIONS AS HOMEOSTATS
      14. A HIGHER LOGICAL SPACE: THE THREE DIMENSIONAL HYPERCUBE
      15. CHALLENGES
      16. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      17. CONCLUSION
      18. REFERENCES
      19. ADDITIONAL READING
      20. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Appendix: The Top 500 Supercomputers in the World
  13. Glossary
  14. Compilation of References
  15. About the Contributors