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Reliability Technology: Principles and Practice of Failure Prevention in Electronic Systems

Book Description

A unique book that describes the practical processes necessary to achieve failure free equipment performance, for quality and reliability engineers, design, manufacturing process and environmental test engineers.

This book studies the essential requirements for successful product life cycle management. It identifies key contributors to failure in product life cycle management and particular emphasis is placed upon the importance of thorough Manufacturing Process Capability reviews for both in-house and outsourced manufacturing strategies. The readers attention is also drawn to the many hazards to which a new product is exposed from the commencement of manufacture through to end of life disposal.

  • Revolutionary in focus, as it describes how to achieve failure free performance rather than how to predict an acceptable performance failure rate (reliability technology rather than reliability engineering)

  • Author has over 40 years experience in the field, and the text is based on classroom tested notes from the reliability technology course he taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA

  • Contains graphical interpretations of mathematical models together with diagrams, tables of physical constants, case studies and unique worked examples

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Wiley Series in Quality & Reliability Engineering and Related Titles
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword by Michael Pecht
  6. Series Editor's Preface
  7. Preface
  8. About the Author
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Chapter 1: The Origins and Evolution of Quality and Reliability
    1. 1.1 Sixty Years of Evolving Electronic Equipment Technology
    2. 1.2 Manufacturing Processes – From Manual Skills to Automation
    3. 1.3 Soldering Systems
    4. 1.4 Component Placement Machines
    5. 1.5 Automatic Test Equipment
    6. 1.6 Lean Manufacturing
    7. 1.7 Outsourcing
    8. 1.8 Electronic System Reliability – Folklore versus Reality
    9. 1.9 The ‘Bathtub’ Curve
    10. 1.10 The Truth about Arrhenius
    11. 1.11 The Demise of MIL-HDBK-217
    12. 1.12 The Benefits of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Products
    13. 1.13 The MoD SMART Procurement Initiative
    14. 1.14 Why do Items Fail?
    15. 1.15 The Importance of Understanding Physics of Failure (PoF)
    16. 1.16 Summary and Questions
    17. References
  11. Chapter 2: Product Lifecycle Management
    1. 2.1 Overview
    2. 2.2 Project Management
    3. 2.3 Project Initiation (Figure 2.3A)
    4. 2.4 Project Planning (Figure 2.3B)
    5. 2.5 Project Execution (Figure 2.3C)
    6. 2.6 Project Closure (Figure 2.3D)
    7. 2.7 A Process Capability Maturity Model
    8. 2.8 When and How to Define The Distribution Strategy
    9. 2.9 Transfer of Design to Manufacturing – The High-Risk Phase
    10. 2.10 Outsourcing – Understanding and Minimising the Risks
    11. 2.11 How Product Reliability is Increasingly Threatened in the Twenty-First Century
    12. Summary and Questions
    13. References
  12. Chapter 3: The Physics of Failure
    1. 3.1 Overview
    2. 3.2 Background
    3. 3.3 Potential Failure Mechanisms in Materials and Components
    4. 3.4 Techniques for Failure Analysis of Components and Assemblies
    5. 3.5 Transition from Tin-Lead to Lead-Free Soldering
    6. 3.6 High-Temperature Electronics and Extreme-Temperature Electronics
    7. 3.7 Some Illustrations of Failure Mechanisms
    8. Summary and Questions
    9. References
  13. Chapter 4: Heat Transfer – Theory and Practice
    1. 4.1 Overview
    2. 4.2 Conduction
    3. 4.3 Convection
    4. 4.4 Radiation
    5. 4.5 Thermal Management
    6. 4.6 Principles of Temperature Measurement
    7. 4.7 Temperature Cycling and Thermal Shock
    8. Summary and Questions
    9. References
  14. Chapter 5: Shock and Vibration – Theory and Practice
    1. 5.1 Overview
    2. 5.2 Sources of Shock Pulses in the Real Environment
    3. 5.3 Response of Electronic Equipment to Shock Pulses
    4. 5.4 Shock Testing
    5. 5.5 Product Shock Fragility
    6. 5.6 Shock and Vibration Isolation Techniques
    7. 5.7 Sources of Vibration in the Real Environment
    8. 5.8 Response of Electronic Equipment to Vibration
    9. 5.9 Vibration Testing
    10. 5.10 Vibration-Test Fixtures
    11. Summary and Questions
    12. References
  15. Chapter 6: Achieving Environmental-Test Realism
    1. 6.1 Overview
    2. 6.2 Environmental-Testing Objectives
    3. 6.3 Environmental-Test Specifications and Standards
    4. 6.4 Quality Standards
    5. 6.5 The Role of the Test Technician
    6. 6.6 Mechanical Testing
    7. 6.7 Climatic Testing
    8. 6.8 Chemical and Biological Testing
    9. 6.9 Combined Environment Testing
    10. 6.10 Electromagnetic Compatibility
    11. 6.11 Avoiding Misinterpretation of Test Standards and Specifications
    12. Summary and Questions
    13. References
  16. Chapter 7: Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Design
    1. 7.1 Overview
    2. 7.2 Robust Design and Quality Loss Function
    3. 7.3 Six Sigma Quality
    4. 7.4 Concept, Parameter and Tolerance Design
    5. 7.5 Understanding Product Whole Lifecycle Environment
    6. 7.6 Defining User Requirement for Failure-Free Operation
    7. 7.7 Component Anatomy, Materials and Mechanical Architecture
    8. 7.8 Design for Testability
    9. 7.9 Design for Manufacturability
    10. 7.10 Define Product Distribution Strategy
    11. Summary and Questions
    12. References
  17. Chapter 8: Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Development
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Understanding and Achieving Test Realism
    3. 8.3 Qualification Testing
    4. 8.4 Stress Margin Analysis and Functional Performance Stability
    5. 8.5 Premature Failure Stimulation
    6. 8.6 Accelerated Ageing vs. Accelerated Life Testing
    7. 8.7 Design and Proving of Distribution Packaging
    8. Summary and Questions
    9. References
  18. Chapter 9: Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Manufacturing
    1. 9.1 Overview
    2. 9.2 Manufacturing Planning
    3. 9.3 Manufacturing Process Capability
    4. 9.4 Manufacturing Process Management and Control
    5. 9.5 Non-invasive Inspection Techniques
    6. 9.6 Manufacturing Handling Procedures
    7. 9.7 Lead-Free Soldering – A True Perspective
    8. 9.8 Conformal Coating
    9. 9.9 Production Reliability Acceptance Testing
    10. Summary and Questions
    11. References
  19. Chapter 10: Environmental-Stress Screening
    1. 10.1 Overview
    2. 10.2 The Origins of ESS
    3. 10.3 Thermal-Stress Screening
    4. 10.4 Developing a Thermal-Stress Screen
    5. 10.5 Vibration-Stress Screening
    6. 10.6 Developing a Vibration-Stress Screen
    7. 10.7 Combined Environment-Stress Screening
    8. 10.8 Other Stress Screening Methodologies
    9. 10.9 Estimating Product Life Consumed by Stress Screening
    10. 10.10 An Environmental-Stress Screening Case Study
    11. Summary and Questions
    12. References
  20. Chapter 11: Some Worked Examples
    1. 11.1 Overview
    2. 11.2 Thermal Expansion Stresses Generated within a PTH Due to Temperature Cycling
    3. 11.3 Shear Tear-Out Stresses in Through-Hole Solder Joints
    4. 11.4 Axial Forces on a Through-Hole Component Lead Wire
    5. 11.5 SMC QFP – Solder-Joint Shear Stresses
    6. 11.6 Frequency and Peak Half-Amplitude Displacement Calculations
    7. 11.7 Random Vibration – Converting G2/Hz to GRMS
    8. 11.8 Accelerated Ageing – Temperature Cycling and Vibration
    9. 11.9 Stress Screening – Production Vibration Fixture Design
    10. References
  21. Appendix 1: Physical Properties of Materials
    1. Overview
    2. Thermal Properties – Definitions
    3. Mechanical Properties – Definitions
    4. General
  22. Appendix 2: Unit Conversion Tables
    1. SI Base Units and Quantities
    2. SI Derived Units and Quantities
    3. Mass Moment of Inertia
    4. Area Moment of Inertia
  23. Index