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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices is a well-established and well-regarded reference work offering unique, single-source coverage of most major topics related to the performance and failure of materials used in electronic devices and electronics packaging. With a focus on statistically predicting failure and product yields, this book can help the design engineer, manufacturing engineer, and quality control engineer all better understand the common mechanisms that lead to electronics materials failures, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, and radiation damage. This new edition adds cutting-edge knowledge gained both in research labs and on the manufacturing floor, with new sections on plastics and other new packaging materials, new testing procedures, and new coverage of MEMS devices.

  • Covers all major types of electronics materials degradation and their causes, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, electrostatic discharge, corrosion, and failure of contacts and solder joints
  • New updated sections on "failure physics," on mass transport-induced failure in copper and low-k dielectrics, and on reliability of lead-free/reduced-lead solder connections
  • New chapter on testing procedures, sample handling and sample selection, and experimental design
  • Coverage of new packaging materials, including plastics and composites

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1. An Overview of Electronic Devices and Their Reliability
    1. 1.1. Electronic Products
    2. 1.2. Reliability, Other “…Ilities,” and Definitions
    3. 1.3. Failure Physics
    4. 1.4. Summary and Perspective
    5. Exercises
  10. Chapter 2. Electronic Devices: How They Operate and Are Fabricated
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Electronic Materials
    3. 2.3. Diodes
    4. 2.4. Bipolar Transistors
    5. 2.5. Field Effect Transistors
    6. 2.6. Memories
    7. 2.7. GaAs Devices
    8. 2.8. Electro-Optical Devices
    9. 2.9. Processing—The Chip Level
    10. 2.10. Microelectromechanical Systems
    11. Exercises
  11. Chapter 3. Defects, Contaminants, and Yield
    1. 3.1. Scope
    2. 3.2. Defects in Crystalline Solids and Semiconductors
    3. 3.3. Processing Defects
    4. 3.4. Contamination
    5. 3.5. Yield
    6. Exercises
  12. Chapter 4. The Mathematics of Failure and Reliability
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Statistics and Definitions
    3. 4.3. All About Exponential, Lognormal, and Weibull Distributions
    4. 4.4. System Reliability
    5. 4.5. On the Physical Significance of Failure Distribution Functions
    6. 4.6. Prediction Confidence and Assessing Risk
    7. 4.7. A Skeptical and Irreverent Summary
    8. Statistics and Ignorance
    9. Superstition, Witchcraft, Prediction
    10. Statistics versus Physics
    11. Where Do I Begin?
    12. Reliability Prediction and MIL-HDBK-217
    13. 4.8. Epilogue—Final Comment
    14. Exercises
  13. Chapter 5. Mass Transport-Induced Failure
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Diffusion and Atom Movements in Solids
    3. 5.3. Binary Diffusion and Compound Formation
    4. 5.4. Reactions at Metal–Semiconductor Contacts
    5. 5.5. EM Physics and Damage Models
    6. 5.6. EM in Practice
    7. 5.7. Stress Voiding
    8. 5.8. Multilevel Copper Metallurgy—EM and SV
    9. 5.9. Failure of Incandescent Lamps
    10. Exercises
  14. Chapter 6. Electronic Charge-Induced Damage
    1. 6.1. Introduction
    2. 6.2. Aspects of Conduction in Insulators
    3. 6.3. Dielectric Breakdown
    4. 6.4. Hot-Carrier Effects
    5. 6.5. Electrical Overstress and Electrostatic Discharge
    6. 6.6. Bias Temperature Effects
    7. Exercises
  15. Chapter 7. Environmental Damage to Electronic Products
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Atmospheric Contamination and Moisture
    3. 7.3. Corrosion of Metals
    4. 7.4. Corrosion in Electronics
    5. 7.5. Metal Migration
    6. 7.6. Radiation Damage to Electronic Materials and Devices
    7. Exercises
  16. Chapter 8. Packaging Materials, Processes, and Stresses
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. IC Chip Packaging Processes and Effects
    3. 8.3. Solders and Their Reactions
    4. 8.4. Second-Level Packaging Technologies
    5. 8.5. Thermal Stresses in Package Structures
    6. Exercises
  17. Chapter 9. Degradation of Contacts and Package Interconnections
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. The Nature of Contacts
    3. 9.3. Degradation of Contacts and Connectors
    4. 9.4. Creep and Fatigue of Solder
    5. 9.5. Reliability and Failure of Solder Joints
    6. 9.6. Dynamic Loading Effects in Electronic Equipment
    7. Exercises
  18. Chapter 10. Degradation and Failure of Electro-Optical Materials and Devices
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. Failure and Reliability of Lasers and Light-Emitting Diodes
    3. 10.3. Thermal Degradation of Lasers and Optical Components
    4. 10.4. Reliability of Optical Fibers
    5. Exercises
  19. Chapter 11. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Materials and Devices
    1. 11.1. Overview of Testing and Failure Analysis
    2. 11.2. Nondestructive Examination and Decapsulation
    3. 11.3. Structural Characterization
    4. 11.4. Chemical Characterization
    5. 11.5. Examining Devices under Electrical Stress
    6. Exercises
  20. Chapter 12. Future Directions and Reliability Issues
    1. 12.1. Introduction
    2. 12.2. Integrated Circuit Technology Trends
    3. 12.3. Scaling
    4. 12.4. Fundamental Limits
    5. 12.5. Improving Reliability
    6. Exercises
  21. Appendix
  22. Acronyms
  23. Index