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Regulating Speech in Cyberspace

Book Description

Private companies exert considerable control over the flow of information on the internet. Whether users are finding information with a search engine, communicating on a social networking site or accessing the internet through an ISP, access to participation can be blocked, channelled, edited or personalised. Such gatekeepers are powerful forces in facilitating or hindering freedom of expression online. This is problematic for a human rights system which has historically treated human rights as a government responsibility, and this is compounded by the largely light-touch regulatory approach to the internet in the west. Regulating Speech in Cyberspace explores how these gatekeepers operate at the intersection of three fields of study: regulation (more broadly, law), corporate social responsibility and human rights. It proposes an alternative corporate governance model for speech regulation, one that acts as a template for the increasingly common use of non-state-based models of governance for human rights.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Title page
  4. Imprints page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Abbreviations
  10. Table of legislation and cases
  11. 1 The internet as a democratising force
    1. 1.1. The historical context of the internet
    2. 1.2. Which democracy for the internet?
      1. 1.2.1. Deliberative democracy
      2. 1.2.2. Democratic culture
    3. 1.3. Participation in democratic culture
      1. 1.3.1. Access to information and participation in discourse
      2. 1.3.2. Concerns of fragmentation and the demise of traditional media
    4. 1.4. Conclusion
  12. 2 A framework for identifying internet information gatekeepers
    1. 2.1. From cupcakes to Yahoo!
    2. 2.2. The inadequacies of traditional gatekeeping online
    3. 2.3. Internet gatekeepers
    4. 2.4. A human rights framework for internet information gatekeepers
      1. 2.4.1. Internet information gatekeepers: identification
        1. 2.4.1.1. Conceptual basis of internet information gatekeepers
        2. 2.4.1.2. Characteristics of internet information gatekeepers
      2. 2.4.2. Internet information gatekeepers: a framework
    5. 2.5. Conclusion
  13. 3 Corporate social responsibility in cyberspace
    1. 3.1. The concept of CSR
      1. 3.1.1. Where CSR came from
      2. 3.1.2. What CSR is
      3. 3.1.3. Critiques of CSR
    2. 3.2. CSR and the law
    3. 3.3. CSR and human rights
    4. 3.4. Setting the stage: CSR in the field
    5. 3.5. Measure human rights compliance: Article 10
    6. 3.6. Conclusion
  14. 4 Mechanisms of information control: ISPs
    1. 4.1. Filtering and democracy
    2. 4.2. Regulation of filtering in a European and UK context
      1. 4.2.1. The IWF
      2. 4.2.2. The ISPA and internal codes of conduct
    3. 4.3. An analysis of the human rights compliance of the IWF
      1. 4.3.1. How ‘private’ is the IWF?
      2. 4.3.2. Is the IWF prescribed by law with a legitimate aim?
      3. 4.3.3. Necessary in a democratic society
      4. 4.3.4. A failure of the state?
      5. 4.3.5. Assessment as a pure-CSR body
    4. 4.4. Human rights audit and the future
    5. 4.5. Conclusion
  15. 5 Mechanisms of information control: search engines
    1. 5.1. Search engines, democracy and free speech
    2. 5.2. Governance of search
    3. 5.3. Search engines and human rights law
      1. 5.3.1. Users Rights
      2. 5.3.2. Content provider rights
      3. 5.3.3. Search provider rights
      4. 5.3.4. Google’s corporate governance framework
    4. 5.4. Conclusion
  16. 6 A corporate governance model for the Digital Age
    1. 6.1. A fractured system
      1. 6.1.1. Where the case studies diverged
      2. 6.1.2. Identifying the problem
    2. 6.2. Framing the solution
      1. 6.2.1. Theoretical basis of the model
      2. 6.2.2. A new model for corporate governance
      3. 6.2.3. The need for a new commission
    3. 6.3. Conclusion
  17. Concluding remarks
  18. Bibliography
  19. Index