Appendix 2

Matrix Algebra

**A2.1 Basic Definitions**

• *Matrix*: a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns (the plural of matrix is *matrices*).

• *Dimension* of the matrix: the number of rows and columns of the matrix.

• Consider a matrix **A** that has dimension *m* × *k*. Let *a*_{ij} be the symbol for the number in the *i*th row and *j*th column of **A**. In general, we work with matrices of the form

• *Vector*: a (column) vector is a matrix containing only one column (*k* = 1).

• *Row vector*: a matrix containing only one row (*m* = 1).

• *Transpose*: transpose ...

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