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Regional Development

Book Description

From domestic to international settings, aid and assistance to less-developed areas has recently been bolstered by a boom in technological advances and new research. Regional Development: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents a vital compendium of research detailing the latest case studies, architectures, frameworks, methodologies, and research on regional development. With over 100 chapters from authors from around the world, this three volume collection presents the most sophisticated research and developments from the field, relevant to researchers, academics, and practitioners alike. In order to stay abreast of the latest research, this book affords a vital look into regional development research.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 101: ICT Strategy for Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. EVOLUTION OF ICT IN EGYPT
      5. ICT SECTOR PROFILE
      6. EGYPT INFORMATION SOCIETY INITIATIVE (EISI)
      7. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE ICT MARKET IN EGYPT
      8. FORMULATING EGYPT’S NATIONAL ICT STRATEGY
      9. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 102: Local Commitment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUSTAINABLE NEIGHBORHOODS IN EUROPE: AN OVERVIEW
      4. BETWEEN MUNICIPAL STRATEGY AND LOCAL ACTION: A SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PROCESS FOR URBAN RENEWAL?
      5. PARTICIPATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIONS: HIGHLIGHTS
      6. FURTHER PROSPECTS AND EMERGING TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 103: Information Communication Technology and Its Impact on Rural Community Economic Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
      8. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 104: Technology Adoption and Economic Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION PROCESS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE
      5. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
      6. LESSONS FOR TRANSFER OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES TO AFRICA
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 105: Mobile Telephony and Economic Growth in Developing Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 106: Multinational Companies and their Link to the Intellectual Capital of Territories
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      4. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL OF A TERRITORY
      5. PROPOSAL OF A MODEL
      6. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 107: Service Science, Value Creation, and Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PROBLEM OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 108: Entrepreneurship in the European Union
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. DISCUSSION
    9. Chapter 109: The Evolution of ICT Institutions in Thailand and Malaysia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THAILAND AND MALAYSIA
      6. TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTIONS
      7. EVOLUTION OF THAILAND’S S&T INSTITUTIONS
      8. EVOLUTION OF MALAYSIA’S S&T INSTITUTIONS
      9. CHALLENGES FACING NATIONAL ICT INSTITUTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 110: Regional and Sectoral Disparities in Inflow of FDI in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
      5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
      6. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. GLOBAL TRENDS IN FDI INFLOWS
      9. TRENDS OF FDI IN INDIA
      10. COUNTRY WISE TRENDS IN THE FLOWS OF FDI IN INDIA
      11. STATE WISE OF FDI INFLOWS IN INDIA
      12. SECTOR WISE FDI INFLOWS IN INDIA (INCREASE IN THE PERVASIVE COMPUTING AREA)
      13. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
      14. FURTHER TRENDS
      15. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 111: Quality of Life Modeling at the Regional Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM FORMULATION
      4. DATA DESCRIPTION AND PREPROCESSING
      5. CLASSIFICATION MODELS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      7. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 201: Modeling of the Economic Development of a Region
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS USED IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION
      4. MODELING OF ECONIMIC REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 202: Regional Innovation Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPT OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES
      4. IMPLEMENTATIONS OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN EUROPE
      5. LEADER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN TURKEY
      6. IMPLEMENTATIONS OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN MERSIN
      7. PRELIMINARY IMPLEMENTATIONS OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN IZMIR
      8. PRELIMINARY IMPLEMENTATIONS OF REGIONAL INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN ESKISEHIR
      9. TURKEY’S ADAPTATION TO REGIONAL INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES
      10. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 203: Energy, Environment and Socio-Economic Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. JUSTIFICATION FOR ENERGY POLICY IMPERATIVE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL RAMIFICATIONS OF ENERGY SYSTEMS LINKAGES
      5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
      6. COMPARATIVE TRAJECTORIES OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITIES
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    4. Chapter 204: The Regional Innovation Capacity Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE REGIONAL INNOVATION CAPACITY MODEL
      4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 205: Bridging the Digital Divide by Open Source
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTEXT
      4. THE HIGHER EDUCATION CONTEXT IN MOZAMBIQUE
      5. NORTH-SOUTH COLLABORATION
      6. HARDWARE, SOFTWARE AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
      7. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY AND APPROPRIATE ICT
      8. OBSERVATIONS OF SW CHARACTERISTICS
      9. OPEN SOURCE AND EFFECTIVE USE
      10. SOFTWARE LICENSING
      11. OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND CULTURE OF OPEN SOURCE
      12. COMMUNITY INITIATED VS. SPINOUT PROJECTS
      13. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
      14. GOVERNANCE
      15. FAVORABLE PROJECT CHARACTERISTICS
      16. OPEN SOURCE IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT
      17. CONCLUSIONS: BUILDING BLOCKS FOR BEST PRACTICE OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT
      18. MODEL OVERVIEW
      19. BUILDING BLOCKS
      20. FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. Chapter 206: Development of an Information System for the Assessment of Different Bioenergy Concepts Regarding Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DECISION SUPPORT FOR CONCEPTS FOR SUSTAINALBLE BIOMASS USE FOR ENERGY
      5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 207: Institutional Framework for Analyzing Sustainability in European Agriculture and Rural Areas
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. DESIGNING BETTER INSTITUTIONS FOR IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS
      6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 208: System Approach to MIS and DSS and its Modeling within SD
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM DYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS
      4. APPLICATIONS OF SD
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. Chapter 209: Reviewing the European Innovation Activities and Industrial Competitiveness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EUROPEAN INNOVATION POLICY
      4. THE EUROPEAN INNOVATION POLICY AND COMPETITIVENESS
      5. POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 210: Community Based Eco Cultural Heritage Tourism for Sustainable Development in the Asian Region
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. LINKAGES BETWEEN HERITAGE, CULTURE AND NATURAL ELEMENTS IN TOURISM DESTINATIONS
      5. 4. COMMUNITY BASED HERITAGE ECO-CULTURAL TOURISM (CBECHT)
      6. 5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
    11. Chapter 211: The Role of M-Government in Western China Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL GOVERNANCE MODEL
      4. ANALYSING MOBILE GOVERNMENT IN WESTERN CHINA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 212: Sustainable Tourism Development in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 301: Agriculture, Communication, and Socioeconomic Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    2. Chapter 302: Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 303: An Agricultural Decision Support System for Optimal Land Use Regarding Groundwater Vulnerability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDY AREAS
      4. GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
      5. RESULTS
      6. DSS ARCHITECTURE
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 304: Developing Sustainable Governance Systems for Regional Sustainability Programmes and ‘Green’ Business Practices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE SUSTAINABILITY, AND THE MARKET
      4. CASE STUDIES: FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL (FSC) AND THE PROGRAMME FOR THE ENDORSEMENT OF FOREST CERTIFICATION SCHEMES (PEFC)
      5. CURRENT GREEN PRACTICE AND DESIGN: CASE APPLICATION
      6. CONCLUSIONS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN MARKET-BASED APPROACHES
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 305: Geographical Information Systems for Biomass Estimate and the Search for Renewable Energy Sources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. GIS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      3. 2. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: BIOMASSES
      4. 3. THE SITUATION IN THE STUDY REGION
      5. 4. AN ESTIMATE OF THE REGIONAL ENERGY POTENTIAL FROM BIOMASSES FROM CATTLE AND SWINE BREEDING
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 306: A Model for Improving the Adoption of Sustainability in the Context of Globalization and Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. UNDERPINNINGS AND GLOBAL REALITIES
      5. A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABILITY
      6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS
    7. Chapter 307: A Computational Agent Model of Flood Management Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A SCENARIO SIMULATION MODEL
      5. TWO POLICY SCENARIOS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 308: Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix and How Do Knowledge, Innovation and the Environment Relate To Each Other?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION: THE DRAFTING OF A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR A TRANSDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL ECOLOGY
      3. 2. WHAT ARE KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION? OVERVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND THE EVOLUTION OF CONCEPTS
      4. 3. MODE 1, MODE 2 AND MODE 3: TRIPLE HELIX AND QUADRUPLE HELIX
      5. 4. CONCLUSION: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL ECOLOGY AND THE QUINTUPLE HELIX
    9. Chapter 309: The Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MODEL
      4. OPERATIONAL MODEL
      5. PROOF OF CONCEPT
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 310: A National ICT-in-Education Initiative
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 311: The Siyakhula Living Lab
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ICT PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY IN RURAL COMMUNITIES
      5. SOCIAL-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE
      6. INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE
      7. TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 401: Sustainable Management of Agricultural Resources and the Need for Stakeholder Participation for the Developing of Appropriate Sustainability Indicators
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      4. MEASURING AND ASSESSING SUSTAINABILITY
      5. THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
      6. THE NEED FOR MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND IN USING SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
      7. STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FOR APPROPRIATE USE OF SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
      8. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND INDICATORS FOR MEASURING AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY
      9. SOIL QUALITY, INDICATORS AND INTER-DISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE INDICATORS FOR ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 402: A Case Study of Information Technology Education and Economic Development in Rural Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL AREAS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      4. IT EDUCATION
      5. HUMAN AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND IT
      6. CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS
      7. THE CASE ORGANIZATION: SUMMIT COMPUTERS
      8. CASE ANALYSIS: MOTIVATING FACTORS AND DRIVERS OF IT EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS
      9. CASE ANALYSIS: MAJOR CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 403: TQM for Sustainable Development through NPD in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. MOTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH
      5. 4. JUSTIFICATION AND HYPOTHESES
      6. 5. METHODOLOGY
      7. 6. RESEARCH RESULTS
      8. 7. DISCUSSION
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE WORK
    4. Chapter 404: Sustainable Development of Pilgrimage Tourism in Jammu Region
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION
    5. Chapter 405: Macroeconomic Factors of Competitiveness of Serbian Economy and ICT Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPARISON OF COMPETITIVENESS OF SERBIAN ECONOMY AND NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES
      4. MACROECONOMIC BUSINESS CONDITIONS WITH THE USE OF ICT
      5. BUSINESS REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT IN SERBIA
      6. BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT INDICATORS IN SERBIA
      7. BUSINESS ETHICS IN SERBIA
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 406: Using Soclab for a Rigorous Assessment of the Social Feasibility of Agricultural Policies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE SOCIOLOGICAL BASE: THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE ORGANIZED ACTION
      4. 3. THE META-MODEL OF A CONCRETE SYSTEM OF ACTIONS
      5. 4. THE SOCLAB ENVIRONMENT
      6. 5. USING SOCLAB IN THE CONCERT’EAU PROJECT
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 407: Application of a Participatory Ex Ante Assessment Model for Environmental Governance and Visualizing Sustainable Redevelopment in Gorj County, Romania
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN EX ANTE ASSESSMENT TOOL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 408: ICT-Supported Education for Sustainable Development of South Korean Rural Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    9. Chapter 409: The Adoption of the Internet to Support Arab Academics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CASE OF ASANA
      5. THE USEFULNESS OF ASANA SERVICES
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 410: Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development of Open and Distance Learning Programs in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GROWTH SO FAR
      4. ANALYSIS OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES
      5. STRATEGIES: WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?
    11. Chapter 411: Eco-Municipalities and Municipal Applications for Sustainability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE AND EMERGING TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 412: Urban Competitiveness, U-City Strategies and the Development of Technological Niches in Songdo, South Korea
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: TERRITORIAL COMPETITIVENESS AND ICT
      4. URBAN COMPETITIVENESS AND U-CITY STRATEGIES IN SONGDO, SOUTH KOREA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 501: Innovation Policy, Competitiveness, and Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: AN INSEPARABLE RELATIONSHIP
      4. INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ANOTHER INSEPARABLE RELATIONSHIP
      5. INNOVATION SYSTEMS: A MAJOR TOOL FOR REGIONAL CONVERGENCE… OR DIVERGENCE
      6. EUROPEAN UNION REGIONAL INNOVATION POLICY OBJECTIVES
      7. PROSPECTS
    2. Chapter 502: The Evaluation of the Implementation of Sustainability Norms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: EVALUATING SUSTAINABILITY - A NORMATIVE EXERCISE?
      3. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    3. Chapter 503: Project-Based Organisations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL MODEL
      4. RESEARCH METHODS AND DESIGN
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 504: Sharing Information about the Pain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAMERA-ASSISTED COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS
    5. Chapter 505: Communicating Environmental Information on a Company and Inter-Organizational Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      4. EMPIRICAL ANALYSES OF SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES AND INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    6. Chapter 506: Dynamics in a Non-Scale R&D Endogenous Economic Growth for Chinese Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MODEL
      4. 3 DATA AND PARAMETER
      5. 4. ANALYSIS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH ENGINE IN CHINA
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 507: A Case on University and Community Collaboration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. INITIAL SUCCESSES
      6. ETS PROGRAM BENEFITS
      7. APPENDIX A: PROJECT TIMELINE FOR THE ETS PROGRAM
      8. APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS OF SMALL BUSINESSES (WWW.SBA.GOV; WWW.TRADE.GOV)
    8. Chapter 508: Attitudes Toward Intelligent Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 509: ICT Policies in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL ICT POLICIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. ICT POLICY ISSUES
      6. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
      7. EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH NATIONAL ICT POLICIES
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 510: Gender and ICT Policy for Development and Empowerment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH APPROACH
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. ZAMBIA’S ICT POLICY: DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS AND STAKEHOLDER PERSPECITVE
      6. STRATEGIC PLAN OF ACTION (2004)
      7. THE ZAMBIA NATIONAL ICT POLICY (2006)
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 511: Chinese Manufacturing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. IS IT ONLY A VILLAGE PHONE?
      4. 2. THE VALUE CREATION SPECTRUM OF VILLAGE PHONE
      5. 3. VIRTUAL ECONOMY OR MANUFACTURING-BASED ECONOMY? IMPLICATION FROM RECENT FINANCIAL CRUNCH
      6. 4. TRANSFORMATION IS A MUST FOR CHINESE MANUFACTURING: THE NEW MANUFACTURING MODE OF SERVICE-MANUFACTURING (SM)
      7. 5. SHaanGu, A PRACTITIONER OF S-M
      8. 7. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SERVICE-MANUFACTURING
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 512: Gender and Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE “EITHER/OR” TECHNOLOGY ON THE BACKGROUND
      4. GENDERING THE INTERNET6
      5. THE “TRANSGENDER” IDENTITY OF INTERNET
      6. DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF DIGITAL GENDER GAP
      7. WHAT TO DO?
      8. FUTURE TRENDS FOR GENDER STUDIES ON TECHNOLOGY
      9. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 601: Business Models for Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTS UNDERLYING BUSINESS MODELS
      4. BUSINESS MODELS FOR DEVELOPMENT
      5. CREATING VALUE THROUGH BUSINESS MODELS FOR DEVELOPMENT
      6. THE GLOBAL CAPABILITY SOURCING MODEL
      7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 602: ICT as an Enabler for Small Firm Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    3. Chapter 603: Supply Chain Management in the Context of Economic Area
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ECONOMIC AREA OF OULU
      4. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS AND EXTENSIONS TO LOCATION
      5. 4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OULU IN THE CONTEXT OF SCM
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 604: Electronic Commerce Prospects in Emerging Economies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNET GROWTH ON GLOBAL E-COMMERCE
      4. INTERNET EVOLUTION IN EGYPT
      5. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN EGYPT
      6. CHALLENGES
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 605: Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 606: Predicting the Attitude toward Mobile Financial Services in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PREDICTING THE ATTITUDE TOWARD MOBILE FINANCIAL SERVICES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 607: Wastewater Systems Management at the Regional Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PLANNING MODELS FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEMS
      4. MANAGEMENT MODELS FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEMS
      5. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEMS PROBLEMS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 608: Trade Policies and Development of Technology in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHARACTERISTICS OF AFRICA’S ECONOMIES FROM THE LATE 1960S TO 1990S
      4. ECONOMIC POLICIES OF THE 1970S AND 1980S
      5. EXPORT PERFORMANCE OF SSA COUNTRIES AFTER TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICIES
      6. POLICIES TO ACHIEVE ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 609: The Scenario of a Learning Society Model Toward Promoting a Positive Paradigm Shift for Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL/ CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. RESEARCH DEFINITIONS
      7. RESEARCH PROCEDURES
      8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      9. RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. SIGNIFICANCE AND CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 610: Study on Environmental Tax
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX AND ITS THEORETICAL BASIS
      4. 3. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL TAX
      5. 4. INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES
      6. 5. ENVIRONMENT-RELATED TAXES IN CHINA AND THEIR PROBLEMS
      7. 6. STRATEGY FOR THE BUILDING OF CHINA’S ENVIRONMENTAL TAX SYSTEM
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 701: A New Development Opportunity Confronts Old Paradigms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE DEBATE
      4. MONITORING THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. THE DIGITAL OPPORTUNITY INDEX
      6. ICT OPPORTUNITY INDEX
      7. DYNAMICS OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      8. LEVELS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INEQUALITY
      9. THE NEED TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      10. HOW THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AFFECTS POOR NATIONS
      11. WHY THE DIGITAL DIVIDE IS A CONCERN FOR WEALTHY NATIONS
      12. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES AND PROBLEMS
      13. MODERNIZATION THEORY PERSPECTIVES
      14. DEPENDENCY THEORY PERSPECTIVES
      15. A REVIEW OF THE MAIN ARGUMENTS IN THE DIGITAL DIVIDE DEBATE
      16. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      17. THE MULTIPLICITY THEORY AND ICT FOR DEVELOPMENT
      18. DESIRABLE QUALITIES OF THE MULTIPLICITY THEORY
      19. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 702: Sustainable and Equitable Urbanism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TEACHING URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: ICT AND CULTURE CHANGE
      5. THE FUTURE OF ICT IN URBAN SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 703: Social Justice, America, & African American Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL JUSTICE
      4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      5. EDUCATION
      6. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
      7. HEALTH CARE
      8. SOCIAL ORDER AND CAPITALISM
      9. GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOCRACY
      10. ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY
      11. POSITIVE TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      12. NEGATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      13. IMPLICATIONS
      14. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?
      15. CHANGING FACE OF LEADERSHIP
      16. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 704: Digital Equity in Schools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DIMENSIONS OF DIGITAL EQUITY: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR DIGITAL EQUITY
      5. CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN DIGITAL EQUITY SCHOLARSHIP
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 705: The Mirror Meta-Principle
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
      3. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF POST-WWII DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS
      4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT, CULTURE, MODERNITY, AND TECHNOLOGY
      5. MIRROR META-PRINCIPLE: CREATING THE CONTEXT FOR CULTURALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATICS
      6. CONCLUSION: THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT INFORMATICS
    6. Chapter 706: The Unintended Consequence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT AND DESIGN-ACTUALITY GAP
      4. THE EVENT
      5. THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
      6. ICT AND THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN
      7. DESIGN-ACTUALITY GAP AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES IN IRAN
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 707: Deconstructing the ‘Digital Divide’ In Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DIGITAL DIVIDE AND THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS
      4. 3. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE DEBATE
      5. 4. DECONSTRUCTING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PHENOMENON
      6. 5. EMERGING AND NEW GENERATION DIGITAL DIVIDE CAUSES IN AFRICA
      7. 6. BENEFITS OF BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      8. 7. INTERVENTIONS NEEDED TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE IN AFRICA
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 708: “Green Infrastructure” Concept as an Effective Medium to Manipulating Sustainable Urban Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 709: Crossing Borders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERPRETATION: CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 710: Relating Transportation Quality Indicators to Economic Conditions
 in the South-Central U.S.
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION AND STUDY AREA
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. DATA AND METHODS
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 711: A Theory for Sustainability of Townscape
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ELEMENTS OF TOWNSCAPE
      4. A METHOD FOR AN ANALYSIS OF URBAN FORM: TYPOMORPHOLOGY
      5. SUSTAINABILITY OF TOWNSCAPE
      6. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 801: Paradigm Shift Required for ICT4D
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DIVIDES
      3. DEVELOPMENT AND ICT4D
      4. PHILANTHROCAPITALISM
      5. ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
      6. ORGANICISM
      7. CRITIQUE OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
      8. ECONOMIC THEORIES: RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL MAN
      9. HOMO ECONOMICUS
      10. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
      11. FOR THE GREATER GOOD... FOR THE GOOD OF THE PEOPLE
      12. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 802: Towards Sustainable Development of Energy-Aware Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENERGY-AWARE RESOURCES
      4. SIMPLE RESOURCES
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. TOWARDS ENERGY-AWARE DEVELOPMENT
      7. RELATED WORK
      8. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 803: Knowledge Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 804: Planning Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 805: Sustainable Airport Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
      4. SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. CONNECTIVITY
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 806: City 2.0 as a Platform for Global E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. URBAN RESPONSE TO GLOBALISATION
      4. CITY 2.0 AS AN URBAN DIMENSION OF WEB 2.0
      5. LAYERS OF INNOVATION NETWORKING
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 807: Emerging Trends in Tourism Industry in Oman
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. COUNTRY PROFILE OF OMAN
      5. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM IN OMAN
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. WEBSITES
      9. APPENDIX 1 (Table 2)
      10. APPENDIX 2 (Table 3)
    8. Chapter 808: An Advanced Triple-Helix Network Model for Smart Cities Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SMARTCITIES METRICS DEVELOPMENT
      5. TOWARD A MORE SOUND MEASURE OF “SMARTNESS”
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 809: Using ICT to Foster Human Rights Defense Processes for Mexican Immigrants
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MIGRATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS
      4. MEXICAN MIGRANT PROFILE
      5. ICT AND MIGRATION
      6. THE COLIMENSES sin FRONTERAS WEB PORTAL
      7. DIGITAL ALPHABETIZATION PROGRAM
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 810: Challenges Ahead for European Air Traffic
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE SCENE
      4. AIR TRANSPORT AND THE ECONOMY
      5. SOCIETY’S INCREASING AWARENESS
      6. POLITICAL AND LEGISLATIVE CHALLENGES
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 811: A Hybrid Style of E-Learning in MBA Education across Borders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CASE-STUDY AND FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 812: Emerging Technology Transfer, Economic Development and Policy in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THOUGHTS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN AFRICA-AN INTRODUCTION
      3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
      4. FACTORS FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MICROELECTRONICS TRANSFER TO AFRICA
      5. RECENT POLICIES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF STEP-B, NIGERIA