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Red Hat Linux System Administration Handbook

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2539E-5

Manage your Red Hat Linux systems for maximum productivity!

Red Hat Linux 6.0 delivers cost-effective, rock-solid networking and Internet connectivity - and with the Red Hat Unux System Administration Handbook, anyone can administer a Red Hat Linux system successfully!

Two top Linux experts walk you step-by-step through everything you'll need to know about Linux networking, user accounts, file and print services, email, security, backups, and much more. You'll get practical, hands-on guidance for configuring your hardware and peripherals - and maximizing the performance of your Linux system.

Coverage includes:

  • Technical and practical explanations of every major system administration task

  • Deploying Web services, NetNews, FTP, X Windows, Samba, and more

  • Managing Linux in heterogeneous networked environments

  • Handling Linux system upgrades, and more

  • You'll find all-new chapters on installation, the PAM Red Hat Security Model, the Red Hat package manager, and the latest 2.2 kernel enhancements — plus detailed coverage of managing Red Hat Linux with the GNOME graphical user interface. If you want to make the most of Red Hat Linux — with the least effort — you want Red Hat Linux System Administration Handbook!

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Thanks and Acknowledgments
    2. 1. Introduction
      1. 1.1. Oh No! Not Another Linux Book!
      2. 1.2. Linux Theory
      3. 1.3. Is It Really Free?
      4. 1.4. Why Linux?
      5. 1.5. Is Linux SYSV or BSD?
      6. 1.6. Support
      7. 1.7. What You Need
      8. 1.8. Red Hat Recommended Settings
    3. 2. Installation
      1. 2.1. Getting Linux
      2. 2.2. Preparing for the Install
        1. CD-ROM
        2. Boot Floppies
        3. Kickstart
      3. 2.3. Performing the Install
        1. Using fdisk to Partition Your Disk
      4. 2.4. LILO Installation
        1. Using Linux with the NT Bootloader
      5. 2.5. Linux and Other Operating Systems
      6. 2.6. Upgrading Red Hat Linux
        1. Upgrading from Previous Red Hat Releases
        2. Recovering a Failed Upgrade
      7. 2.7. Migrating from Other Distributions
      8. 2.8. Applications CD
        1. ARDI Executor
        2. Astart LPRng
        3. EST BRU
        4. Empress Database
        5. Grey Trout NExS
        6. HKS CCVS
        7. IBM ViaVoice SDK
        8. Knox Arkeia
        9. Kuck & Associates, Inc. KCC
        10. Link Petra
        11. MayKo mxmap
        12. MetaCard
        13. MpegTV Xaudio and mtv
        14. Munica NetSQL
        15. NetBeans
        16. NewPlanet Code Crusader and Code Medic
        17. Reedy Creek RPMMAIL
        18. StarDivision StarOffice
        19. TakeFive SNIFF+
        20. VSI - VSIfax Server
        21. WebTrends—Enterprise Reporting Server
      9. 2.9. Summary
    4. 3. Linux Boot and Shutdown
      1. 3.1. LILO
        1. Configuring the Linux Loader
        2. The Boot Prompt
        3. Configuring LILO
        4. The rdev Command
      2. 3.2. Kernel Boot
      3. 3.3. init
      4. 3.4. What's a Runlevel?
      5. 3.5. When Something Goes Wrong
      6. 3.6. The Red Hat Rescue Diskette
      7. 3.7. System Shutdown
        1. Shutdown Command
        2. The powerd Daemon
        3. CTRL+ALT+DELETE
      8. 3.8. Keeping a PC Safe from Reboots
      9. 3.9. Summary
    5. 4. Account Administration
      1. 4.1. Adding Users
        1. Groups
        2. The /etc/skel Directory
      2. 4.2. Deleting or Disabling Users
        1. When to Disable and When to Delete
      3. 4.3. Using Shadow Passwords
        1. Setting Up Your System for Shadow Passwords
      4. 4.4. Using PAM
        1. PAM Configuration
        2. Increased Security with PAM
      5. 4.5. Linuxconf
        1. The Linuxconf Screen
        2. Extra Modules
        3. Advanced Linuxconf-Profiles
        4. Storing Profiles
        5. fsconf
          1. Access Local Drive
          2. Access nfs Volume
          3. Configure Swap Files or Partitions
          4. Set Quotas
          5. Check fs Permissions
      6. 4.6. Interaction with Users
      7. 4.7. Summary
    6. 5. RPM
      1. 5.1. Binary RPM Installation
      2. 5.2. Source RPM (SRPM)
      3. 5.3. Other RPM Utilities
        1. RPMFIND
        2. RPM2CPIO
        3. Kpackage
        4. GnoRPM
      4. 5.4. Summary
    7. 6. Networking with Linux
      1. 6.1. TCP/IP
        1. Ethernet
          1. Connecting to an Ethernet Network
        2. DHCP
          1. DHCP Configuration
        3. Server Configuration
        4. Client Configuration
        5. PPP
          1. PPP Client
          2. PPP Server
      2. 6.2. INETD
        1. /etc/services
        2. /etc/inetd.conf
      3. 6.3. Network Applications
        1. DNS
          1. Should You Be a DNS Server?
          2. named.boot
          3. named.ca
          4. DNS Database Records
          5. Reverse DNS
          6. Configuring the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon 8.1 (BIND)
          7. Using Your ACLs
          8. Other Important Options
        2. nslookup
        3. NFS
      4. 6.4. AppleTalk
        1. Installing netatalk
        2. Configuring netatalk
        3. AppleVolumes.default and AppleVolumes.system
        4. afpd.conf
        5. atalkd.conf
        6. papd.conf
        7. Printing to AppleTalk Printers
        8. The "config" Metafile
        9. Hardware Considerations
        10. Installing from Source
        11. Starting Netatalk
      5. 6.5. Network Information Services (NIS and NIS+)
        1. NIS Client Setup
        2. The nsswitch.conf File
        3. Automounter Client Startup
        4. NIS+
        5. Setting Up an NIS Master Server
      6. 6.6. Routing with Linux
        1. Routing Using Red Hat netcfg
        2. Routing by Hand
        3. Security Issues
      7. 6.7. Internet Agencies
        1. InterNIC
          1. Registering a Domain
          2. whois
        2. CERT
        3. CIAC—http://ciac.llnl.gov/
      8. 6.8. Summary
    8. 7. Printing and Print Sharing
      1. 7.1. Connecting Printers to Linux
      2. 7.2. Serial vs. Parallel vs. Ethernet Printers
      3. 7.3. Configuring a Printer
      4. 7.4. Print Filters
      5. 7.5. Printers on the Network!
        1. Access from Other LPD (UNIX) Systems
        2. Access via SMB (Windows Networking)
      6. 7.6. Managing Print Queues
      7. 7.7. Ghostscript
      8. 7.8. Summary
    9. 8. Samba
      1. 8.1. Setting Up an MS Windows Network
        1. What You'll Need
          1. What's a Workgroup?
          2. What's a Domain?
        2. Install TCP/IPStack
      2. 8.2. Installing Samba
        1. Password Authentication
      3. 8.3. Linux SMB Connections
        1. smbfs
        2. smbclient
      4. 8.4. SWAT (Samba Web Administration Tool)
        1. Globals
          1. Base Options
          2. Security Options
          3. Logging Options
          4. Tuning and Printing
          5. Browse and WINS Options
        2. Shares
      5. 8.5. Installing Linux Printers on Windows
      6. 8.6. Summary
    10. 9. Email
      1. 9.1. Using m4 Files
      2. 9.2. You Have Mail!
      3. 9.3. MIME
      4. 9.4. The .forward File
        1. Procmail
      5. 9.5. Mailing Lists
        1. Majordomo
      6. 9.6. Qmail: An Alternative to Sendmail
        1. Installing Qmail
        2. Ezmlm
        3. Ezmlm Files
      7. 9.7. Remote Email (POP and IMAP)
        1. POP
        2. IMAP
      8. 9.8. Summary
    11. 10. Setting Up FTP Services
      1. 10.1. FTP under Red Hat Linux
      2. 10.2. Configuring wu-ftpd
      3. 10.3. Anonymous FTP
        1. Setting Up Anonymous FTP
      4. 10.4. ProFTPD
      5. 10.5. BeroFTPD
        1. Virtual FTP Servers
      6. 10.6. TFTP
      7. 10.7. FTP Clients
        1. ftp
        2. NcFTP
        3. gFTP
        4. XFTP
      8. 10.8. Summary
    12. 11. Applications for Linux
      1. 11.1. Office Products, Word Processors, and Editors
        1. Applixware
        2. Applix Words
        3. WordPerfect
        4. Plan
        5. TeX/LaTex
        6. Xemacs
      2. 11.2. Drawing, Graphics, and Image Viewing and Manipulation
        1. Xv
        2. GIMP
        3. Xfig
        4. Xpaint
        5. Mapedit
      3. 11.3. Scientific Programs
        1. Maple
        2. Mathematica
      4. 11.4. Emulators
        1. Executor
        2. Wabi
        3. Dosemu
        4. Acrobat
        5. LessTif
      5. 11.5. Summary
    13. 12. Linux Database Software
      1. 12.1. MySQL and mSQL
        1. mSQL
        2. Lite and W3-msql
        3. Some Other Notes
        4. MySQL
        5. Installing MySQL
        6. Compiling and Installing MySQL
        7. Installing from a Binary Distribution
        8. Setting up the Grants Database and Other Data Files
        9. Contributed Software for MySQL
        10. xmysql: A GUI Interface to MySQL
        11. Xmysqladmin
      2. 12.2. Other Native Linux DMBSs
        1. Freeware
          1. PostgreSQL
        2. Commercial
          1. Solid
          2. Empress
          3. Texpress
          4. Essentia
          5. Sybase
          6. Oracle
          7. Informix
          8. IBM
      3. 12.3. Summary
    14. 13. Programming Languages
      1. 13.1. C
      2. 13.2. C++
      3. 13.3. Perl
      4. 13.4. Python
        1. Python and GUIs
        2. Python on Other Platforms
      5. 13.5. Lisp, Scheme, and Guile
        1. Scheme
        2. Guile
      6. 13.6. Java
      7. 13.7. Tcl/Tk
      8. 13.8. SQL
      9. 13.9. PHP
      10. 13.10. Other Languages
        1. Oldies but Goodies
          1. FORTRAN
            1. Basic
            2. Pascal
          2. COBOL
        2. Of More Recent Vintage
          1. Smalltalk
          2. Icon
          3. Rexx
          4. Eiffel
          5. Sather
      11. 13.11. Summary
    15. 14. Web Serving
      1. 14.1. Web Server Software
        1. Encryption, the Web, and Uncle Sam
          1. Non-SSL Servers
          2. SSL Servers
      2. 14.2. Hardware Issues
      3. 14.3. Apache and ApacheSSL/Stronghold
        1. Getting Started
        2. <Directory> and .htaccess
        3. CGI and SSI
        4. Web Pages for Your Users
        5. Restricting the Use of CGI and SSI
        6. Other Useful Modules and Directives
        7. Extensions for Apache
          1. PHP
          2. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
          3. The httpd.conf
      4. 14.4. Logging
      5. 14.5. Databases and Web Servers
      6. 14.6. Setting Up a Killer Web Server
        1. MySQL
        2. PHP
        3. Apache
      7. 14.7. Streaming Audio and Video
        1. Generating Content Files
      8. 14.8. Summary
    16. 15. X Windowing System
      1. 15.1. X Concepts
      2. 15.2. Setting Up X Using Xconfigurator
      3. 15.3. Setting Up X Manually
        1. Starting X
      4. 15.4. gdm
      5. 15.5. Using X Window Managers
        1. fvwm2-95
          1. Focus
          2. Menus
          3. Modules
        2. GNOME
          1. Getting GNOME
          2. GNOME Features and Applications
          3. Configuring GNOME
          4. GNOME Window Managers
        3. KDE
          1. The Desktop
          2. Configuration
          3. The Applications
      6. 15.6. User Programs
      7. 15.7. X Resources
      8. 15.8. X Applications
        1. Useful
          1. Wine
          2. VNC
          3. Eye Candy
          4. Xsnow
          5. Xcthugha
          6. Semi-Useful
          7. WorkMan
          8. xanim
          9. SoundStudio
          10. RealPlayer
          11. Amusements and Games
          12. xpat
          13. Quake/Quake II
          14. Civilization: Call to Power
      9. 15.9. Using Remote Displays
      10. 15.10. Major X Libraries
        1. Qt
        2. GTK/GLIB
        3. LessTif
        4. Mesa
      11. 15.11. Commercial X Resources
        1. Xservers
          1. AcceleratedX
          2. Metro-X
          3. X Libraries
          4. Motif
          5. OpenGL
          6. CDE
      12. 15.12. Summary
    17. 16. Securing Linux
      1. 16.1. Physical Security
      2. 16.2. Software Security
        1. Monitoring Software
        2. Preventing Root Logins
        3. Secure Shell (SSH)
        4. tcpd
      3. 16.3. Denial of Service Attacks
      4. 16.4. Network Security
        1. PGP
      5. 16.5. Packet Filtering with Linux
        1. ipfwadm
          1. IP Accounting Rules
          2. Input/Output and Forwarding Rules
          3. Masquerade Rules
        2. ipchains
      6. 16.6. Summary
    18. 17. Kernel Administration
      1. 17.1. Customizing Your Kernel
      2. 17.2. Which Kernel?
      3. 17.3. Getting Ready
      4. 17.4. Adding Kernels to LILO
      5. 17.5. Modules or Compiled In?
      6. 17.6. Dive On In!
        1. Configuring the Kernel
          1. Code Maturity Level Options
          2. Processor Type and Features
          3. Loadable Module Support
          4. General Setup
          5. Block Devices
          6. Networking Options
          7. SCSI Support
          8. SCSI Low-level Drivers
          9. Network Device Support
          10. Amateur Radio Support and IrDA Subsystem Support
          11. ISDN Subsystem
          12. Old CD-ROM Drivers
          13. Character Devices
          14. Video for Linux
          15. Joystick Support and Ftape, the Floppy Tape Device Driver
          16. Filesystems and Network File Systems
          17. Partition Types
          18. Native Language Support
          19. Sound and Low-level Sound Drivers
          20. Kernel Hacking
        2. Compile the Kernel and Modules
      7. 17.7. Summary
    19. 18. System and Network Monitoring
      1. 18.1. Syslog
        1. Facilities and Priorities
        2. Actions
        3. Logging Procedures
      2. 18.2. Network Monitoring
        1. tcpdump
        2. Queso
        3. Statnet
        4. SNMP
          1. Scotty
          2. MRTG
      3. 18.3. Network Monitoring Distributions
      4. 18.4. Summary
    20. 19. Backing Up Your Data
      1. 19.1. tar and mt
        1. Using tar
        2. Using mt
        3. Tape Operations
      2. 19.2. cpio
      3. 19.3. dump and restore
      4. 19.4. Commercial Backup Products
        1. BRU
        2. PerfectBACKUP+
        3. BACKUP/9000
      5. 19.5. Backup Strategies
      6. 19.6. RAID and Disk Mirroring
      7. 19.7. Summary
    21. 20. Talking to Your Peripherals
      1. 20.1. Scanners
        1. xvscan
        2. SANE
      2. 20.2. Modems
      3. 20.3. Tape Drives
      4. 20.4. UPS
      5. 20.5. 3D Cards
      6. 20.6. USB Support
      7. 20.7. Adding a New Hard Drive
      8. 20.8. PCMCIA Devices and Laptop Machines
      9. 20.9. ZIP and JAZ Drives
        1. Installing a ZIP Drive
        2. Installing a JAZ Drive
          1. Caveats
        3. Using the Drive
      10. 20.10. Quick Guide to Serial Ports
        1. Lock Files
        2. Flow Control
        3. UARTs
        4. Modem Types
        5. Baud and BPS
      11. 20.11. CD-ROMs and CD-R Writers
      12. 20.12. Summary
    22. 21. Connecting to the Internet
      1. 21.1. Overview
      2. 21.2. Software Versions
      3. 21.3. Networking
        1. Nameservers
      4. 21.4. PPP
        1. Diald
      5. 21.5. IP Masquerading
      6. 21.6. Summary
    23. a. Appendix
      1. URLs To Keep Track Of
      2. URLs Referenced in This Book
        1. Chapter 2:
        2. Chapter 5:
        3. Chapter 6:
        4. Chapter 8:
        5. Chapter 9:
        6. Chapter 10:
        7. Chapter 11:
        8. Chapter 12:
        9. Chapter 13:
        10. Chapter 14:
        11. Chapter 15:
        12. Chapter 16:
        13. Chapter 17:
        14. Chapter 18:
        15. Chapter 19:
        16. Chapter 20:
        17. Chapter 21:
    24. b. Appendix
      1. Problems Using Very Large Hard Disks
        1. SCSI Hard Disks
        2. Why the Problem Arises
      2. Linux-allocated Devices
      3. Additional /dev Directory Entries
        1. Compulsory Links
        2. Recommended Links
        3. Locally-defined Links
        4. Sockets and Pipes