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Recording Music on Location, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Recording Music on Location provides an exceptional collection of information regarding all aspects of recording outside of the studio. Featuring clear explanations on how to achieve professional results, this book is divided into two distinct sections: popular music and classical music. Whether you record in the local rock club, jazz café, or in an orchestra hall, Bartlett offers sage advice on each stage of the process of location recording. Packed with hints and tips, this book is a great reference for anyone planning to venture outside of the studio. Audio examples, tracking sheets, weblinks, and downloadable checklists are available on the companion website at www.focalpress.com/cw/bartlett.

This edition has been thoroughly updated and includes new sections on iOS devices, USB thumb-drive recorders, and digital consoles with built-in recorders, along with updated specs on recording equipment, software, and hardware. This edition will also show you how to prepare recordings for the web and live audio streaming, and covers spectral analysis, noise reduction, and parallel compression. A new case study will go in depth on classical-music recording.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. CONTENTS
  5. Preface
  6. Part 1: Popular Music Recording (Rock, country, jazz, folk, R&B, gospel, Christian, and so on)
    1. 1 Gear for Live Recording
      1. Stereo Systems versus Multitrack Systems
      2. Stereo Recording Systems
      3. Equipment for Stereo Recording
        1. Microphones
          1. Condenser, Dynamic, and Ribbon Types
          2. Sound Pickup Patterns (Polar Patterns)
          3. Mic Connectors, Powering, and Cables
          4. Special-Purpose Mics
          5. Microphone Mounting Styles
          6. Mic Specs
        2. Stereo Recording Devices
          1. Flash-Memory Handheld Recorder
          2. iPad with a Recording App and a Plug-In Stereo Mic
          3. Laptop, Recording Software, and Audio Interface
        3. Headphones or Earphones
      4. Multitrack Recording Systems
      5. Equipment for Multitrack Recording
        1. Microphones and Mic Accessories
        2. Stage Box and Snake
        3. Mixer
        4. Multitrack Recorder
        5. Recorder-Mixer Option
        6. Sidebar: Digital Audio Basics
          1. Bit Depth
          2. Sampling Rate
        7. Computer DAW Recording Systems
          1. DAW Option 1: Mixer, Interface, and Laptop
          2. DAW Option 2: USB or FireWire Mixer and a Laptop
          3. DAW Option 3: Interface with Mic Inputs and a Laptop
          4. DAW Option 4: iOS Recording System
        8. Mic Splitter
        9. Headphones, Earphones, or Speakers
      6. Purchasing Equipment
    2. 2 Recording Techniques from Simple to Complex
      1. Record Off the Board
      2. Record with a Handheld Recorder
      3. Record with a Four-Tracker
      4. Connect the PA Mixer Insert Sends to a Multitrack Recorder
        1. Connections
        2. Monitoring
        3. Setting Levels
      5. Digital Console Recording Facilities
      6. Splitting the Mic Signals
        1. Using Splitters
      7. Multitrack Recording in a Truck
    3. 3 Before the Session: Planning
      1. Selecting a Venue
      2. Musical Preparation
      3. Preproduction Meeting
      4. Site Survey
      5. Mic List
      6. Track Sheet
      7. Block Diagram
      8. Equipment List
      9. Preparing for Easier Setup
        1. Put It on Wheels
        2. Mic Mounts
        3. Snakes and Cables
        4. Multitrack Wiring
        5. Other Tips
    4. 4 At the Session: Setup and Recording
      1. Power and Grounding Practice
        1. Power Distribution System
        2. Power Source
        3. Interconnecting Multiple Sound Systems
      2. Mic Connections
      3. Running Cables
      4. Setting Up the Recording Mixer
      5. Mic Techniques
        1. Discreet Miking for Video Shoots
        2. Electric-Guitar Grounding
        3. Audience Microphones
      6. Setting Levels and Submixes
      7. Recording
      8. Teardown
    5. 5 After the Session: Mixing and Editing
      1. Editing a Two-Track Recording
      2. Preparing to Mix a Multitrack Recording on a Computer
        1. Split the Gig Recording into Song Projects
        2. Delete Unwanted Material
      3. Preparing to Mix a Multitrack Recording with a Mixer
      4. Do Punch-Ins
      5. Mix Each Song
        1. Mixing for Surround Sound
      6. Mastering an Album
      7. Mastering a Demo
        1. Add Fades and EQ
      8. Spectral Analysis and Noise Reduction
        1. EQ
        2. Editing
        3. Audio Restoration Programs
      9. Live Recording Website
    6. 6 A Real-World Example: Recording a Blues Band in a Club
      1. Preproduction
      2. The Recording Session
      3. Preliminary Mix
      4. Preparing for the Final Mixes
      5. Final Mixes
      6. Mastering
      7. Burning the CD-R
    7. 7 Web Audio and Streaming
      1. Streaming versus Downloading
      2. Data Compression
      3. Web-Related Audio Files
      4. What You Need
      5. How to Prepare and Upload Audio Files
      6. Putting Your Music On Your Website
      7. Real-Time Streaming of a Live Concert
  7. Part 2: Classical Music Recording (Orchestra, string quartet, pipe organ, choir, soloist)
    1. 8 Microphone Specifications
      1. Polar Patterns
        1. Advantages of Each Pattern
        2. Off-Axis Coloration
      2. Transducer Type
      3. Sensitivity
      4. Self-noise
      5. Microphone Types
        1. Free-Field Microphone
        2. Boundary Microphone
        3. Stereo Microphone
      6. Microphone Accessories
        1. Stands and Booms
        2. Stereo Microphone Adapter
        3. Shock Mount
    2. 9 Overview of Stereo Microphone Techniques
      1. Advantages of Stereo Miking
      2. Goals of Stereo Miking
      3. Types of Stereo Mic Techniques
        1. Coincident Pair
        2. Spaced Pair
        3. Near-Coincident Pair
        4. Baffled-Omni Pair
      4. Comparing the Four Techniques
      5. Mic Requirements for Stereo
      6. How to Test Imaging
      7. Recommended Reading
    3. 10 Stereo Recording Procedures
      1. Equipment
      2. Selecting a Venue
      3. Session Setup
        1. Mounting the Mics
        2. Connections
        3. Monitoring
      4. Microphone Placement
        1. Miking Distance
        2. Stereo-Spread Control
          1. Monitoring Stereo Spread
        3. Soloist Pickup and Spot Microphones
        4. Electronic Music
        5. Discreet Miking for Video Shoots
        6. Setting Levels
      5. Recording a Concert
      6. Editing
      7. A Real-World Example: Recording an Orchestra in a Concert Hall
        1. Preparation
        2. Setup
        3. Recording
        4. Editing
      8. References
    4. 11 Troubleshooting Stereo Sound
      1. Distortion in the Microphone Signal
      2. Too Dead (Not Enough Reverberation)
      3. Too Detailed, Close, or Edgy
      4. Too Distant (Too Much Reverberation)
      5. Narrow Stereo Spread
      6. Excessive Separation, Hole-in-the-Middle, or Soloist Moves Too Much
      7. Poorly Focused Images
      8. Images Shifted to One Side (Left–Right Balance Is Faulty)
      9. Lacks Depth
      10. Lacks Spaciousness
      11. Early Reflections Too Loud
      12. Bad Balance (Some Instruments Too Loud or Too Soft)
      13. Muddy Bass
      14. Rumble from Air Conditioning, Trucks, and So On
      15. Bad Tonal Balance (Too Dull, Too Bright, Colored)
    5. 12 Stereo, Surround, and Binaural Microphones and Accessories
      1. Stereo Microphones
      2. Surround Microphones
      3. Dummy Heads and Headworn Binaural Mics
      4. Stereo and Surround Microphone Adapters
      5. MS Matrix Decoders
  8. A Stereo Imaging Theory
    1. Definitions
    2. How We Localize Real Sound Sources
    3. How We Localize Images Between Speakers
    4. Requirements for Natural Imaging over Loudspeakers
    5. Currently Used Image-Localization Mechanisms
      1. Localization by Amplitude Differences
      2. Localization by Time Differences
      3. Localization by Amplitude and Time Differences
      4. Summary
    6. Predicting Image Locations
    7. Choosing Angling and Spacing
    8. Spaciousness and Spatial Equalization
    9. References
  9. B Specific Free-Field Stereo Microphone Techniques
    1. Localization Accuracy
    2. Examples of Coincident-Pair Techniques
    3. Coincident Cardioids Angled 180° Apart
    4. Coincident Cardioids Angled 120°–135° Apart
      1. Coincident Cardioids Angled 90° Apart
      2. Blumlein Technique
      3. Hypercardioids Angled 110° Apart
    5. Examples of Near-Coincident-Pair Techniques
      1. The ORTF and DIN Systems
    6. Examples of Spaced-Pair Techniques
      1. Omnis Spaced 3 Feet Apart
      2. Omnis Spaced 10 Feet Apart
      3. Three Omnis Spaced 5 Feet Apart (10 Feet End to End)
      4. Decca Tree
    7. Examples of Baffled-Omni Techniques
      1. Sphere Microphone, SASS-P MKII
      2. Optimal Stereo Signal or Jecklin Disk
    8. Other Coincident-Pair Techniques
      1. Mid–Side
        1. MS Matrix Box
        2. MS Advantages
        3. MS Disadvantages
        4. Double MS Technique
      2. SoundField Microphone
      3. Coincident Systems with Spatial Equalization (Shuffler Circuit)
    9. Other Near-Coincident-Pair Techniques
      1. Stereo 180 System
      2. Faulkner Phased-Array System
      3. Near-Coincident/Spaced-Pair Hybrid
    10. Comparisons of Various Techniques
      1. Michael Williams, “Unified Theory of Microphone Systems for Stereophonic Sound Recording” (1987)
      2. Carl Ceoen, “Comparative Stereophonic Listening Tests” (1972)
      3. Benjamin Bernfeld and Bennett Smith, “Computer-Aided Model of Stereophonic Systems” (1978)
      4. C. Huggonet and J. Jouhaneau, “Comparative Spatial Transfer Function of Six Different Stereophonic Systems” (1987)
      5. M. Hibbing, “XY and MS Microphone Techniques in Comparison” (1989)
      6. Wieslaw Woszczyk, “A New Method for Spatial Enhancement in Stereo and Surround Recording” (1990)
    11. Summary
    12. References
  10. C Stereo Boundary-Microphone Arrays
    1. Techniques Using Floor-Mounted Mics
    2. Floor-Mounted Boundary Microphones Spaced 4 Feet Apart
    3. Floor-Mounted Unidirectional Boundary Microphones
    4. Optimal Stereo Signal Boundary-Microphone Floor Array
    5. “The Musician’s Ear” Stereo Boundary Microphone
    6. Floor-Mounted Boundary Microphones Configured for Mid–Side
    7. Techniques Using Raised Boundary Mics
      1. The Stereo Ambient Sampling System (SASS™)
      2. Sphere Microphone
    8. References
  11. D Binaural Techniques
    1. Binaural Recording and the Artificial Head
      1. How It Works
      2. In-Head Localization
      3. Artificial-Head Equalization
      4. Artificial-Head Imaging with Loudspeakers
    2. References
  12. E Surround-Sound Miking Techniques
    1. Surround Speaker Arrangement
    2. Surround-Sound Mic Techniques
      1. SoundField 5.1 Microphone System
      2. Delos VR2 Surround Miking Method
      3. NHK Methods
      4. KFM 360 Surround Miking System
      5. DMP Method
      6. Williams Five Cardioid Mic Array
      7. Double MS Technique
      8. Surround Ambience Microphone Array
      9. Chris Burmajster Array
      10. Ideal Cardioid Arrangement
      11. Holophone H2-PRO Surround Mic
      12. Sonic Studios DSM-4CS Four-Channel Surround Dummy Head
      13. Slotte Method
      14. Martin Method
      15. Stereo Pair plus Surround Pair
    3. Recommended Reading
  13. Acknowledgments
  14. Glossary
  15. Index