You are previewing Recording and Producing Audio for Media.
O'Reilly logo
Recording and Producing Audio for Media

Book Description

Written by highly respected author Stan Alten, RECORDING AND PRODUCING AUDIO FOR MEDIA introduces readers to the basic techniques and principles necessary for audio production in today's media. Comprehensive, accurate, and up-to-date, the text covers informational, perceptual, and aesthetic aspects of sound as they apply to each stage of the production process, from planning to post-production. Aspiring musicians, sound engineers, and producers will also gain a fundamental understanding of the principles, technologies, and techniques of audio production and post-production for media, including radio, television, film, music recording, interactive media, the Internet, and mobile media.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Preface
    1. Structure of the Book
      1. Part I: Principles
      2. Part II: Technology
      3. Part III: Production
      4. Part IV: Postproduction
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. I. Principles
    1. 1. Sound and Hearing
      1. The Importance of Sound in Production
      2. The Sound Wave
      3. Frequency and Pitch
      4. Amplitude and Loudness
        1. The Decibel
          1. Sound-Pressure Level
      5. Frequency and Loudness
        1. Equal Loudness Principle
        2. Masking
      6. Velocity
      7. Wavelength
      8. Acoustical Phase
      9. Timbre
      10. Sound Envelope
      11. The Healthy Ear
      12. Hearing Loss
        1. Safeguards Against Hearing Loss
      13. Main Points
    2. 2. Acoustics and Psychoacoustics
      1. Spatial Hearing
        1. Haas and Precedence Effects
        2. Binaural Versus Stereo Sound
      2. Direct, Early, and Reverberant Sound
        1. Reverberation and Echo
      3. Matching Acoustics to Program Material
      4. Studio Design
        1. Noise
        2. Sound Isolation
        3. Room Dimensions
        4. Room Shape
        5. Room Acoustics
          1. Absorption and Reflection
          2. Diffraction
          3. Diffusion
          4. Variable Acoustics
      5. Control Room Design
      6. Ergonomics
      7. Main Points
  5. II. Technology
    1. 3. Loudspeakers and Monitoring
      1. Types of Loudspeakers
      2. Loudspeaker Powering Systems
        1. Crossover Network and Drivers
          1. Passive and Active Crossover Networks
      3. Selecting a Monitor Loudspeaker
        1. Frequency Response
        2. Linearity
        3. Amplifier Power
        4. Distortion
          1. Intermodulation Distortion
          2. Harmonic Distortion
          3. Transient Distortion
          4. Loudness Distortion
          5. Dynamic Range
        5. Sensitivity
        6. Polar Response
        7. Arrival Time
        8. Polarity
      4. Monitor Placement
        1. Monitoring Stereo
        2. Far-Field Monitoring
        3. Near-Field Monitoring
        4. Monitoring Surround Sound
      5. Calibrating a Loudspeaker System
        1. Calibrating the 5.1 Surround System
      6. Evaluating the Monitor Loudspeaker
        1. Monitoring in an Unfamiliar Control Room
      7. Headphones
        1. Headphones and Hearing Loss
        2. In-Ear Monitors
      8. Main Points
    2. 4. Microphones
      1. Operating Principles
        1. Impedance
        2. Transducing Elements
          1. Magnetic Induction
          2. Variable Capacitance
          3. Laser-Based Microphone
        3. Dual-Element Microphones
      2. General Transducer Performance Characteristics
      3. Directional Characteristics
        1. Polar Response Diagrams
      4. Sound Response
        1. Frequency Response
        2. Overload Limit
        3. Maximum Sound-Pressure Level
        4. Sensitivity
        5. Self-Noise
        6. Signal-to-Noise Ratio
        7. Proximity Effect
        8. Hum
        9. Humbucking
      5. Microphone Modeler
      6. Special-Purpose Microphones
        1. Lavalier Microphones (Mini-Mics)
        2. Shotgun Microphones
        3. Parabolic Microphone System
        4. Headset and Earset Microphones
        5. Contact Microphones
        6. Boundary Microphones
        7. Noise-Canceling Microphones
          1. Noise Suppression
        8. Multidirectional Microphones
          1. System Microphones
          2. Stereophonic Microphones
          3. Middle-Side Microphones
        9. Infinitely Variable Pattern Microphones
        10. Binaural and Surround-Sound Microphone Systems
          1. Binaural Microphone Head
          2. SoundField Microphone System
          3. Holophone Microphone System
          4. Atmos 5.1 Surround Microphone System
          5. Schoeps Surround Microphone System
        11. High-Definition Microphones
        12. Digital Microphones
        13. USB Microphones
          1. USB Microphone Converter
          2. High-Definition Microphone for Laptop Computers
        14. Other Special-Purpose Microphones
      7. Wireless Microphone System
        1. Frequency Assignment and Usage
          1. Multipath
          2. Fixed- and Variable-Frequency Systems
        2. Diversity Reception
        3. Audio Circuitry
        4. Sound Quality
        5. Transmission Range
        6. Antenna
        7. Power Supply
        8. Analog Versus Digital Wireless Microphone Systems
      8. Microphone Accessories
        1. Windscreens and Pop Filters
        2. Shock Mounts
        3. Cables
        4. Connectors
        5. Microphone Mounts
      9. Microphone Care
      10. Main Points
    3. 5. Consoles and Control Surfaces
      1. Analog and Digital Consoles
      2. On-Air Broadcast Consoles
      3. Production Consoles
        1. Features of the Production Console
        2. Meters
          1. Sound in Electrical Form
          2. VU Meter
          3. Peak Meters
          4. Meter Controls
          5. Peak Program Meter
        3. Optimizing Digital Levels
        4. Master Section
        5. Monitor Section
        6. Additional Features
      4. Channel Strips
      5. Patching
        1. General Guidelines for Patching
        2. Plugs
        3. Computer Patching
      6. Console Automation
        1. Types of Automation Systems
          1. Voltage-Controlled Automation
          2. Moving-Fader Automation
          3. Software-Controlled Automation
          4. MIDI-Based Automation
        2. Operating Modes
        3. Advantages of Console Automation
        4. Disadvantages of Console Automation
      7. Digital Consoles
      8. Control Surfaces
      9. Main Points
    4. 6. Recording
      1. Digital Audio
        1. Sampling
          1. Oversampling
        2. Quantization
          1. Audio Data Rate
      2. Technologies and Formats
      3. Tapeless Recording Systems
      4. Removable-Media Recording Systems
        1. Recordable, Rewritable, and Interactive Compact Discs
        2. Digital Versatile Disc
          1. DVD-Audio
          2. Recordable DVDs
          3. Rewritable DVDs
        3. High-Density Optical Disc Formats
          1. Blu-Ray Disc
          2. Other Optical Disc Formats
        4. Memory Recorders
        5. Hard-Disk Recorders
        6. Storage Capacity
      5. Digital Audio Workstations
        1. Computer-Based Digital Audio Workstation
          1. Sound Card
        2. Integrated Digital Audio Workstation
          1. Server
          2. Storage Area Network
      6. Digital Audio Networking
      7. Digital Audio on Digital Videotape
      8. Audio on Film
      9. Main Points
    5. 7. Synchronization and Transfers
      1. Time Codes
        1. SMPTE Time Code
        2. MIDI Time Code
        3. Time Formats with Computer-Based Recorder/Editors
      2. Synchronizing Digital Equipment
        1. Jitter
        2. Driver Support and Latency
      3. Frame Rates
        1. Drop Frame and Non-Drop Frame
      4. Synchronizing Sound and Picture in Film
        1. Time Code Synchronization
      5. Transfers
        1. Analog-to-Analog Audio Transfers
        2. Analog-to-Digital Audio Transfers
        3. Digital-to-Digital Audio Transfers
        4. Transferring Audio Files for Accompanying Video
        5. Altering Audio in Transferring for Special Effects
      6. Main Points
    6. 8. Signal Processors
      1. Plug-Ins
      2. Stand-Alone Signal Processors Versus Plug-Ins
      3. Spectrum Processors
        1. Equalizers
        2. Fixed-Frequency Equalizer
          1. Graphic Equalizer
        3. Parametric Equalizer
          1. Paragraphic Equalizer
        4. Filters
          1. High- and Low-Pass Filters
          2. Band-Pass Filter
          3. Notch Filter
        5. Psychoacoustic Processors
      4. Time Processors
        1. Reverberation
          1. Digital Reverberation
          2. Convolution Reverb
          3. Plate Reverberation
          4. Acoustic Chamber Reverberation
          5. Choosing a Reverberation System
          6. Reverberation and Ambience
        2. Delay
          1. Digital Delay
          2. Uses of Delay
          3. Flanging
          4. Phasing
          5. Morphing
      5. Amplitude Processors
        1. Compressor
          1. Broadband and Split-Band Compressors
        2. Limiter
        3. De-Esser
          1. Uses of Compressors and Limiters
        4. Expander
        5. Noise Gate
        6. Pitch Shifter
      6. Noise Processors
      7. Multieffects Signal Processors
        1. Voice Processors
      8. Other Types of Plug-Ins
      9. Format Compatibility of Plug-Ins
      10. Main Points
  6. III. Production
    1. 9. Sound and the Speaking Voice
      1. Frequency Range
      2. Sound Level
      3. Distribution of Spectral Content
      4. Influences of Nonverbal Speech on Meaning
        1. Emphasis
        2. Inflection
        3. Speech Patterns
        4. Pace
        5. Mood
        6. Accent
      5. Basic Considerations in Miking Speech
        1. Acoustics in the Speech Studio
        2. Phase and Polarity
          1. Phase
          2. Polarity
        3. Microphones for the Speaking Voice
          1. Sound Quality
        4. Directional Pattern
          1. Mic-to-Source Distance
      6. Main Points
    2. 10. Voice-Overs and Narration
      1. Voice Acting
        1. Voice Quality
        2. Message
        3. Audience
        4. Word Values
        5. Character
        6. Prerecorded Voice Collections
        7. Automating Voice-Overs
      2. Recording Voice-Overs
        1. Voicing-Over Background Music or Sound Effects
        2. Using Compression
        3. Backtiming and Deadpotting
      3. Narration
      4. Main Points
    3. 11. Dialogue
      1. Recording Dialogue in Multi- and Single-Camera Production
        1. Using the Boom
          1. Blocking
          2. Perambulator Boom
          3. Fishpole Boom
          4. Perspective
            1. Performers in the Same Plane
            2. Performers in Different Planes
            3. Adjusting Microphone Levels at the Mixer
        2. Using Wireless Body Microphones
          1. Perspective
          2. Placement
          3. Using Two or More Wireless Microphones
          4. Controlling Levels
        3. Plant Microphones
        4. Multiple Miking with Different Microphone Mounts
      2. Recording Dialogue in the Field
        1. Preproduction Planning
          1. Selecting a Location
          2. Dealing with Unwanted Sound
          3. Prerecorded Material
          4. Other Equipment and Materials
          5. Blocking and Rehearsing
        2. Production Dialogue Recording
          1. Signal Processing and Production Recording
          2. Recording
          3. Reality Programs
        3. Production Sound-Effect Recording
        4. Noise Reduction
      3. How Directors Can Help the Audio Crew
      4. Production Recording and the Sound Editor
      5. Automated Dialogue Replacement
        1. Purpose and Process
        2. Microphone Selection and Technique
        3. Loop Groups
        4. Automated Dialogue Replacement in the Field
        5. Dialogue Rerecording: Pros and Cons
      6. Main Points
    4. 12. Studio Production: Radio and Television
      1. Miking the Single Speaker in Radio
        1. Space and Perspective: Monaural, Stereo, and Surround Sound
      2. Radio Interview and Panel Setups
      3. Radio Dramatizations
        1. Single-Microphone Technique
        2. Microphone Selection and Mounting
        3. Creating Perspective
        4. Creating Movement
        5. Multimicrophone Technique
        6. Stereo Microphone Technique
        7. Perspective
        8. Surround-Sound Technique
      4. Miking Speech for Multicamera Television
      5. News and Interview Programs
      6. Panel and Talk Programs
        1. Choosing a Microphone
          1. Mini-Mic
          2. Hand Mic
          3. Boom Mic
        2. Controlling Multiple Sound Sources
        3. Miking the Audience
        4. “Producing” Audience Response
        5. Audience Reaction in Stereo and Surround Sound
      7. Main Points
    5. 13. Field Production: News and Sports
      1. Electronic News Gathering
        1. Radio ENG
          1. Microphone
          2. Recorder
          3. Microphone Mixer
          4. Transmission
          5. Mobile Unit
          6. Headphones
        2. Guidelines for Submissions from the Field
        3. Television ENG
          1. Camcorder
          2. Microphone
          3. Camcorder Audio Inputs, Outputs, and Controls
          4. Transmission and Mobile Units
        4. ENG Production
          1. Preproduction
          2. Production
          3. Miking the Stand-Up News Report
          4. Split-Track Recording
          5. Recording Background
          6. Transmission and Mix-Minus
      2. Electronic Field Production
        1. Small-Scale EFP
          1. Radio
          2. Transmission
          3. Television
        2. Large-Scale EFP
      3. Multicamera EFP
        1. Remote Survey
        2. Portable Mixing Systems
        3. Field Intercom Systems
        4. Production of Speeches and News Conferences
          1. Setting Up Your Own Microphones
          2. Public-Address Pickups
          3. Splitting Microphones
          4. Multiple Pickups
          5. Automatic Microphone Mixer
          6. Precautions to Take
      4. Production of Sports Programs
        1. Television Sports Audio
          1. The Announcers
          2. The Crowd
          3. The Action
          4. The Players
          5. The Bands
          6. Mixing the Elements
          7. Stereo Sound
          8. Surround Sound
        2. Radio Sports Audio
          1. Calling the Game
          2. Miking
      5. Main Points
    6. 14. Sound Design
      1. Sound Design and the Sound Designer
      2. “Ears”
        1. Listening
          1. Analytical Listening
          2. Critical Listening
      3. Elements of Sound Structure and Their Effects on Perception
      4. The Visual Ear
      5. Functions of Sound in Relation to Picture
        1. Sound Parallels Picture
        2. Sound Defines Picture
        3. Picture Defines Sound
        4. Sound and Picture Define Effect
        5. Sound Counterpoints Picture
      6. Strategies in Designing Sound
        1. Script Analysis
          1. Influence of Sound Design on Meaning
        2. Achieving Effects in Selected Program Materials
          1. Spot Announcement
          2. Action Drama
          3. Cinéma Vérité Documentary
          4. Animation
      7. Designing Sound for Mobile Media
        1. The Paradox in Listening to and Producing Audio Today
        2. Considerations in Sound Design for Mobile Media
      8. Main Points
    7. 15. Sound Effects
      1. Contextual Sound
      2. Narrative Sound
        1. Descriptive Sound
        2. Commentative Sound
      3. Functions of Sound Effects
        1. Breaking the Screen Plane
        2. Defining Space
        3. Focusing Attention
        4. Establishing Locale
        5. Creating Environment
        6. Emphasizing Action
        7. Intensifying Action
        8. Depicting Identity
        9. Setting Pace
        10. Providing Counterpoint
        11. Creating Humor
        12. Symbolizing Meaning
        13. Creating Metaphor
        14. Unifying Transition
        15. Silence
      4. Producing Sound Effects
        1. Prerecorded Sound-Effect Libraries
          1. Advantages of Sound-Effect Libraries
          2. Disadvantages of Sound-Effect Libraries
          3. Dynamics and Timing
          4. Ambience
          5. Fixed Length of Sound Effects
          6. Choosing Sounds from the Titles
          7. Sound and Production Quality of Downloadable Sound Effects
        2. Manipulating Recorded Sound Effects
          1. Altering Playing Speed
          2. Playing Sound Backward
          3. Looping
          4. Using Signal Processing
      5. Live Sound Effects
        1. Producing Sound Effects in the Studio
        2. Vocally Produced Sound Effects
        3. Foley Sound Effects
          1. Components and Context of a Foley Sound Effect
          2. Miking and Perspective in Foley Recording
        4. Production Sound Effects
        5. Collecting Sound Effects in the Field
      6. Electronically Generated Sound Effects
        1. Synthesized Sound Effects
        2. Computer-Generated Sound Effects
        3. Sampling
          1. The Samplefile
          2. Tips for Recording Samples
          3. Miking
      7. Organizing a Sound-Effect Library
      8. Spotting
        1. Spotting Sound Effects
      9. Main Points
    8. 16. Music Underscoring
      1. Uses of Music in a Production
      2. Music Characteristics
        1. Melody
        2. Harmony
        3. Tempo
        4. Dynamic Range
        5. Style
        6. Musical Instruments and Their Associations
      3. Functions of Music Underscoring
        1. Establishing Locale
        2. Emphasizing Action
        3. Intensifying Action
        4. Depicting Identity
        5. Setting Pace
        6. Providing Counterpoint
        7. Creating Humor
        8. Unifying Transition
        9. Smoothing Action Scenes
        10. Fixing Time
        11. Recalling or Foretelling Events
        12. Evoking Atmosphere, Feeling, or Mood
      4. Music in Spot Announcements
      5. Creative Considerations in Underscoring
        1. Tone
        2. Style
        3. Role
        4. Genre or Non-Genre
        5. Original or Compiled
        6. Spotting
        7. Placement
      6. Approaches to Underscoring
      7. Prerecorded Music Libraries
        1. Avoiding the “Canned” Music Sound
      8. Customized Music Programs
      9. Customized Musical Instrument Programs
      10. Copyright and Licenses
      11. Using Music from Commercial Recordings
      12. Using Music from Sample CDs and the Internet
        1. Music Sampling and Copyright
      13. Organizing a Music Library
      14. Main Points
    9. 17. Audio for Interactive Media: Game Sound
      1. Interactive Media
        1. Types of Interactive Media
        2. Video Games
      2. Designing Audio for Interactivity
        1. Sound Design for Linear Media
        2. Sound Design for Interactive Media
        3. Audio Potential in Interactive Media
      3. System Resources
        1. Adapting to Shared System Resource Limitations
      4. The Production Process
        1. Preproduction
          1. The Creative Crew
          2. Proof-of-Concept Development
          3. Development for Different Platforms
        2. Production
          1. Collecting and Recording Audio
          2. Assets
          3. Basic Interactivity
          4. Complex Interactivity
          5. Creating Complex Interactivity
          6. Producing Sound Effects
          7. Producing Music
          8. Producing Dialogue and Narration
        3. Postproduction
      5. Example of a Video Game Sequence
        1. Transient Sound-Effect Assets
        2. Moving Sound Effects
        3. Intermittent Dialogue
        4. Specific Dialogue
        5. Environment
        6. Music Underscoring
      6. Debugging
      7. User Playback
      8. Main Points
    10. 18. Internet Production
      1. Data Transfer Networks
        1. Local-Area Networks
        2. Wide-Area Networks
        3. Servers
        4. Clients
      2. Audio Fidelity
        1. Connection Speed
        2. File Manipulation
          1. Reducing the Sampling Rate
          2. Reducing the Word Length
          3. Reducing the Number of Channels
          4. Reducing Playing Time by Editing
          5. Using Instrumental Music Instead of Vocal-Based Tracks
        3. Compression
        4. File Formats
        5. Downloadable Nonstreaming Formats
        6. Downloadable Streaming Formats
          1. Transmission of Streaming Formats
        7. Progressive Download Formats
      3. Online Collaborative Recording
      4. Podcasting
      5. Audio Production for Mobile Media
      6. Main Points
    11. 19. Music Recording
      1. Close Miking
      2. Distant Miking
        1. Distant-Miking Stereo Arrays
        2. Coincident Miking
        3. Near-Coincident Miking
        4. Spaced Miking
          1. Other Types of Stereo Microphone Arrays
        5. Stereo-Miking an Ensemble
      3. Accent Miking
      4. Ambience Miking
      5. Six Principles of Miking
      6. Drums
        1. Characteristics
          1. Bass (Kick) Drum
          2. Tom-Toms
          3. Snare Drum
          4. Cymbals
          5. Hi-Hat Cymbal
          6. Overhead Cymbals
        2. Tuning the Drums
        3. Miking
          1. Bass (Kick) Drum
          2. Tom-Toms
          3. Snare Drum
          4. Hi-Hat Cymbal
          5. Overhead Cymbals
        4. Reducing Drum Leakage
      7. Acoustic String Instruments
        1. Plucked String Instruments
          1. Characteristics
          2. Miking
        2. Bowed String Instruments
          1. Characteristics
          2. Violin
          3. Viola
          4. Cello
          5. Bass
          6. Miking
        3. Struck String Instruments: Piano
          1. Characteristics
          2. Miking
      8. Woodwinds
        1. Characteristics
          1. Flute
          2. Clarinet
          3. Oboe and Bassoon
          4. Saxophone
        2. Miking
      9. Brass
        1. Characteristics
          1. Trumpet
          2. Trombone
          3. Baritone
          4. Tuba
          5. French Horn
        2. Miking
      10. Electric Instruments
        1. Miking the Amplifier Loudspeaker
          1. Leslie Loudspeaker Cabinet
        2. Recording Electric Bass
        3. Recording Electric Guitar
        4. Musicians’ Amplifiers
      11. Virtual Instruments
      12. Vocals
        1. Timbre
        2. Dynamic Range
        3. Breathing, Popping, and Sibilance
        4. Acoustics
        5. Reflections
        6. Mic-to-Source Distance Versus Style
        7. Isolating the Vocalist
        8. Backup Harmony Vocals
          1. Virtual Harmony
        9. Choirs
      13. Miking Studio Ensembles
      14. Miking Music for Digital Recording
        1. Microphones in Digital Recording
        2. Microphone Technique in Digital Recording
      15. Recording for Surround Sound
        1. Direct/Ambient Surround-Sound Miking
        2. Direct Surround-Sound Miking
      16. Main Points
  7. IV. Postproduction
    1. 20. Editing
      1. Digital Editing
        1. Functions of Editing Software
      2. Basic Functions in Digital Editing
        1. Editing Example
      3. General Editing Guidelines
        1. Edit Decision List
      4. Organizing the Edit Tracks
      5. File Naming
      6. Drive Management
      7. Differences Between Editing Sound and Editing Picture
      8. Editing Speech
        1. Identifying Sounds That Make Up Words
        2. Editing Similar and Dissimilar Sounds
        3. Emphasis and Inflection
        4. Ambience
        5. Changing Words
      9. Editing Dialogue
        1. General Guidelines for Editing Dialogue to Picture
        2. Composite Dialogue
        3. Dialogue Database
        4. Dialogue Processing
      10. Editing Sound Effects
        1. Building Backgrounds
        2. Building Effects
        3. Matching Perspective
        4. Guidelines for Editing Sound Effects
      11. Editing Music
        1. Cutting to Resolution
        2. Preserving Tempo
        3. Repetitive Measures
        4. Looping
        5. Key Signature
        6. Comping
        7. Style and Texture
        8. Editing Music to Picture
        9. Automatic Music Editing
      12. Transitions
        1. Segue and Cut
        2. Crossfade
        3. Soft Cut
        4. Fade-Out/Fade-In
        5. Audio-Leading-Video and Video-Leading-Audio
      13. Listening Fatigue
      14. Main Points
    2. 21. Mixing: An Overview
      1. Maintaining Aesthetic Perspective
      2. Mixing for Various Media
        1. Radio
        2. Television
        3. Film
        4. Digital Disc
        5. Multimedia
      3. Mixing Versus Layering
        1. Layering: Sound with Picture
        2. Layering: Music
        3. Perspective
      4. Metering
      5. Mixing and Editing
      6. Main Points
    3. 22. Music Mixdown
      1. Preparing for the Mixdown
        1. Characteristics of a Successful Mix
        2. Characteristics of an Amateur Mix
        3. Setting Up
        4. Recordkeeping
      2. Signal Processing
        1. Equalization
          1. EQ: How Much, Where, and When?
        2. Equalization and Semantics
        3. Approaches to Equalizing Selected Instruments
          1. Drums
          2. Other Instruments
        4. Compression
        5. Reverberation: Creating Acoustic Space
        6. Digital Delay: Enhancing Acoustic Space
        7. Electronic Sounds
      3. Spatial Imaging of Music in Stereo and Surround Sound
        1. Stereo
        2. Surround Sound
      4. Basic Equipment for Mixing Surround Sound
      5. Mixing for Surround Sound
        1. Center Channel
        2. Surround Channels
        3. Reverberation
        4. Bass Management
        5. Track Assignment
        6. Downmixing to Stereo
      6. Aesthetic Considerations in Surround-Sound Mixing
      7. Main Points
    4. 23. Premixing and Rerecording for Television and Film
      1. Premixing for Television and Film
        1. Dialogue and Narration
        2. Ambience
        3. Sound Effects
        4. Music
      2. The Rerecording Mix
      3. Spatial Imaging of Stereo and Surround Sound in Television and Film
        1. Stereo
          1. Localization of Talk and Dialogue
          2. Sound Effects
          3. Music
        2. Mixing Audio for the Home TV Receiver
        3. Surround Sound
          1. Encoding and Decoding Surround Sound
          2. Downmixing
      4. Mixing for Mobile-Media Receivers
      5. Cue Sheets
      6. Compatibility: Stereo-to-Mono and Surround-to-Stereo
        1. Stereo-to-Mono Compatibility
        2. Surround-to-Stereo Compatibility
      7. Main Points
    5. 24. Evaluating the Finished Product
      1. Intelligibility
      2. Tonal Balance
      3. Spatial Balance and Perspective
      4. Definition
      5. Dynamic Range
      6. Clarity
      7. Airiness
      8. Acoustical Appropriateness
      9. Source Quality
      10. Production Values
      11. Main Points
  8. A Occupations in Audio
  9. Selected Bibliography
    1. Books
    2. Periodicals
    3. Audio- and Videotapes, CDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and Programs
    4. Web Sites
  10. Glossary