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Reappraising State-Owned Enterprise by Pier Angelo Toninelli, Robert Millward, Franco Amatori

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2

The Nature of State Enterprise in Britain

Robert Millward

INTRODUCTION

By 1950, state-owned enterprises in energy, telecom, and transport were common in all European countries, but in manufacturing, banking, and commerce there were considerable differences—much higher in Italy, Spain, Germany, and, to some extent, France than in Britain and Scandinavia. Various factors explain this greater intensity: the autarkic policies of Germany in the interwar period (and Spain after the Civil War), the problems of finance and entrepreneurship in Italy, and the French state’s determination after 1945 to plan and/or own those industries important for national security. Even in the infrastructure industries, the origins of state enterprises differed quite ...

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