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Readings in Multimedia Computing and Networking

Book Description


Readings in Multimedia Computing and Networking captures the broad areas of research and developments in this burgeoning field, distills the key findings, and makes them accessible to professionals, researchers, and students alike. For the first time, the most influential and innovative papers on these topics are presented in a cohesive form, giving shape to the diverse area of multimedia computing. The seminal moments are recorded by a dozen visionaries in the field and each contributing editor provides a context for their area of research by way of a thoughtful, focused chapter introduction. The volume editors, Kevin Jeffay and HongJiang Zhang, offer further incisive interpretations of past and present developments in this area, including those within media and content processing, operating systems, and networking support for multimedia. This book will provide you with a sound understanding of the theoretical and practical issues at work in the field's continuing evolution.

* Offers an in-depth look at the technical challenges in multimedia and provides real and potential solutions that promise to expand the role of multimedia in business, entertainment, and education.
* Examines in Part One issues at the heart of multimedia processes: the means by which multimedia data are coded, compressed, indexed, retrieved, and otherwise manipulated.
* Examines in Part Two the accommodation of these processes by storage systems, operating systems, network protocols, and applications.
* Written by leading researchers, the introductions give shape to a field that is continually defining itself and place the key research findings in context to those who need to understand the state-of-the art developments.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. THE MORGAN KAUFMANN SERIES IN Multimedia Information and Systems
  5. Copyright
  6. Foreword
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. Part I: Multimedia Processing and Retrieval
    1. Introduction
    2. CHAPTER 1: DIGITAL AUDIO
      1. Introduction to Digital Audio
        1. SPEECH CODING
        2. WIDE-BAND AUDIO CODING
        3. AUDIO CODING STANDARDS
        4. AUDIO PERCEPTION
        5. IMMERSIVE AUDIO
      2. Audio Engineering and Psychoacoustics: Matching Signals to the Final Receiver, the Human Auditory System
        1. 0 INTRODUCTION
        2. 1 THE FINAL RECEIVER: THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM AND PERCEPTION
        3. 2 PSYCHOACOUSTICAL PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE IN AUDIO ENGINEERING PRACTICE
        4. 3 APPLICATIONS
        5. 4 CONCLUSIONS
      3. Advances in Speech and Audio Compression
        1. Invited Paper
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. LPAS SPEECH CODING
        4. III. CELP ALGORITHMS
        5. IV. LOW-DELAY SPEECH CODING
        6. V. VARIABLE-RATE SPEECH CODING
        7. VI. VOCODERS
        8. VII. AUDIO AND WIDEBAND SPEECH COMPRESSION
        9. VIII. STATE OF THE ART
        10. IX. CONCLUDING REMARKS
        11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      4. A Tutorial on MPEG/Audio Compression
        1. Features and applications
        2. Overview
        3. The polyphase filter bank
        4. Psychoacoustics
        5. Example of psychoacoustic model analysis
        6. Layer coding options
        7. Bit allocation
        8. Stereo redundancy coding
        9. Future MPEG/audio standards: Phase 2
        10. Acknowledgments
      5. Structured audio and effects processing in the MPEG-4 multimedia standard
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Structured audio tools in MPEG-4
        4. 3 Structured scene descriptions in MPEG-4
        5. 4 Implementation issues
        6. 5 Conclusion
        7. Acknowledgements
      6. Fundamental and Technological Limitations of Immersive Audio Systems
        1. I. INTRODUCTION
        2. II. THE NATURE OF LIMITATIONS IN IMMERSIVE AUDIO SYSTEMS
        3. III. BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
        4. IV. SPATIAL (3-D) AUDIO
        5. V. IMMERSIVE AUDIO RENDERING FOR DESKTOP APPLICATIONS
        6. VI. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    3. CHAPTER 2: DIGITAL IMAGE AND VIDEO COMPRESSION AND PROCESSING
      1. Introduction to Digital Image and Video Compression and Processing
        1. COMPRESSION DOMAIN IMAGE AND VIDEO PROCESSING
        2. MULTIMEDIA DATA-EMBEDDING AND WATERMARKING
      2. Image and Video Coding—Emerging Standards and Beyond
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. COMPRESSION AND CODING OF IMAGE1 SIGNALS
        4. IV. TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVED VIDEO DELIVERY OVER THE INTERNET
        5. V. MPEG-4
        6. VI. CONCLUSION OF MPEG-4 AND LAUNCHING OF MPEG-7
        7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      3. Comparison of International Standards for Lossless Still Image Compression
        1. Invited Paper
        2. I. BACKGROUND
        3. II. DATA TYPES
        4. III. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
        5. IV. ALGORITHM CHARACTERISTICS
        6. V. ALGORITHM COMPRESSION COMPARISONS
        7. VI. FUTURE WORK13
        8. VII. SUMMARY
        9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      4. Embedded Image Coding Using Zerotrees of Wavelet Coefficients
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
        3. II. WAVELET THEORY AND MULTIRESOLUTION ANALYSIS
        4. III. ZEROTREES OF WAVELET COEFFICIENTS
        5. IV. SUCCESSIVE-APPROXIMATION
        6. V. A SIMPLE EXAMPLE
        7. VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
        8. VII. CONCLUSION
        9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. The MPEG-4 Video Standard Verification Model
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. THE MPEG-4 VIDEO “TOOLBOX” APPROACH
        4. III. DEVELOPMENT OF VIDEO TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR MPEG-4—THE VERIFICATION MODEL METHODOLOGY
        5. IV. THE MPEG-4 VIDEO VERIFICATION MODEL
        6. V. THE CORE EXPERIMENT PROCESS
        7. VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      6. Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies
        1. Invited Paper
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. HISTORY
        4. III. REQUIREMENTS
        5. IV. SIGNAL INSERTION: THE ROLE OF MASKING
        6. V. IMAGE DATA-EMBEDDING APPROACHES
        7. VI. AUDIO DATA-EMBEDDING APPROACHES
        8. VII. VIDEO DATA-EMBEDDING APPROACHES
        9. VIII. VISIBLE MARKING OF IMAGES
      7. Algorithms for Manipulating Compressed Images
        1. Compression model
        2. Transform-based coding
        3. The JPEG algorithm
        4. Algebraic operations
        5. Scalar multiplication
        6. Scalar addition
        7. Summary of operations
        8. Applications
        9. The Dissolve operation
        10. The Subtitle operation
        11. Discussion
      8. Manipulation and Compositing of MC-DCT Compressed Video
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. BACKGROUND AND DOMAIN DEFINITIONS
        4. III. VIDEO MANIPULATION IN THE DCT DOMAIN
        5. IV. MANIPULATION OF MC-COMPRESSED VIDEO
        6. V. MANIPULATION OF MC-DCT COMPRESSED VIDEO
        7. VI. PERFORMANCE ANALYSES
        8. VII. CONCLUSION
    4. CHAPTER 3: AUDIO RETRIEVAL AND NAVIGATION INTERFACES
      1. Introduction to Audio Retrieval and Navigation Interfaces
        1. A SHORT HISTORY
        2. GENERAL SEGMENTATION AND LABELING TECHNIQUES
        3. BROWSING AND NAVIGATING WITHIN A MUSIC DOCUMENT
        4. MELODY RETRIEVAL AND THE KARAOKE PROBLEM
        5. RETRIEVAL IN SOUND DATABASES
        6. INDEXING AND NAVIGATING VIDEO SOUNDTRACKS
        7. RETRIEVAL IN SPEECH DATABASES
        8. BROWSING IN SOUND SPACE AND SONIC BROWSING
        9. CONCLUSION
      2. Representation-based user interfaces for the audiovisual library of year 2000
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. 1 RATIONALE FOR A DISCRETE-REPRESENTATION-BASED HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE
        3. 2 DISCRETE MANIPULABLE REPRESENTATIONS FOR TEMPORAL MEDIA
        4. 3 SUMMARY OF AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS WORK FOR DISCRETE MANIPULATION INTERFACES
        5. 4 CONCLUSION: IMPLEMENTING MANIPULABLE DOCUMENT-REPRESENTATION USER INTERFACE
      3. Query By Humming: Musical Information Retrieval in An Audio Database
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. Introduction
        3. System Architecture
        4. Tracking Pitch in Hummed Queries
        5. Tracking pitch
        6. Searching the database
        7. Evaluation
        8. Robustness
        9. Performance
        10. Future directions and Related Work
      4. Content-Based Classification, Search, and Retrieval of Audio
        1. Previous research
        2. Analysis and retrieval engine
        3. Applications
        4. Acknowledgments
      5. Toward Content-Based Audio Indexing and Retrieval and a New Speaker Discrimination Technique
        1. 23.1 INTRODUCTION
        2. 23.2 INITIAL PROCESSING
        3. 23.3 MUSIC
        4. 23.4 PITCH
        5. 23.5 SPEECH LABELING
        6. 23.6 SPEAKER DISCRIMINATION
        7. 23.7 DISCUSSION
      6. Open-Vocabulary Speech Indexing for Voice and Video Mail Retrieval
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. INTRODUCTION
        3. AUDIO INDEXING
        4. MEDUSA: MULTIMEDIA ON AN ATM NETWORK
        5. THE VMR MESSAGE CORPUS
        6. ACOUSTIC INDEXING VIA PHONE LATTICES
        7. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL VIA ACOUSTIC INDEXES
        8. A REAL-TIME VIDEO MAIL RETRIEVAL APPLICATION
        9. FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSIONS
        10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    5. CHAPTER 4: CONTENT-BASED IMAGE INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL
      1. Introduction to Content–Based Image Indexing and Retrieval
        1. IMAGE FEATURE AND SIMILARITY
        2. BROWSING, LEARNING, AND FEEDBACK
      2. Query by Image and Video Content: The QBIC System
        1. QBIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW
        2. DATABASE POPULATION
        3. SAMPLE QUERIES
      3. Color Indexing
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Color Histograms
        4. 3 Identification
        5. 4 Location
        6. 5 Conclusion
        7. Acknowledgments
        8. Appendix A Relation to Pattern Recognition
        9. Appendix B Representing a Large Database with Color Histograms
        10. Notes
      4. A Scheme for Visual Feature based Image Indexing
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. 1. INTRODUCTION
        3. 2. A HIERARCHICAL FEATURE INDEXING SCHEME
        4. 3. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATIONS
        5. 4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORKS
      5. Interactive Learning with a “Society of Models”
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Issues for digital libraries
        3. 2 Multiple models
        4. 3 Generating groupings
        5. 4 Collecting groupings
        6. 5 Weighting groupings
        7. 6 Performance on natural scenes
        8. 7 Summary
      6. The Bayesian Image Retrieval System, PicHunter: Theory, Implementation, and Psychophysical Experiments
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. BAYESIAN FORMULATION
        4. III. USER INTERFACE
        5. IV. USER MODEL: ASSESSING IMAGE SIMILARITY
        6. V. EXPERIMENTAL PARADIGM—TARGET TESTING
        7. VI. HIDDEN ANNOTATION
        8. VII. DISPLAY UPDATING MODEL
        9. VIII. EXTENSIONS
        10. IX. IDEAS FOR IMPROVEMENT
        11. X. CONCLUSIONS—DISCUSSION
        12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. CHAPTER 5: CONTENT-BASED VIDEO BROWSING AND RETRIEVAL
      1. Introduction to Content–Based Video Browsing and Retrieval
        1. VIDEO STRUCTURE PARSING
        2. VIDEO ABSTRACTION AND SUMMARIZATION
        3. VIDEO CONTENT REPRESENTATION, INDEXING, AND RETRIEVAL
        4. VIDEO BROWSING SCHEMES
        5. SUMMARY
      2. Automatic partitioning of full-motion video
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Difference metrics for video partitioning
        4. 3 Gradual transition detection
        5. 4 Applying the comparison techniques
        6. 5 Implementation and evaluation
        7. 6 Conclusions and future work
        8. Acknowledgements
      3. Structured Video Computing
        1. Video interaction
        2. Video structuring
        3. Interactive functions
        4. New video interfaces
        5. Conclusion
        6. Acknowledgments
      4. Video Parsing, Retrieval and Browsing: An Integrated and Content-Based Solution
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. 1. INTRODUCTION
        3. 2. VIDEO PARSING: SEGMENTATION AND ABSTRACTION
        4. 3. SHOT CONTENT REPRESENTATION AND SIMILARITY MEASURES
        5. 4. CONTENT-BASED RETRIEVAL AND BROWSING
        6. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE WORK
      5. Extracting Story Units from Long Programs for Video Browsing and Navigation
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. INTRODUCTION
        3. Acknowledgments
      6. Video Skimming and Characterization through the Combination of Image and Language Understanding Techniques
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Video Characterization
        4. 3 Technology Integration and Skim Creation
        5. 4 Conclusions
        6. Acknowledgments
  10. Part II: Systems, Networking, and Tools
    1. Introduction
    2. CHAPTER 6: MULTIMEDIA DATABASE SYSTEMS
      1. Introduction to Multimedia Database Systems
        1. CONCEPTUAL MODELING
        2. ARCHITECTURES
        3. QUERYING
        4. MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA INDEXING
      2. A Unified Data Model for Representing Multimedia, Timeline, and Simulation Data
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 INTRODUCTION
        3. 2 PREVIOUS WORK
        4. 3 DATA MODEL
        5. 4 SAMPLE APPLICATION AND PROTOTYPE
        6. 5 QUERY LANGUAGE OVERVIEW
        7. 6 PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
        8. 7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
        9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      3. Querying Multimedia Presentations Based on Content
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 INTRODUCTION
        3. 2 DATA MODEL FOR MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION GRAPHS
        4. 3 VISUAL
        5. 4 GVISUAL
        6. 5 FORMAL BASIS OF GVISUAL: GCALCULUS/S
        7. 6 EXPRESSIVE POWER AND USER-FRIENDLINESS OF GVISUAL
        8. 7 IMPLEMENTATION EFFORT AND GVISUAL QUERY PROCESSING
        9. 8 RELATED WORK
        10. 9 CONCLUSIONS
        11. APPENDIX 1 FORMAL BASIS OF GVISUAL: GCALCULUS/S
        12. A1.1 Syntax
        13. A1.2 Semantics
        14. A1.3 GCalculus Examples
        15. A1.4 GCalculus/S (GCalculus with Set Operators)
        16. A1.5 GCalculus/S Query Examples
        17. APPENDIX 2 PROOF OF THEOREM 6.1
        18. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      4. NetView: Integrating Large-Scale Distributed Visual Databases
        1. System architecture
        2. Metadata
        3. Directing a visual query
        4. Query refinement based on relevance feedback
        5. Performance evaluation
        6. Future work
        7. Acknowledgments
      5. The X-tree: An Index Structure for High-Dimensional Data
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Problems of (R-tree-based) Index Structures in High-Dimensional Space
        4. 3. The X-tree
        5. 4. Performance Evaluation
        6. 5. Conclusions
        7. Acknowledgment
    3. CHAPTER 7: MULTIMEDIA OPERATING SYSTEMS
      1. Introduction to Multimedia Operating Systems
      2. An Overview of the Rialto Real-Time Architecture
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Time Constraints
        4. 3. Real-Time Resource Management
        5. 4. Activity-Based CPU Reservation
        6. 5. Integrated Scheduling Algorithm
        7. 6. Other Features
        8. 7. Related Work
        9. 8. Status and Results
        10. 9. Conclusions
      3. Resource Kernels: A Resource-Centric Approach to Real-Time and Multimedia Systems
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Motivation for Resource Kernels
        3. 2. Designing a Resource Kernel
        4. 3. Processor Resource Management
        5. 4. Disk Bandwidth Resource Management
        6. 5. Practical Issues
        7. 6. Concluding Remarks
        8. Appendix: Admission Control Schemes
      4. A Hierarchical CPU Scheduler for Multimedia Operating Systems
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 A Framework for Hierarchical CPU Scheduling
        4. 3 Start-time Fair Queuing
        5. 4 Implementation
        6. 5 Experimental Evaluation
        7. 6 Related Work
        8. 7 Concluding Remarks
      5. The Design, Implementation and Evaluation of SMART: A Scheduler for Multimedia Applications
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 The SMART interface and usage model
        4. 3 The SMART scheduler
        5. 4 Analysis of the behavior of the algorithm
        6. 5 Related work
        7. 6 Experimental results
        8. 7 Concluding remarks
        9. Acknowledgments
    4. CHAPTER 8: VIDEOCONFERENCING
      1. Introduction to Videoconferencing
        1. BEST-EFFORT DELIVERY OF LIVE DIGITAL AUDIO AND VIDEO
        2. ON THE POWER AND PROMISE OF VIDEOCONFERENCING
        3. A CASE STUDY ON THE DESIGN OF A VIDEOCONFERENCING SYSTEM
      2. An empirical study of delay jitter management policies
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Effect of delay jitter
        4. 3 Queue monitoring
        5. 4 Evaluating delay jitter management policies
        6. 5 The study
        7. 6 Summary and conclusions
      3. Media Scaling for Audiovisual Communication with the Heidelberg Transport System
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Scaling Methods
        4. 3 Scaling in HeiTS
        5. 4 Extensions to HeiTP
        6. 5 Conclusion
        7. Acknowledgement
      4. Retransmission-Based Error Control for Interactive Video Applications over the Internet
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2. Related Work
        4. 3 Retransmission-Based Error Control (REC)
        5. 4 Experimental Result
        6. 5 Discussion
      5. What video can and cannot do for collaboration: a case study
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Method
        4. 3 Benefits of video over audio only
        5. 4 Limitations of video
        6. Acknowledgements
      6. vic: A Flexible Framework for Packet Video
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. 1 INTRODUCTION
        3. 2 COMPOSABLE TOOLS VS. TOOLKITS
        4. 3 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
        5. 4 SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
        6. 5 SIGNAL COMPRESSION
        7. 6 IMPLEMENTATION STATUS AND DEPLOYMENT
        8. 7 FUTURE WORK
        9. 8 SUMMARY
        10. 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    5. CHAPTER 9: NETWORKING AND MEDIA STREAMING
      1. Introduction to Networking and Media Streaming
      2. The Performance of Two-Dimensional Media Scaling for Internet Videoconferencing
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Background and Related Work
        4. 3. System Description
        5. 4. Experimental Method
        6. 5. Experimental Results
        7. 6. Discussion
        8. 7. Summary and Conclusions
        9. 8. Acknowledgments
      3. Receiver-driven Layered Multicast
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 The Network Model
        4. 3 The RLM Protocol
        5. 4 Simulations
        6. 5 Network Implications
        7. 6 The Application
        8. 7 Related Work
        9. 8 Future Work
        10. 9 Summary
        11. 10 Acknowledgments
      4. A Survey of Packet Loss Recovery Techniques for Streaming Audio
        1. Abstract
        2. Multicast Channel Characteristics
        3. Acknowledgments
        4. Biographies
      5. Adaptive FEC-Based Error Control for Internet Telephony
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. A SIMPLE FEC-BASED ERROR CONTROL SCHEME
        4. III. AN OPTIMAL JOINT RATE/FEC-BASED ERROR CONTROL SCHEME
        5. IV. EVALUATING THE SCHEME
        6. V. CONCLUSION
      6. RSVP: A New Resource ReSerVation Protocol: Novel design features lead to an Internet protocol that is flexible and scalable.
        1. Acknowledgments
        2. Biographies
      7. Internet Telephony: architecture and protocols – an IETF perspective
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Differences between Internet telephony and the GSTN
        4. 3. Features of Internet telephony
        5. 4. RTP for data transport
        6. 5. Signaling: Session Initiation Protocol
        7. 6. Additional protocols
        8. 7. Protocol integration
        9. 8. Conclusion and future work
    6. CHAPTER 10: MULTIMEDIA STORAGE SERVERS
      1. Introduction to Multimedia Storage Servers
        1. STORAGE TECHNIQUES
        2. RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUES
        3. CASE STUDIES
        4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      2. Multimedia Storage Servers: A Tutorial
        1. CONTINUOUS MEDIA RECORDING AND RETRIEVAL
        2. MANAGING DIGITAL MULTIMEDIA STORAGE
        3. IMPLEMENTING A MULTIMEDIA FILE SYSTEM
        4. Acknowledgments
      3. Random RAIDs with Selective Exploitation of Redundancy for High Performance Video Servers
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Characteristics of a video server
        4. 3 Successive refinements of a basic architecture
        5. 4 Selective exploitation of redundancy
        6. 5 Simulation results
        7. 6 Discussion
        8. 7 Conclusions
        9. Acknowledgment
      4. Disk scheduling in a multimedia I/O system
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 SCAN-EDF scheduling algorithm
        4. 3 Buffer space tradeoff
        5. 4 Performance Evaluation
        6. 5 Analysis of SCAN-EDF
        7. 6 General Discussion
        8. 7 Conclusions
        9. 8 Acknowledgements
      5. A Statistical Admission Control Algorithm for Multimedia Servers
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Statistical Admission Control Algorithm
        4. 3 Enforcing Statistical Service Guarantees
        5. 4 Experimental Evaluation
        6. 5 Concluding Remarks
      6. A GENERALIZED INTERVAL CACHING POLICY FOR MIXED INTERACTIVE AND LONG VIDEO WORKLOADS
        1. 1 Introduction
        2. 2 Video Applications
        3. 3 Overview of the Proposed Policy
        4. 4 Simulation and Results
        5. 5 Conclusions
      7. On Optimal Piggyback Merging Policies for Video-On-Demand Systems
        1. Abstract
        2. 1 Introduction
        3. 2 Generalized Simple Merging Policy
        4. 3 The Snapshot Algorithm
        5. 4 Experimental Results
        6. 5 Conclusions
    7. CHAPTER 11: MULTIMEDIA SYNCHRONIZATION
      1. Introduction to Multimedia Synchronization
      2. A Temporal Reference Framework for Multimedia Synchronization
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. MODELING TEMPORAL INFORMATION
        4. III. TEMPORAL REFERENCE FRAMEWORK
        5. IV. USE OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF APPROACHES
        6. V. CONCLUSION
      3. Human Perception of Media Synchronization
        1. Abstract
        2. 2 The Lip Synchronization Experiment
        3. 3 Quality of Lip Synchronization
        4. 4 Test Strategy
        5. 6 Elementary Media Synchronization
        6. 7 Aggregation of Media Synchronization
        7. 8 Synchronization Quality of Service
        8. 9 Outlook
        9. 10 Acknowledgments
        10. Appendix C: Sequencing of Clips
      4. Improved Algorithms for Synchronizing Computer Network Clocks
        1. Abstract
        2. I. INTRODUCTION
        3. II. TERMS AND NOTATION
        4. III. NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL
        5. IV. CLOCK FILTER, COMBINING AND CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS
        6. V. INTERSECTION ALGORITHM
        7. VI. LOCAL CLOCK MODELS
        8. VII. THE NTP CLOCK DISCIPLINE
        9. VIII. ADDITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS
        10. IX. PRESENT STATUS AND DEPLOYMENT
        11. X. CURRENT WORK AND FUTURE PLANS
        12. XI. SUMMARY
      5. Nsync - A Toolkit for Building Interactive Multimedia Presentations
        1. 1. Abstract
        2. 2. Introduction
        3. 3. Related Work
        4. 4. Model
        5. 5. Synchronization Definition Language
        6. 6. Presentation Management System Implementation
        7. 7. Discussion and Future Work
        8. 8. Acknowledgements
      6. A Method and Apparatus for Measuring Media Synchronization
        1. 1 Introduction
        2. 2 Experimental Methodology
        3. 3 System Design
        4. 4 Experimental Results
        5. 5 Conclusions
        6. Acknowledgements
    8. CHAPTER 12: AUTHORING SYSTEMS
      1. Introduction to Authoring Systems
        1. OVERVIEW OF PAPERS
        2. OTHER WORKS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      2. THE AMSTERDAM HYPERMEDIA MODEL
        1. Requirements for Describing Hypermedia
        2. Hypertext, Multimedia and Hypermedia
        3. Temporal Information
        4. Links in Hypermedia
        5. High-Level Presentation Specification Attributes
        6. Amsterdam Hypermedia Model
        7. Conclusion
        8. Acknowledgments
      3. HDM — A Model-Based Approach to Hypertext Application Design
        1. 1. INTRODUCTION
        2. 2. A MODEL-BASED APPROACH TO AUTHORING-IN-THE-LARGE
        3. 3. EXAMPLE OF HYPERTEXT MODELING WITH HDM
        4. 4. CONCLUSIONS
        5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      4. Automatic Temporal Layout Mechanisms
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Issues and Requirements for Automatic Temporal Formatting
        4. 3. Automatic Temporal Formatters Provided In Other Systems
        5. 4. Firefly’s Hybrid Temporal Formatter
        6. 5. Discussion
        7. Acknowledgements
      5. GRiNS: A GRaphical INterface for creating and playing SMIL documents
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. Declarative Web-based hypermedia
        4. 3. GRiNS: authoring and presentation for SMIL
        5. 4. Current status and availability
        6. Acknowledgments
        7. Appendix A. SMIL code for the Web news example
      6. Multiviews Interfaces for Multimedia Authoring Environments
        1. Abstract
        2. 1. Introduction
        3. 2. From Wysiwyg to direct edition
        4. 3. Requirements
        5. 4. A new architecture for multimedia authoring
        6. 5. Illustrations through situations
        7. 6. Conclusion
      7. A Multimedia System for Authoring Motion Pictures
        1. ABSTRACT
        2. BACKGROUND
        3. KEY DESIGN GOALS
        4. IMPLEMENTATION
        5. COMPARISON TO OTHER WORK
        6. OUR ITERATIVE DESIGN PROCESS
        7. APPLICATIONS OF MAD
        8. Authoring Motion Pictures
        9. Pitching Film Proposals
        10. Planning Lecture-Demonstrations
        11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        12. FUTURE RESEARCH
        13. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  11. Author Index
  12. Subject Index
  13. About the Authors