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Raw and Finished Materials

Book Description

This book will be a single-source, easy-to-use reference work for machinists and fabricators on the principal characteristics and uses for major common types of metals, composites, and plastics. It provides the key physical characteristics and mechanical characteristics, along with important considerations when machining and processing and fabricating with these materials. -- Covers some 600 specific materials, categorized into metals, plastics, wood products, and composites. -- For each material entry, the book offers such essential parameters as chemical composition, mass, hardness, yield strength, melting point, and electrical and thermal conductivity. -- Provides typical uses for each material cited. -- Entries will be cross-indexed by both trade and generic names, including common industry names used for alloys of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Introduction
  6. Part I Metals
    1. Chapter 1—Ferrous Metals
      1. 1.1 Iron
        1. 1.1.1 Gray Cast Iron
        2. 1.1.2 Ductile Cast Iron (Nodular Iron)
        3. 1.1.3 White Cast Iron
      2. 1.2 Steels
        1. 1.2.1 Steel
          1. 1.2.1.1 Low Carbon Steel
          2. 1.2.1.2 Medium Carbon Steel
          3. 1.2.1.3 High Carbon Steel
          4. 1.2.1.4 Alloy Steels
        2. 1.2.2 Steel Designations in the AISI/SAE System
        3. 1.2.3 The Unified Numbering System (UNS)
          1. 1.2.3.1 Low Carbon Steel SAE 1018 (UNS G10180)
          2. 1.2.3.2 UNS G12144 Low Carbon Leaded Free Machining Steel (AISI 12L14)
          3. 1.2.3.3 AISI 1050 Medium Carbon Steel (UNS G10500)
          4. 1.2.3.4 High Carbon Steel SAE 1095 (UNS G10950)
          5. 1.2.3.5 A36 Structural Steel (UNS K02600)
          6. 1.2.3.6 ASTM A366 Cold Rolled Sheet Steel (UNS G10080) and ASTM A653 Galvanized Sheet Steel
          7. 1.2.3.7 4140 Chrome Molybdenum Steel (UNS G41400)
          8. 1.2.3.8 AISI 8620 Carburizing Steel (UNS G86200)
          9. 1.2.3.9 M2 High Speed Steel (UNS T11302)
          10. 1.2.3.10 M42 Cobalt HSS (UNS T11342)
          11. 1.2.3.11 AISI T1 Tungsten High Speed Steel (UNS T12001)
          12. 1.2.3.12 O-1 Tool Steel (UNS T31501)
          13. 1.2.3.13 D2 Tool Steel (T30402)
          14. 1.2.3.14 P20 Tool Steel (UNS T51620)
          15. 1.2.3.15 T41901 S1 High Shock Tool Steel (UNS T41901)
        4. 1.2.4 Stainless Steels
          1. 1.2.4.1 Austenitic “300 Series”
          2. 1.2.4.2 Martensitic
          3. 1.2.4.3 Ferritic
          4. 1.2.4.4 Type 304 (UNS S30400), Type 304L (UNS S30403), Type 304H (UNS S30409), and Type 303 Stainless Steels (UNS S30300)
          5. 1.2.4.5 Type 316 (UNS S31600), Type 316L (UNS S31603), and Type 316H Stainless Steels (UNS S31609)
          6. 1.2.4.6 Type 409 Stainless Steel (UNS S40900)
          7. 1.2.4.7 Type 430 (UNS S43000) and Type 430F (UNS S43020)
          8. 1.2.4.8 Type 440C Stainless Steels (UNS S44004)
    2. Chapter 2—Nonferrous Alloys
      1. 2.1 Copper and Its Alloys
        1. 2.1.1 C10100 Oxygen-Free Electronic Copper
        2. 2.1.2 Copper Alloy C11000 Electrolytic Touch Pitch Copper
        3. 2.1.3 C12200 Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper
        4. 2.1.4 C14500 Tellurium Copper
        5. 2.1.5 C15000 Zirconium Copper
        6. 2.1.6 Beryllium Coppers
        7. 2.1.7 The Brasses and Bronzes
          1. 2.1.7.1 C21000 Gilding Metal
          2. 2.1.7.2 C22000 Commercial Bronze
          3. 2.1.7.3 C24000 Low Brass
          4. 2.1.7.4 C26000 Cartridge Brass
          5. 2.1.7.5 C28000 Muntz Metal
          6. 2.1.7.6 C32000 Leaded Red Brass
          7. 2.1.7.7 C36000 Free Cutting Brass
          8. 2.1.7.8 C46400 Naval Brass
          9. 2.1.7.9 C48500 Naval Brass, High Leaded
          10. 2.1.7.10 C51000 Phosphor Bronze
          11. 2.1.7.11 C54400 High Leaded Phosphor Bronze
          12. 2.1.7.12 C65500 High Silicon Bronze (Herculoy)
          13. 2.1.7.13 C69300 ECO-Brass
          14. 2.1.7.14 C71500 Cupronickel
          15. 2.1.7.15 C73500 Nickel Silver, German Silver
          16. 2.1.7.16 C83600 Leaded Ounce Metal, or Gunmetal
          17. 2.1.7.17 C86300 Manganese Bronze
          18. 2.1.7.18 C93200 Leaded Bearing Bronze
          19. 2.1.7.19 C95400 Aluminum Bronze
      2. 2.2 Aluminum and Its Alloys
        1. 2.2.1 Aluminum
          1. 2.2.1.1 Wrought Aluminum Alloys
          2. 2.2.1.2 Cast Aluminum Alloys
          3. 2.2.1.3 Hardening and Tempering of Aluminum
          4. 2.2.1.4 1100 Aluminum
          5. 2.2.1.5 2011 Aluminum
          6. 2.2.1.6 2024 Aluminum
          7. 2.2.1.7 5052 Aluminum
          8. 2.2.1.8 6061 Aluminum
          9. 2.2.1.9 6063 Aluminum
          10. 2.2.1.10 7075 Aluminum
      3. 2.3 Nickel and Its Alloys
        1. 2.3.1 Nickel
        2. 2.3.2 Monel
          1. 2.3.2.1 Kovar (UNS K94610)
          2. 2.3.2.2 Inconel 600 (UNS N06600), N06601, N07718)
          3. 2.3.2.3 Multimet N155 (UNS R30155)
          4. 2.3.2.4 Invar (UNS K93600 and K93650)
          5. 2.3.2.5 Mu-Metal
          6. 2.3.2.6 Nichrome
          7. 2.3.2.7 Nitinol
      4. 2.4 Low-Melting Metals
        1. 2.4.1 Lead
        2. 2.4.2 Babbitt
      5. 2.5 Fusible Alloys
        1. 2.5.1 Field’s Metal
        2. 2.5.2 Cerrosafe
        3. 2.5.3 Galinstan
        4. 2.5.4 Pewter
        5. 2.5.5 Solder
          1. 2.5.5.1 Soft Solders
          2. 2.5.5.2 Leaded Solders
          3. 2.5.5.3 Lead-Free Solders
          4. 2.5.5.4 Hard Solder (Silver Solder)
        6. 2.5.6 Type Metal
      6. 2.6 Magnetic Materials
        1. 2.6.1 Ferrite (Ceramic) Magnets
        2. 2.6.2 Alnico
        3. 2.6.3 Neodymium Iron Boron (Nd2Fe14B)
        4. 2.6.4 Samarium-Cobalt Magnets
      7. 2.7 Miscellaneous Nonferrous Metals
        1. 2.7.1 Chromium
        2. 2.7.2 Cobalt
        3. 2.7.3 Magnesium
        4. 2.7.4 Zinc
        5. 2.7.5 Tin
        6. 2.7.6 Gold
        7. 2.7.7 Platinum
        8. 2.7.8 Silver
        9. 2.7.9 Titanium
  7. Part II Plastics
    1. Chapter 3—Thermoplastics
      1. 3.1 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
      2. 3.2 Nylon
      3. 3.3 Polycarbonate (Lexan)
      4. 3.4 Polystyrene
      5. 3.5 Polypropylene
      6. 3.6 Polyethylene
      7. 3.7 Low-Density Polyethylene
      8. 3.8 High-Density Polyethylene
      9. 3.9 Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene
      10. 3.10 Polymethylmethacrylate (Acrylic)
      11. 3.11 Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon®)
      12. 3.12 Polyvinylidene Chloride
      13. 3.13 Polyethylene Terephthalate
      14. 3.14 Polyvinyl Chloride
      15. 3.15 Polyether Ether Ketone
      16. 3.16 Thermoplastic Polyurethane
      17. 3.17 Liquid Crystal Polymer
    2. Chapter 4—Thermosets
      1. 4.1 Epoxy
      2. 4.2 Melamine Resin
      3. 4.3 Phenolic Thermosets
      4. 4.4 Bakelite/Catalin
      5. 4.5 Elastomers
        1. 4.5.1 Butyl Rubber
        2. 4.5.2 Natural Rubber
        3. 4.5.3 Nitrile Rubber (Buna-N)
        4. 4.5.4 Polychloroprene (Neoprene)
        5. 4.5.5 Silicone Rubber
  8. Part III Wood
    1. Chapter 5—Hardwoods
      1. 5.1 American Ash (Fraxinus americana)
      2. 5.2 American Basswood (Tilia americana)
      3. 5.3 American Beech (Fagus grandifolia)
      4. 5.4 American Chestnut (Castanea dentate)
      5. 5.5 American Elm (Ulmus americana)
      6. 5.6 American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
      7. 5.7 American White Birch/Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)
      8. 5.8 Aspen
        1. 5.8.1 Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) and Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)
      9. 5.9 Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)
      10. 5.10 Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)
      11. 5.11 Boxelder (Acer negundo)
      12. 5.12 Buckeye (Aesculus spp.)
      13. 5.13 Butternut (Juglans cinerea) (White Walnut)
      14. 5.14 Hickory (Carya spp.)
      15. 5.15 Live Oak (Quercus virginiana)
      16. 5.16 Maple (Acer spp.)
      17. 5.17 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
      18. 5.18 Red Alder (Alnus rubra)
      19. 5.19 Red Oak (Quercus rubra)
      20. 5.20 Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
      21. 5.21 Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
      22. 5.22 White Oak (Quercus alba)
      23. 5.23 Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)
    2. Chapter 6—Softwoods
      1. 6.1 Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum)
      2. 6.2 Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea)
      3. 6.3 Coastal Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
      4. 6.4 Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
      5. 6.5 Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) (Eastern Red Juniper) and Western Juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)
      6. 6.6 Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
      7. 6.7 Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta)
      8. 6.8 Longleaf Pine (Southern Yellow Pine) (Pinus palustris)
      9. 6.9 Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia)
      10. 6.10 Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)
      11. 6.11 Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)
      12. 6.12 Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)
      13. 6.13 Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)
      14. 6.14 White Fir (Abies concolor)
    3. Chapter 7—Tropical Woods
      1. 7.1 African Blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon)
      2. 7.2 Brazilian Rosewood (Dalbergia nigra)
      3. 7.3 Bulletwood (Manilkara bidentata) (Balata)
      4. 7.4 Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa)
      5. 7.5 East Africa Olivewood (Olea hochstetteri)
      6. 7.6 Gaboon Ebony (Diospyrus Crassiflora) (African Ebony)
      7. 7.7 Greenheart (Chlorocardium rodiei)
      8. 7.8 Gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba)
      9. 7.9 Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) (Brazilian Cherry)
      10. 7.10 Lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale)
      11. 7.11 Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) (Honduras Mahogany)
      12. 7.12 Pink Ivory (Berchemia zeyheri)
      13. 7.13 Purpleheart (Peltogyne paniculata)
      14. 7.14 Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)
      15. 7.15 Teak (Tectona grandis)
  9. Part IV Miscellaneous Materials
    1. Chapter 8—Ceramics and Composites
      1. 8.1 Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) (Alumina)
      2. 8.2 Silicon Carbide (SiC) (Carborundum)
      3. 8.3 Tungsten Carbide
      4. 8.4 Sialon
      5. 8.5 Chromium Carbide (Cr3C2)
      6. 8.6 Boron Carbide (B4C)
      7. 8.7 Bone China
      8. 8.8 Porcelain
      9. 8.9 Concrete
      10. 8.10 Soda-Lime Glass
      11. 8.11 Borosilicate Glass
      12. 8.12 Leaded Glass (Lead Crystal)/Leaded Acrylic
      13. 8.13 Amorphous Metals
      14. 8.14 Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
      15. 8.15 High Gravity Compounds
      16. 8.16 Wood-Plastic Composite
      17. 8.17 Metal Matrix Composites
      18. 8.18 Engineered Wood Products
      19. 8.19 Laminated Veneer Lumber
      20. 8.20 Plywood
      21. 8.21 Particleboard
      22. 8.22 Oriented Strand Board
      23. 8.23 Hardboard
    2. Chapter 9—Adhesives
      1. 9.1 Anaerobic Adhesives (Loctite®)
      2. 9.2 Bondo® Putty
      3. 9.3 Caulk
      4. 9.4 Contact Cement/Rubber Cement
      5. 9.5 Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue®, Krazy Glue®)
      6. 9.6 Gum Arabic
      7. 9.7 Hide Glue
      8. 9.8 Hook and Loop (Velcro®) Fasteners
      9. 9.9 Hot Melt Adhesives (Hot Melt Glues)
      10. 9.10 Polyvinyl Acetate (White Glue, Elmer’s® Glue)
    3. Chapter 10—Carbon Forms and Fuels
      1. 10.1 Graphite
      2. 10.2 Anthracite
      3. 10.3 Bituminous
      4. 10.4 Lignite
      5. 10.5 Peat
      6. 10.6 Wood Pellets
      7. 10.7 Coke
      8. 10.8 Charcoal
      9. 10.9 Coal Gas
      10. 10.10 Oil Shale
      11. 10.11 Crude Oil (Petroleum)
      12. 10.12 Kerosene
      13. 10.13 Petrodiesel
      14. 10.14 Fuel Oil
      15. 10.15 Gasoline
      16. 10.16 Asphalt (Bitumen)
      17. 10.17 Natural Gas
      18. 10.18 Propane (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
      19. 10.19 Biodiesel
      20. 10.20 Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) (Grain Alcohol)
      21. 10.21 Hydrogen (As a Fuel)
  10. Glossary
  11. Index
  12. About the Author
  13. Back Cover