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Rapid System Prototyping with FPGAs by R. C. Cofer, Benjamin F. Harding

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Chapter 16

Advanced Interconnect

16.1 Overview

This chapter presents some advanced FPGA I/O elements. There are no formal rules defining the I/O features that should be designated as “advanced.” A general definition for advanced features might be, “Features that are typically available only within performance-optimized FPGA families.” With the passage of time, the most popular “advanced” I/O features are added to the cost-optimized FPGA families and become categorized as standard features.

An example of a standard FPGA I/O feature is the ability to implement a medium-speed single-ended I/O standard. By comparison, higher-performance differential standards, high-performance advanced memory interfaces, high-speed data serial standards with built-in ...

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