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Railway Safety, Reliability, and Security

Book Description

Human errors, as well as deliberate sabotage, pose a considerable danger to passengers riding on the modern railways and have created disastrous consequences. To protect civilians against both intentional and unintentional threats, rail transportation has become increasingly automated. Railway Safety, Reliability, and Security: Technologies and Systems Engineering provides engineering students and professionals with a collection of state-of-the-art methodological and technological notions to support the development and certification of ‘real-time safety-critical’ railway control systems, as well as the protection of rail transportation infrastructures.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
  5. Foreword by Odd Nordland
  6. Foreword by Stephan Jubin
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Regulations and Certification Standards
    1. Chapter 1: U.S. Regulatory Requirements for Positive Train Control Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. POSITIVE TRAIN CONTROL IN THE US
      5. WAY FORWARD TO COMPLETION
      6. NOTE
    2. Chapter 2: The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODEL-DRIVEN ENGINEERING AND DOMAIN-SPECIFIC LANGUAGES
      5. MODELING, GENERATION, VERIFICATION, VALIDATION AND CERTIFICATION IN THE OPEN ETCS APPROACH
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. Section 2: Hazard Analysis and Model-Based Evaluation
    1. Chapter 3: Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment of Technical Systems on European Railways
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONSTRUCTION OF A SEMI-QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS METHOD
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 4: The ForMoSA Approach to Qualitative and Quantitative Model-Based Safety Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOTIVATION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THIS CHAPTER
      4. OVERVIEW OF THE CASE STUDY
      5. SPECIFICATION OF SYSTEM PROPERTIES
      6. ANALYSIS METHODS
      7. DEDUCTIVE CAUSE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS
      8. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION
      9. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 3: Verification and Validation
    1. Chapter 5: Verification and Validation of Interoperability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNICAL INTEROPERABILITY
      5. OPERATIONAL INTEROPERABILITY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 6: Fault Injection for On-Board ERTMS/ETCS Safety Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ON-BOARD ERTMS/ETCS THAT IMPACT VALIDATION
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 7: Impact of Electromagnetic Environment on Reliability Assessment for Railway Signalling Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATIONSHIP AMONG ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT, DESIGN CONSTRAINTS, COSTS AND RELIABILITY
      4. ELECTROMAGNETIC NOISE ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERIZATION
      5. RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS ASSESSMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 4: Automation in Development and Testing
    1. Chapter 8: Μίνθα
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES OF APPLICATION LOGIC DEVELOPMENT
      5. MODELLING SIGNAL ENGINEERING KNOW-HOW
      6. A PROTOTYPE
      7. SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINES AND FRAMEWORKS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 9: Software-Based Self-Test for Reliable Applications in Railway Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BEST PRACTICES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SBST IN RAILWAY SYSTEMS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 10: Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop in Railway
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCOMOTIVE SIMULATOR MODEL
      4. HIL SET-UP
      5. TECHNIQUES FOR AN EFFICIENT REAL-TIME SIMULATION
      6. REAL-TIME HIL TESTS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 11: Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing of On-Board Subsystems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SYSTEM IN THE LOOP TESTING: INTRODUCTION
      3. AN INTRODUCTIVE EXAMPLE: TESTING OF RAILWAY DISKS AND BRAKE PADS
      4. HIL SIMULATION OF RAILWAY PANTOGRAPHS
      5. WEAR OF SLIDING SURFACES AND ARCING: APPLICATION OF HIL TECHNIQUES TO PANTOGRAPH TESTING
      6. MUTUAL INTERACTION OF SAFETY-RELEVANT SUB-SYSTEMS WITH DEGRADED ADHESION CONDITIONS: THE APPLICATION OF HIL TESTING TO ODOMETRY,WSP, AND ANTI-SKID SYSTEMS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
  12. Section 5: Formal Methods
    1. Chapter 12: The Role of Formal Methods in Software Development for Railway Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RECENT ADVANCES
      5. RAILWAY SIGNALING SOFTWARE
      6. THE FUTURE ROLE OF FORMAL METHODS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 13: Symbolic Model Checking for Interlocking Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELLING OF CONTROL TABLES AND SIGNALLING SAFETY PRINCIPLES
      4. SYMBOLIC MODEL CHECKING WITH CUSTOMISED ORDERINGS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
  13. Section 6: Human Factors
    1. Chapter 14: Designing Usable Interactive Systems within the Railway Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKROUND
      3. DESIGN APPROACH
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 15: Integration of Human Factors to Safety Assessments by Human Barrier Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS WITH HUMAN-BARRIER-INTERACTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
  14. Section 7: Security, Monitoring and Surveillance
    1. Chapter 16: Advanced Techniques for Monitoring the Condition of Mission-Critical Railway Equipment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. A REVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES
      4. 3. CONDITION MONITORING CASE STUDY
      5. 4. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE
    2. Chapter 17: Security of Railway Infrastructures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DEFINITIONS, MOTIVATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY REVIEW ON RAILWAY SECURITY
      3. A GENERAL ARCHITECTURE FOR RISK ANALYSIS TOOLS
      4. CASE STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION
  15. Section 8: Experiences and Case-Studies
    1. Chapter 18: ETCS Developing and Operation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION FOR IMPROVING RAILWAYS
      4. RFI LIFE-CYCLE ETCS SYSTEM
      5. RFI TESTING EXPERIENCE AND FORMAL LANGUAGES
      6. ETCS LABORATORY
      7. FINITE MARKOV CHAINS ANALYSIS
      8. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
      9. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 19: Adoption of Low-Cost Rail Level Crossing Warning Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ASSESSING RISK OF LEVEL CROSSINGS WITH PASSIVE CONTROLS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
  16. Compilation of References
  17. About the Contributors