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Radiowave Propagation: Physics and Applications

Book Description

An accessible student-oriented approach to radiowave propagation

Propagation-the process whereby a signal is conveyed between transmitter and receiver-has a profound influence on communication systems design. Radiowave Propagation provides an overview of the physical mechanisms that govern electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth's troposphere and ionosphere. Developed in conjunction with a graduate-level wave propagation course at The Ohio State University, this text offers a balance of physical and empirical models to provide basic physical insight as well as practical methods for system design.

Beginning with discussions of propagation media properties, plane waves, and antenna and system concepts, successive chapters consider the most important wave propagation mechanisms for frequencies ranging from LF up to the millimeter wave range, including:

  • Direct line-of-sight propagation through the atmosphere

  • Rain attenuation

  • The basic theory of reflection and refraction at material interfaces and in the Earth's atmosphere

  • Reflection, refraction, and diffraction analysis in microwave link design for a specified terrain profile

  • Empirical path loss models for point-to-point ground links

  • Statistical fading models

  • Standard techniques for prediction of ground wave propagation

  • Ionospheric propagation, with emphasis on the skywave mechanism at MF and HF and on ionospheric perturbations for Earth-space links at VHF and higher frequencies

  • A survey of other propagation mechanisms, including tropospheric scatter, meteor scatter, and propagation effects on GPS systems

Radiowave Propagation incorporates fundamental materials to help senior undergraduate and graduate engineering students review and strengthen electromagnetic physics skills as well as the most current empirical methods recommended by the International Telecommunication Union. This book can also serve as a valuable teaching and reference text for engineers working with wireless communication, radar, or remote sensing systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. CONTENTS
  5. PREFACE
  6. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 DEFINITION OF PROPAGATION
    2. 1.2 PROPAGATION AND SYSTEMS DESIGN
    3. 1.3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    4. 1.4 THE INFLUENCE OF SIGNAL FREQUENCY AND ENVIRONMENT
    5. 1.5 PROPAGATION MECHANISMS
    6. 1.6 SUMMARY
    7. 1.7 SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION
    8. 1.8 OVERVIEW OF TEXT
  7. CHAPTER 2: CHARACTERIZATION OF PROPAGATION MEDIA
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS, BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, AND CONTINUITY
    3. 2.3 CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS
    4. 2.4 DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS: MATERIAL POLARIZATION
    5. 2.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
    6. 2.6 MAGNETIC AND CONDUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS
    7. REFERENCES
  8. CHAPTER 3: PLANE WAVES
    1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 3.2 D'ALEMBERT'S SOLUTION
    3. 3.3 PURE TRAVELING WAVES
    4. 3.4 INFORMATION TRANSMISSION
    5. 3.5 SINUSOIDAL TIME DEPENDENCE IN AN IDEAL MEDIUM
    6. 3.6 PLANE WAVES IN LOSSY AND DISPERSIVE MEDIA
    7. 3.7 PHASE AND GROUP VELOCITY
    8. 3.8 WAVE POLARIZATION
    9. REFERENCES
  9. CHAPTER 4: ANTENNA AND NOISE CONCEPTS
    1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 4.2 ANTENNA CONCEPTS
    3. 4.3 BASIC PARAMETERS OF ANTENNAS
    4. 4.4 NOISE CONSIDERATIONS
    5. REFERENCES
  10. CHAPTER 5: DIRECT TRANSMISSION
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 5.2 FRIIS TRANSMISSION FORMULA
    3. 5.3 ATMOSPHERIC GAS ATTENUATION EFFECTS
    4. 5.4 RAIN ATTENUATION
    5. 5.5 SCINTILLATIONS
    6. APPENDIX 5.A LOOK ANGLES TO GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
    7. REFERENCES
  11. CHAPTER 6: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
    1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 6.2 REFLECTION FROM A PLANAR INTERFACE: NORMAL INCIDENCE
    3. 6.3 REFLECTION FROM A PLANAR INTERFACE: OBLIQUE INCIDENCE
    4. 6.4 TOTAL REFLECTION AND CRITICAL ANGLE
    5. 6.5 REFRACTION IN A STRATIFIED MEDIUM
    6. 6.6 REFRACTION OVER A SPHERICAL EARTH
    7. 6.7 REFRACTION IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
    8. 6.8 DUCTING
    9. 6.9 RAY-TRACING METHODS
    10. REFERENCES
  12. CHAPTER 7: TERRAIN REFLECTION AND DIFFRACTION
    1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 7.2 PROPAGATION OVER A PLANE EARTH
    3. 7.3 FRESNEL ZONES
    4. 7.4 EARTH CURVATURE AND PATH PROFILE CONSTRUCTION
    5. 7.5 MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN
    6. 7.6 PATH LOSS ANALYSIS EXAMPLES
    7. 7.7 NUMERICAL METHODS FOR PATH LOSS ANALYSIS
    8. 7.8 CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
  13. CHAPTER 8: EMPIRICAL PATH LOSS AND FADING MODELS
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 EMPIRICAL PATH LOSS MODELS
    3. 8.3 SIGNAL FADING
    4. 8.4 NARROWBAND FADING MITIGATION USING DIVERSITY SCHEMES
    5. 8.5 WIDEBAND CHANNELS
    6. 8.6 CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
  14. CHAPTER 9: GROUNDWAVE PROPAGATION
    1. 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 9.2 PLANAR EARTH GROUNDWAVE PREDICTION 1
    3. 9.3 SPHERICAL EARTH GROUNDWAVE PREDICTION
    4. 9.4 METHODS FOR APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS
    5. 9.5 A 1 MHz SAMPLE CALCULATION
    6. 9.6 A 10 MHz SAMPLE CALCULATION
    7. 9.7 ITU INFORMATION AND OTHER RESOURCES
    8. 9.8 SUMMARY
    9. APPENDIX 9.A SPHERICAL EARTH GROUNDWAVE COMPUTATIONS
    10. REFERENCES
  15. CHAPTER 10: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IONOSPHERE
    1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION 1
    2. 10.2 THE BAROMETRIC LAW
    3. 10.3 CHAPMAN'S THEORY
    4. 10.4 STRUCTURE OF THE IONOSPHERE
    5. 10.5 VARIABILITY OF THE IONOSPHERE
    6. REFERENCES
  16. CHAPTER 11: IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
    1. 11.1 INTRODUCTION 1
    2. 11.2 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF AN IONIZED MEDIUM
    3. 11.3 PROPAGATION IN A MAGNETOIONIC MEDIUM
    4. 11.4 IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS
    5. 11.5 IONOSPHERIC SOUNDING
    6. 11.6 THE SECANT LAW
    7. 11.7 TRANSMISSION CURVES
    8. 11.8 BREIT AND TUVE'S THEOREM
    9. 11.9 MARTYN'S THEOREM ON EQUIVALENT VIRTUAL HEIGHTS
    10. 11.10 MUF, “SKIP” DISTANCE, AND IONOSPHERIC SIGNAL DISPERSION
    11. 11.11 EARTH CURVATURE EFFECTS AND RAY-TRACING TECHNIQUES
    12. 11.12 IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION PREDICTION TOOLS
    13. 11.13 IONOSPHERIC ABSORPTION
    14. 11.14 IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON EARTH–SPACE LINKS
    15. REFERENCES
  17. CHAPTER 12: OTHER PROPAGATION MECHANISMS AND APPLICATIONS
    1. 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 12.2 TROPOSPHERIC SCATTER
    3. 12.3 METEOR SCATTER
    4. 12.4 TROPOSPHERIC DELAY IN GLOBAL SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
    5. 12.5 PROPAGATION EFFECTS ON RADAR SYSTEMS
    6. REFERENCES
  18. INDEX