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Radio Production, 6th Edition

Book Description

Radio Production is for professionals and students interested in understanding the radio industry in today’s ever-changing world. This book features up-to-date coverage of the purpose and use of radio with detailed coverage of current production techniques in the studio and on location. In addition there is exploration of technological advances, including handheld digital recording devices, the use of digital, analogue and virtual mixing desks and current methods of music storage and playback. In addition to its global context, the sixth edition also explores American radio by providing an overview of the rules, regulations and purpose of the Federal Communications Commission.

The sixth edition includes:

  • Updated material on new digital recording methods, and the development of outside broadcast techniques, including Smartphone use.
  • The use of social media as news sources, and an expansion of the station’s presence.
  • Global government regulation and journalistic codes of practice.
  • Comprehensive advice on interviewing, phone-ins, news, radio drama, music, and scheduling.

This edition is further enhanced by a companion website, featuring examples, exercises, and resources: www.focalpress.com/cw/mcleish.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Radio Production
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1 Characteristics of the Medium
    1. Radio Makes Pictures
    2. Radio Speaks to Millions
    3. Radio Speaks to the Individual
    4. Radio is Private and Personal
    5. The Speed of Radio
    6. Radio has No Boundaries
    7. The Transient Nature of Radio
    8. Radio on Demand
    9. Radio as Background
    10. Radio is Selective
    11. Radio Lacks Space
    12. The Personality of Radio
    13. The Simplicity of Radio
    14. Radio is Low Cost
    15. Radio for the Disadvantaged
    16. Radio Teaches
    17. Radio has Music
    18. Radio can Surprise
    19. Radio can Suffer from Interference
    20. Radio for the Individual
    21. Radio for Society
    22. The Public Servant
    23. Personal Motivations
  8. 2 Structure and Regulation
    1. The National Regulator
    2. The Local Board
    3. Station Finance
    4. Station Structure
    5. Community Radio
    6. Station Life
    7. Getting a Job
  9. 3 The Radio Studio
    1. Studio Layout
    2. The Studio Desk, Mixer, Control Panel, Console, or Board
    3. Digital Mixers
    4. Studio Software
    5. Digital Compression
    6. Digital Development
    7. Music Playout
    8. Recording Formats
    9. Digital Audio Workstation
    10. Editing Principles
    11. Editing Practice
    12. Microphones
    13. Stereo
    14. Equipment Faults
  10. 4 Using the Internet and Social Media
    1. An Online Presence
    2. Internet Radio
    3. Radio Podcasts
    4. Internet Research
    5. Making the Best Use of Social Media
    6. Personal Twitter Accounts
    7. Blogs
    8. A Case Study
  11. 5 Ethics
    1. Declarations of Intent
    2. Objectivity, Impartiality, and Fairness
    3. Limitation of Harm
    4. Watchdog
    5. Whistleblowers
    6. Bad Practice
    7. The Status of the Media
  12. 6 Writing for the Ear
    1. Who are You Talking To?
    2. What Do You Want to Say?
    3. The Storage of Talk
    4. Words
    5. Structure and Signposting
    6. Pictures and Stories
    7. Double Meanings
    8. The Script
  13. 7 News – Policy and Practice
    1. ‘Interesting’
    2. Codes of Practice
    3. Objectivity
    4. Legality
    5. News Values
    6. Investigative Reporting
    7. Campaigning Journalism
    8. The News Reporting Function
    9. Accuracy, Realism, and Truth
    10. Intelligibility in the Writing
    11. Being Fair
    12. Giving Offence
    13. Causing Distress
    14. Civil Disturbance and War Reporting
    15. The Newsroom Operation
    16. Smartphone
    17. Style Book
    18. Radio Car
    19. Equipment in the Field
    20. The News Conference and Press Release
    21. A Summary
  14. 8 Interviewing
    1. The Basic Approach
    2. Types of Interview
    3. Securing the Interviewee
    4. What the Interviewee Should Know
    5. Preparation Before the Interview
    6. The Pre-interview Discussion
    7. Question Technique
    8. Question ‘Width’
    9. Devil’s Advocate
    10. Multiple Questions
    11. Leading Questions
    12. Non-questions
    13. Non-answers
    14. Non-verbal Communication
    15. During the Interview
    16. Winding Up
    17. After the Interview
    18. Style
    19. Interviewing ‘Cold’
    20. Interviewing Through a Translator
    21. Location Interviews
    22. The Triangle of Trust
  15. 9 Vox Pop
    1. Phrasing the Question
    2. Interviewing Children
    3. Choosing the Site
    4. The Recorder
    5. Putting the Question
    6. The Editing
  16. 10 Cues and Links
    1. Information for the Broadcaster
    2. Information for the Listener
    3. Links
  17. 11 Newsreading and Presentation
    1. The Seven Ps
    2. Newsreading
    3. Pronunciation
    4. Vocal Stressing
    5. Inflection
    6. Quotation Marks
    7. Alterations
    8. Corrections
    9. Lists and Numbers
    10. Station Style
    11. Continuity Presentation
    12. Errors and Emergencies
    13. Headphones
    14. Trails and Promos
  18. 12 The Discussion
    1. Format
    2. Selection of Participants
    3. The Chairperson
    4. Preparation
    5. Advice to Contributors
    6. Contributor Nerves
    7. Starting the Programme
    8. Speaker Control
    9. Subject Control
    10. Technical Control
    11. Ending the Programme
  19. 13 Phone-Ins
    1. Technical Facilities
    2. Programme Classification
    3. The Open Line
    4. Support Staff
    5. Choosing the Calls
    6. The Role of the Host
    7. Host Style
    8. Reference Material
    9. Studio Operation
    10. Additional Telephone Facilities
    11. Use of ‘Delay’
    12. The Specific Subject
    13. ‘Early Lines’
    14. Consumer Affairs
    15. The Need to be Fair
    16. Linking Programmes Together
    17. Personal Counselling
    18. The Presenter as Listener
    19. Non-broadcasting Effort
    20. Anonymity
    21. Phone-in Checklist
  20. 14 Listener Participation
    1. Letters, Phone Calls, Emails, Texts and Tweets
    2. Programme Follow-Up
    3. Texting
    4. Helpline
    5. Visitors
    6. Special Involvement
    7. Travelling Roadshow
    8. Major Events
  21. 15 Music Programming
    1. Attitudes to Music
    2. Metadata
    3. Likes and Dislikes
    4. Clock Format
    5. Computerised Selection
    6. Requests and Dedications
    7. Choosing Music
    8. Item Order
    9. Prefading to Time
    10. Preparing Listeners’ Material
    11. Programme Technique
    12. Guest Programmes
    13. DJ Shows
  22. 16 Sequences and Magazines
    1. Programme Title
    2. Signature Tune
    3. Transmission Time
    4. The Presenter
    5. Linking Style
    6. Information Content
    7. Programme Construction
    8. Programme Variety
    9. Programme Ideas
    10. Voice Piece
    11. Interview
    12. Discussion
    13. Music
    14. Sound Effects
    15. Listener Participation
    16. Features
    17. Drama
    18. Item Order
    19. Production Method
    20. Responding to Emergency
  23. 17 Making Commercials
    1. Copy Policy
    2. The Target Audience
    3. The Product or Service ‘Premise’
    4. Writing Copy
    5. Voicing and Treatment
    6. Music and Effects
    7. Stereo
    8. Humour in Advertising
    9. Testing
  24. 18 Outside Broadcasts (Remotes)
    1. Planning
    2. Visiting the Site
    3. Communications to Base
    4. People
    5. Hazard Assessment
    6. Equipment
    7. Safety
    8. Accommodation
    9. Programme Research
    10. Liaison with the Base Studio
    11. Publicity
    12. Conflicts of Approach
    13. Tidiness
    14. Gratuities
    15. The Big Disaster
  25. 19 Commentary
    1. Attitude to the Listener
    2. Preparation
    3. Working with the Base Studio
    4. Sport
    5. Communicating Mood
    6. Coordinating the Images
    7. Content and Style
    8. News Action
    9. Sports Action
    10. Actuality and Silence
    11. The Ending
    12. An Example
    13. Coping with Disaster
  26. 20 Music ‘Live’
    1. Reproduction of Internal Balance
    2. Creation of a Synthetic Balance
    3. Studio Layout
    4. Microphones for Music
    5. Frequency Control
    6. Dynamic Control
    7. Echo
    8. Channel Delay
    9. Mixing Technique
    10. Recording Technique
    11. Production Points
  27. 21 Drama – Principles
    1. Adapting for Radio
    2. The Idea
    3. Story Construction
    4. The Setting
    5. Characterisation
    6. Dialogue
    7. Drama from Personal Story
    8. Truth vs. Drama
    9. Script Layout
    10. The Actors
    11. The Acoustic
    12. Sound Effects
    13. Music
    14. Production Technique
  28. 22 Documentary and Feature Programmes
    1. The Documentary
    2. Planning
    3. Research
    4. Structure
    5. Collecting the Material
    6. Impression and Truth
    7. Music
    8. Compilation
    9. Programme Sequence
    10. The Ending
    11. Contributors
    12. Programmes in Real Time
    13. The Feature
  29. 23 The Work of the Producer
    1. Ideas
    2. The Audience
    3. Resource Planning
    4. Preparation of Material
    5. The Studio Session
    6. Taste
    7. Ending the Session
    8. Post-production
    9. Programme Administration
    10. Technician, Editor, Administrator, and Manager
  30. 24 The Executive Producer
    1. Station Management
    2. Staff Development
    3. Scheduling
    4. Rescheduling
    5. Strategic Planning
    6. Commissioning Programmes
    7. Codes of Practice
    8. Complaints
    9. Website
    10. Archival Policy
  31. 25 Programme Evaluation
    1. Production Evaluation
    2. Programme Quality
    3. Audience Evaluation
    4. Personal Meters
    5. Research Panels
    6. Questionnaires
    7. Written Programme Response
    8. Web Analytics
    9. Cost Evaluation
  32. 26 Training
    1. Triggers for Training
    2. Learning Objectives
    3. Course Organisation
    4. Stretching Imagination
    5. Editorial Selection
    6. News Priorities
    7. News Exercise
    8. Voicework
    9. Personal Motivation
    10. Vox pop
    11. Commentary
    12. Drama
    13. Exercises and Questions for Media Students
    14. New Challenges for Old Producers
    15. Maintaining Output
    16. Assessing Quality
    17. Training Evaluation
  33. 27 Back-Announcement
  34. Websites
  35. Glossary
  36. Further Reading
  37. Index