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Radio Engineering: From Software Radio to Cognitive Radio

Book Description

Software radio ideally provides the opportunity to communicate with any radio communication standard by modifying only the software, without any modification to hardware components. However, taking into account the static behavior of current communications protocols, the spectrum efficiency optimization, and flexibility, the radio domain has become an important factor.

From this thinking appeared the cognitive radio paradigm. This evolution is today inescapable in the modern radio communication world. It provides an autonomous behavior to the equipment and therefore the adaptation of communication parameters to better match their needs.

This collective work provides engineers, researchers and radio designers with the necessary information from mathematical analysis and hardware architectures to design methodology and tools, running platforms and standardization in order to understand this new cognitive radio domain.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Foreword
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
  7. Part 1. Cognitive Radio
    1. Chapter 1. Introduction to Cognitive Radio
      1. 1.1. Joseph Mitola's cognitive radio
        1. 1.1.1. Definitions
        2. 1.1.2. Joseph Mitola's vision of cognitive cycle
      2. 1.2. Positioning
        1. 1.2.1. Convergence between networks
        2. 1.2.2. Generalized mobility without service interruption
        3. 1.2.3. Distribution of intelligence
      3. 1.3. Spectrum management
        1. 1.3.1. Current situation
        2. 1.3.2. Spectrum sharing
          1. 1.3.2.1. Horizontal and vertical sharing
          2. 1.3.2.2. Spectrum pooling
          3. 1.3.2.3. Spectrum underlay technique
          4. 1.3.2.4. Spectrum overlay technique
      4. 1.4. A broader vision of CR
        1. 1.4.1. Taking into account the global environment
        2. 1.4.2. The sensorial radio bubble for CR
      5. 1.5. Difficulties of the cognitive cycle
    2. Chapter 2. Cognitive Terminals Toward Cognitive Networks
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Intelligent terminal
        1. 2.2.1. Description
        2. 2.2.2. Advantages
        3. 2.2.3. Limitations
      3. 2.3. Intelligent networks
        1. 2.3.1. Description
        2. 2.3.2. Advantages
        3. 2.3.3. Limitations
      4. 2.4. Toward a compromise
        1. 2.4.1. Impact of the number of users
        2. 2.4.2. Impact of spectral dimension
      5. 2.5. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3. Cognitive Radio Sensors
      1. 3.1. Lower layer sensors
        1. 3.1.1. Hole detection sensor
          1. 3.1.1.1. Matched filtering
          2. 3.1.1.2. Detection
          3. 3.1.1.3. Energy detection
          4. 3.1.1.4. Collaborative detection
        2. 3.1.2. Other sensors
          1. 3.1.2.1. Recognition of channel bandwidth
          2. 3.1.2.2. Single- and multicarrier detection
          3. 3.1.2.3. Detection of spread spectrum type
          4. 3.1.2.4. Other sensors of the lower layer
      2. 3.2. Intermediate layer sensors
        1. 3.2.1. Introduction
        2. 3.2.2. Cognitive pilot channel
        3. 3.2.3. Localization-based identification
          1. 3.2.3.1. Geographical location-based systems synthesis
          2. 3.2.3.2. Rights of database use and update
        4. 3.2.4. Blind standard recognition sensor
          1. 3.2.4.1. General description
          2. 3.2.4.2. Sage 1: band adaptation
          3. 3.2.4.3. Stage 2: analysis with lower layer sensors
          4. 3.2.4.4. Stage 3: fusion
        5. 3.2.5. Comparison of abovementioned three sensors for standard recognition
      3. 3.3. Higher layer sensors
        1. 3.3.1. Introduction
        2. 3.3.2. Potential sensors
        3. 3.3.3. Video sensor and compression
          1. 3.3.3.1. Active appearance models
          2. 3.3.3.2. A real scenario
          3. 3.3.3.3. Different stages
      4. 3.4. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 4. Decision Making and Learning
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. CR equipment: decision and/or learning
        1. 4.2.1. Cognitive agent
        2. 4.2.2. Conflicting objectives
        3. 4.2.3. A modeling part in all approaches
        4. 4.2.4. Decision making and learning: network equipment
      3. 4.3. Decision design space
        1. 4.3.1. Decision constraints
          1. 4.3.1.1. Environmental constraints
          2. 4.3.1.2. User constraints
          3. 4.3.1.3. Equipment capacity constraints
        2. 4.3.2. Cognitive radio design space
      4. 4.4. Decision making and learning from the equipment's perspective
        1. 4.4.1. A priori uncertainty measurements
        2. 4.4.2. Bayesian techniques
        3. 4.4.3. Reinforcement techniques: general case
          1. 4.4.3.1. Bellman's equation
          2. 4.4.3.2. Bellman's equation to reinforcement techniques
          3. 4.4.3.3. Value update
          4. 4.4.3.4. Iteration algorithm for policies
          5. 4.4.3.5. Q-learning
        4. 4.4.4. Reinforcement techniques: slot machine problem
          1. 4.4.4.1. An introductory example: analogy with a slot machine
          2. 4.4.4.2. Mathematical formalism and fundamental results
          3. 4.4.4.3. Upper confidence bound (UCB) algorithms
          4. 4.4.4.4. UCB1 algorithm
          5. 4.4.4.5. UCBV algorithm
          6. 4.4.4.6. Application example: opportunistic spectrum access
        5. 4.4.5. Artificial intelligence
      5. 4.5. Decision making and learning from network perspective: game theory
        1. 4.5.1. Active or passive decision
        2. 4.5.2. Techniques based on game theory
          1. 4.5.2.1. Cournot's competition and best response
          2. 4.5.2.2. Fictitious play
          3. 4.5.2.3. Reinforcement strategy
          4. 4.5.2.4. Boltzmann–Gibbs and coupled learning
          5. 4.5.2.5. Imitation
          6. 4.5.2.6. Learning in stochastic games
      6. 4.6. Brief state of the art: classification of methods for dynamic configuration adaptation
        1. 4.6.1. The expert approach
        2. 4.6.2. Exploration-based decision making: genetic algorithms
        3. 4.6.3. Learning approaches: joint exploration and exploitation
      7. 4.7. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 5. Cognitive Cycle Management
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Cognitive radio equipment
        1. 5.2.1. Composition of cognitive radio equipment
        2. 5.2.2. A design proposal for CR equipment: HDCRAM
        3. 5.2.3. HDCRAM and cognitive cycle
        4. 5.2.4. HDCRAM levels
          1. 5.2.4.1. Level L3
          2. 5.2.4.2. Level L2
          3. 5.2.4.3. Level L1
        5. 5.2.5. Deployment on a hardware platform
        6. 5.2.6. Examples of intelligent decisions
      3. 5.3. High-level design approach
        1. 5.3.1. Unified modeling language (UML) design approach
        2. 5.3.2. Metamodeling
        3. 5.3.3. An executable metamodel
        4. 5.3.4. Simulator of cognitive radio architecture
      4. 5.4. HDCRAM's interfaces (APIs)
        1. 5.4.1. Organization of classes of HDCRAM's metamodel
          1. 5.4.1.1. Parent classes
          2. 5.4.1.2. Child classes
        2. 5.4.2. ReM APIs
        3. 5.4.3. CRM's APIs
        4. 5.4.4. Operators' APIs
        5. 5.4.5. Example of deployment scenario in CR equipment
      5. 5.5. Conclusion
  8. Part 2. Software Radio As Support Technology
    1. Chapter 6. Introduction to Software Radio
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Generalities
        1. 6.2.1. Definitions
          1. 6.2.1.1. Ideal software radio
          2. 6.2.1.2. Software-defined radio
          3. 6.2.1.3. Other interesting classifications
        2. 6.2.2. Interests and aftermath for telecom players
          1. 6.2.2.1. Designer of terminals and access points
          2. 6.2.2.2. Operator and service provider
          3. 6.2.2.3. End user
      3. 6.3. Major organizations of software radio
        1. 6.3.1. Forums
          1. 6.3.1.1. SDR Forum/Wireless Innovation Forum
          2. 6.3.1.2. OMG
        2. 6.3.2. Standardization organizations
        3. 6.3.3. Regulators
        4. 6.3.4. Some commercial and academic projects
        5. 6.3.5. Military projects
      4. 6.4. Hardware architectures
        1. 6.4.1. Software-defined radio (ideal)
        2. 6.4.2. Software-defined radio
          1. 6.4.2.1. Direct conversion
          2. 6.4.2.2. SR with low IF
          3. 6.4.2.3. Undersampling
          4. 6.4.2.4. Other architectures
            1. 6.4.2.4.1. Architecture with two parallel paths
            2. 6.4.2.4.2. Multichannel architecture
      5. 6.5. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 7. Transmitter/Receiver Analog Front End
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Antennas
        1. 7.2.1. Introduction
        2. 7.2.2. For base stations
          1. 7.2.2.1. Constraints on spatial discrimination
          2. 7.2.2.2. Constraints on the spectral discrimination
          3. 7.2.2.3. Sample topologies and concepts
        3. 7.2.3. For mobile terminals
          1. 7.2.3.1. Constraints
          2. 7.2.3.2. Sample topologies and concepts
      3. 7.3. Nonlinear amplification
        1. 7.3.1. Introduction
        2. 7.3.2. Characteristics of a power amplifier
          1. 7.3.2.1. AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics
          2. 7.3.2.2. The efficiency
          3. 7.3.2.3. Input and output back-offs
          4. 7.3.2.4. Memory effect
        3. 7.3.3. Merit criteria of a power amplifier
          1. 7.3.3.1. Intermodulation
          2. 7.3.3.2. The C/I ratio
          3. 7.3.3.3. Interception point
          4. 7.3.3.4. Noise power ratio (NPR)
          5. 7.3.3.5. Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR)
          6. 7.3.3.6. Error vector magnitude (EVM)
        4. 7.3.4. Modeling of a memoryless power amplifier
          1. 7.3.4.1. Input–output relationship of an amplifier
          2. 7.3.4.2. The polynomial model
          3. 7.3.4.3. The Saleh model
          4. 7.3.4.4. The Rapp model
        5. 7.3.5. Modeling of a power amplifier with memory
          1. 7.3.5.1. The Saleh model
          2. 7.3.5.2. The Volterra model
          3. 7.3.5.3. The Wiener–Hammerstein model
          4. 7.3.5.4. The polynomial model with memory
      4. 7.4. Converters
        1. 7.4.1. Introduction
          1. 7.4.1.1. Requirements for the software radio
        2. 7.4.2. Characteristics of the converters
          1. 7.4.2.1. Quantization noise
          2. 7.4.2.2. Thermal noise
          3. 7.4.2.3. Sampling phase noise
          4. 7.4.2.4. Measuring spectral purity: the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR)
          5. 7.4.2.5. SFDR improvement by adding noise: the dither
          6. 7.4.2.6. Switched capacitor converters: the KT/C noise
          7. 7.4.2.7. Signal dynamics
          8. 7.4.2.8. Blockers
          9. 7.4.2.9. Linearity constraints
          10. 7.4.2.10. Jammers
          11. 7.4.2.11. Bandwidth and slew rate
          12. 7.4.2.12. Consumption constraints: the figure of merit (FOM)
          13. 7.4.2.13. Constraints on digital ports
        3. 7.4.3. Digital to analog conversion architectures
          1. 7.4.3.1. Current source of DAC architectures
          2. 7.4.3.2. Switched capacitor DAC architecture
          3. 7.4.3.3. Evolution of the DAC
        4. 7.4.4. Analog to digital conversion architecture
          1. 7.4.4.1. Flash structure
          2. 7.4.4.2. Folding ADC
          3. 7.4.4.3. Pipeline structure
          4. 7.4.4.4. Successive approximation architecture
          5. 7.4.4.5. Sigma-delta architecture
          6. 7.4.4.6. Evolution of the ADC analog-to-digital converters
        5. 7.4.5. Summarizing the converters
      5. 7.5. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 8. Transmitter/Receiver Digital Front End
      1. 8.1. Theoretical principles
        1. 8.1.1. The universal transmitter/receiver
      2. 8.2. DFE functions
        1. 8.2.1. IQ transposition in digital domain
        2. 8.2.2. Sample rate conversion
          1. 8.2.2.1. Frequency conversion by decimation filter
            1. 8.2.2.1.1. CIC decimation filter
            2. 8.2.2.1.2. Farrow structure
        3. 8.2.3. Channelization
        4. 8.2.4. DFE from a practical point of view
          1. 8.2.4.1. Low-pass filtering
          2. 8.2.4.2. Cheapest solution in terms of computational cost
        5. 8.2.5. Multichannel DFE
      3. 8.3. Synchronization
        1. 8.3.1. Introduction
        2. 8.3.2. Symbol timing recovery
          1. 8.3.2.1. Timing phase recovery
          2. 8.3.2.2. Phase error detector
          3. 8.3.2.3. Phase-locked loop (PLL)
        3. 8.3.3. Carrier phase recovery
          1. 8.3.3.1. DA estimation
          2. 8.3.3.2. NDA estimation
          3. 8.3.3.3. Phase recovery
          4. 8.3.3.4. Direct structures: DA and NDA estimator
          5. 8.3.3.5. Loop structures
          6. 8.3.3.6. Phase error detector
          7. 8.3.3.7. The loop filter
        4. 8.3.4. Synchronization in the software radio context
          1. 8.3.4.1. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of the loop with constellation change
          2. 8.3.4.2. Reliability and detection of constellation
      4. 8.4. The CORDIC algorithm
        1. 8.4.1. Principle of the CORDIC algorithm
        2. 8.4.2. Operation of the CORDIC operator
          1. 8.4.2.1. Vector mode
          2. 8.4.2.2. Rotation mode
      5. 8.5. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 9. Processing of Nonlinearities
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Crest factor of the signals to be amplified
        1. 9.2.1. Characteristic parameters of the crest factor
          1. 9.2.1.1. Crest factor definition
          2. 9.2.1.2. Definition of continuous and finite PR: PRc,f
          3. 9.2.1.3. Definition of discrete and finite PR: PRd,f
        2. 9.2.2. Relationship with the literature notations
          1. 9.2.2.1. PAPR case
          2. 9.2.2.2. Relationship between PAPR and PMEPR
        3. 9.2.3. Distribution function of PR
      3. 9.3. Variation of crest factor in different contexts
        1. 9.3.1. Single-carrier signals' context
          1. 9.3.1.1. Influence of Nyquist filter
          2. 9.3.1.2. Influence of square-root Nyquist filter
        2. 9.3.2. Multicarrier signals' context
        3. 9.3.3. Software radio signals' context
        4. 9.3.4. Context of cognitive radio
          1. 9.3.4.1. Introduction
          2. 9.3.4.2. Variations in crest factor on spectrum access by using carrier-by-carrier vision
          3. 9.3.4.3. Influence of spectrum access on PAPR in the CR context
      4. 9.4. Methods for reducing nonlinearities
        1. 9.4.1. Introduction
        2. 9.4.2. PAPR reduction methods
          1. 9.4.2.1. Methods with modifications of the receiver
          2. 9.4.2.2. Methods without modifying the receiver
          3. 9.4.2.3. Synthesis of the PAPR reduction methods
        3. 9.4.3. Methods working on the linearity of the amplifier
          1. 9.4.3.1. Methods to change the function of amplification
          2. 9.4.3.2. Methods without changing the amplification function
      5. 9.5. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 10. Methodology and Tools
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Methods to identify common operations
        1. 10.2.1. Parametrization approaches
        2. 10.2.2. Pragmatic approach of parametrization to design multistandard SR
          1. 10.2.2.1. Common functions
          2. 10.2.2.2. Common operators
        3. 10.2.3. Theoretical approach to design multistandard SR by common operators
      3. 10.3. Methods and design tools
        1. 10.3.1. Co-design methods
          1. 10.3.1.1. Simulink® based approach
          2. 10.3.1.2. An example: SynDEx
            1. 10.3.1.2.1. Design approach
            2. 10.3.1.2.2. Application graph
            3. 10.3.1.2.3. Platform graph
            4. 10.3.1.2.4. Adequation
            5. 10.3.1.2.5. Code generation
            6. 10.3.1.2.6. SR example
            7. 10.3.1.2.7. Conclusion
          3. 10.3.1.3. GNU radio
        2. 10.3.2. MDA approaches
          1. 10.3.2.1. Introduction
          2. 10.3.2.2. MOPCOM methodology
            1. 10.3.2.2.1. Tooling and code generation
            2. 10.3.2.2.2. Case study
            3. 10.3.2.2.3. AML-level modeling
            4. 10.3.2.2.4. DML-level modeling
          3. 10.3.2.3. GASPARD model
      4. 10.4. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 11. Implementation Platforms
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Software radio platform
      3. 11.3. Hardware architectures
        1. 11.3.1. Dedicated circuits
        2. 11.3.2. Processors
          1. 11.3.2.1. CISC architecture
          2. 11.3.2.2. RISC architecture
          3. 11.3.2.3. Superscalar architecture
          4. 11.3.2.4. VLIW architecture
          5. 11.3.2.5. Vector architecture
        3. 11.3.3. Reconfigurable architecture
          1. 11.3.3.1. Fine-grain architecture
          2. 11.3.3.2. Coarse-grain architecture
      4. 11.4. Characterization of the implementation platform
        1. 11.4.1. Flexibility/reconfiguration
        2. 11.4.2. Performances
        3. 11.4.3. Power consumption
      5. 11.5. Qualitative assessment
      6. 11.6. Architectures of software layers
        1. 11.6.1. The SCA software architecture
        2. 11.6.2. Intermediate software layer: ALOE
        3. 11.6.3. Software architecture for reconfiguration management: HDReM
      7. 11.7. Some platform examples
        1. 11.7.1. The USRP platform
        2. 11.7.2. OpenAirInterface
        3. 11.7.3. Kansas University Agile Radio
        4. 11.7.4. Berkeley Cognitive Radio Platform
      8. 11.8. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 12. General Conclusion and Perspectives
      1. 12.1. General conclusion
      2. 12.2. Perspectives
        1. 12.2.1. CR and sustainable development
          1. 12.2.1.1. A spontaneous communication protocol
        2. 12.2.2. Toward a collective intelligence
        3. 12.2.3. Toward a fully cognitive radio
  9. Appendix A. To Learn More
    1. A.1. The special issues of journals
      1. A.1.1. SR domain in general
      2. A.1.2. CR domain
    2. A.2. Specialized conferences
    3. A.3. Some reference books
      1. A.3.1. SR domain in general
        1. A.3.1.1. In close connection with the contents of Chapter 7
        2. A.3.1.2. In close connection with the contents of Chapter 8
      2. A.3.2. CR domain in general
  10. Appendix B. SR and CR Projects
    1. B.1. European projects
    2. B.2. French projects
  11. Appendix C. International Activity in Standardization and Forums
    1. C.1. The IEEE 802.22 Standard
    2. C.2. SCC41 standardization (Standards Coordinating Committee 41, dynamic spectrum access networks)
    3. C.3. P1900.1 standardization (Working group on terminology and concepts for next-generation radio systems and spectrum management)
    4. C.4. P1900.2 standardization (Working group on recommended practice for interference coexistence and analysis)
    5. C.5. P1900.3 standardization (Working group on recommended practice for conformance evaluation of Software Defined Radio software modules)
    6. C.6. P1900.4 standardization (Working group on architectural building blocks enabling network – device distributed decision making for optimized radio resource usage in heterogeneous wireless access networks)
    7. C.7. P1900.5 standardization (Working group on policy language and policy architectures for managing cognitive radio for dynamic spectrum access applications)
    8. C.8. P1900.6 standardization (Working group on spectrum sensing interfaces and data structures for dynamic spectrum access and other advanced radio communications systems)
    9. C.9. ITU-R standards (Question ITU-R 241-1/5: cognitive radio systems in mobile service)
    10. C.10. ETSI technical committee on reconfigurable radio systems (TC-RRS) standardization
    11. C.11. Forum: Wireless Innovation Forum (former by SDR forum)
    12. C.12. Forum: Wireless World Research Forum
  12. Appendix D. Research at European and International Levels
    1. D.1. Research centers
  13. Acronyms and Abbreviations
  14. Bibliography
  15. List of Authors
  16. Index